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Phobias

phobia _ psychiatric nursing

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Phobias

  1. 1. PHOBIAS
  2. 2. A phobia is an unreasonable fear of a specific object, activity or situation.
  3. 3. THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF PHOBIAS: 1. Specific Phobias 2. Social Phobias 3. Agoraphobias
  4. 4. SPECIFIC PHOBIA Irrational fear of a specific living thing, object or stimulus.
  5. 5. Examples  Acrophobia-fear of heights  Hematophobia- blood  Claustrophobia- closed places  Gamophobia- marriage  Insectophobia- insects  AIDS phobia- AIDS  Zoophobia- animals  Algophobia- pain  Microphobia _ germs  Thanatophobia_ death
  6. 6.  Ailurophobia: cats  Algophobia: pain  Anthophobia: flower  Anthrophobia: people  Aquaphobia: water  Arachnophobia: spider  Astraphobia: lightning  Belonephobia: needles  Brontophobia: thunder
  7. 7.  Cynophobia: dogs  Dementophobia: insanity  Equinophobia: horses  Gamophobia: marriage  Herpetophobia: lizards  Murophobia: mice  Numerophobia: numbers  Ochophobia: riding a car  Ophidiophobia: snakes
  8. 8.  Pyrophobia: fire  Trichophobia: hair  Thanatophobia: death  Scoleciphobia: worms
  9. 9. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  Irrational and persistent fear of object or situation  Immediate anxiety on contact with feared object  Loss of control  Fainting  Avoidance of activities involving feared object  Anxiety when thinking about stimulus  Impaired social and occupational function
  10. 10. SOCIAL PHOBIAS
  11. 11.  Irrational fear of performing activities in the presence of other people or interacting with others  Patient is afraid of his own actions being viewed by others critically.
  12. 12. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  Hyperventilation  Sweating  Palpitations  Blushing  Confusion  G I symptoms  Trembling hands and voice  Urinary urgency  Muscle tension
  13. 13. AGORAPHOBIA Irrational fear of being in places away from familiar setting of home, in crowds, or in situations that the patient can not leave easily.
  14. 14. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  Fear of open or public places  Avoidance of public places and confinement to home.
  15. 15. CAUSES
  16. 16. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY  Anxiety is usually dealt with repression  When repression fails to function other secondary defense mechanism come in to action  In phobia, it is displacement  By displacement anxiety is transferred from a dangerous object to neutral object
  17. 17. LEARNING THEORY  Direct learning experiences- can begin following a traumatic experience  Observational learning experiences- learn to fear a situation by watching others show signs of a fear in the same situation  Informational Learning- learning to fear an object or situation by hearing or reading that the situation is dangerous
  18. 18. COGNITIVE THEORY  Anxiety is a product of faulty cognition  Some people engage in negative and irrational thinking that leads to anxiety reactions.
  19. 19. ATTENTION AND MEMORY  People with specific phobias tend to pay more attention to threatening information that relates to the fear
  20. 20. BELEIFS AND INTERPRETATIONS  People with specific phobias tend to hold beliefs and to interpret situations in a way that increases anxiety
  21. 21. BIOLOGICAL  Sometimes a phobia may run in the family and genetics may play a role  When exposed to fear biological changes occur in the body and these can increase physical symptoms
  22. 22. COURSE  More common in women  Onset is sudden with out any cause  Course is usually chronic  Spontaneous remission
  23. 23. TREATMENTS
  24. 24. PHARMACOTHERAPY  Benzodiazepines Eg; alprazolam  Antidepressants Eg; imipramine
  25. 25. BEHAVIOR THERAPY  SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION  Technique for assisting individuals to overcome their fear of a phobic stimulus.  There is a hierarchy of anxiety producing events through which the individual progresses during the therapy.  As each of these step is attempted , it is paired with relaxation exercise.
  26. 26.  Relaxation training  Hierarchy construction  Desensitization of the stimulus
  27. 27. FLOODING
  28. 28. COGNITIVE THERAPY  Learning to identify one’s anxious thoughts and to replace them with more realistic thoughts
  29. 29. NURSING MANAGEMENT  Fear related to specific stimulus as evidenced by behavior directed towards avoidance of feared object  Social isolation related to fear of being in a place from which one is unable to escape as evidenced by staying alone.

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