Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation

12 de Apr de 2018
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation
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Digital Divide & Digital Inequality Presentation

Notas do Editor

  1. READ SLIDE Hi everyone, My name is Travis Kench and I am a student at Boise State University. Welcome to my presentation on the digital divide & digital inequality within the world and educational systems. This presentation was designed for my EDTECH501 class Introduction to Educational Technology.
  2. Some of you may be asking yourselves, what is the “digital divide”? The term “digital divide” refers to the gap between those who have computers with Internet access and those who do not, as well as the gap between those who are computer literate and those who are not. I drew a stick figure cartoon below to illustrate why the digital divide isn’t closing at a faster rate. From numerous sources of my research, it is apparent to me that the digital divide within the world is based on many factors however three obvious reasons are based on corporate pricing structures, a lack of regulation by the government, and a lack of investment in advanced telecommunication infrastructure within the world. Income levels and locations lacking the current technological infrastructure are key factors in why the “digital divide” is so large.  
  3. Within the capitalist society we live it is just unreasonable to ever think there will never be a digital divide. It may become smaller but when you think about it technology generally is owned by the rich at first and trickles down to the other income levels. I would like to quote a former Chairman of the FCC to strengthen my previous statement. In 2001, Michael Powell stated, “I think the term “digital divide” sometimes is dangerous in the sense that it suggests that the minute a new and innovative technology is introduced in the market, there is a divide unless it is equitably distributed among every part of society, and that is just an unreal understanding of an American capitalist system…I think there's a Mercedes divide, I'd like one, but I can't afford it...I'm not meaning to be completely flip about this--I think it is an important social issue--but it shouldn't be used to justify the notion of, essentially, the socialization of deployment of the infrastructure.“ He is stressing that technology is a luxury like a car however technology skills are the keys to an economy full of knowledge. As we move forward into the 21st Century people are expected to possess the technical skills and have a greater formal education compared to previous years. A person could have been accepted for a position 5 years ago doing the same tasks and yet if they were to apply for that same job today be declined.
  4. The digital divide is directly linked to digital inequality. So one must ask, what is digital inequality? “Digital inequality” is primarily based on socio-economic factors that limit people from obtaining digital informational technologies. Socio-economic factors include income, age, education, household type, geographical location among other factors. Statistics from the Department of Commerce: Wired Internet Access at Home Only 40% of households with incomes below $25,000 have internet at home. 93% of households above $100,000 have internet access at home. It has been reported that the least amount of online penetration are children up to twelve and seniors aged over 65 years. The highest online penetration comprises individuals between 35 and 44 years old. In terms of education it has been reported that individuals with a university or college degree are more than 9 times more likely to use the Internet than those with an elementary school education. The socio-economic factor of household type is associated with an increase in income, since it makes sense that married couples or those people who are cohabitating have higher income levels it makes a big difference in whether or not the household can afford the advance telecommunication service of broadband. It has been documented in many research studies that urban areas tend to have better infrastructure and lower costs of information and communications technologies in contrast with rural ones. Providing high-speed Internet access through traditional means to areas with a small population base is still expensive.
  5. “Digital Divide” vs. “Digital Inequality” It is important to break these two phrases down to individual words to get a clear understanding so I am going to define them based on definitions from Divide - “To separate into parts, groups, sections, etc.” “To separate or part from something else; sunder; cut off.” Inequality - “The condition of being unequal; lack of equality; disparity: inequality of size.” “Social disparity: inequality between the rich and the poor.” “Disparity or relative inadequacy in natural endowments: a startling inequality of intellect, talents, and physical stamina.” The “digital divide” is based on the “haves” and “have-nots” analogy in regards to digital technologies. Eszter Hargittai a Sociologist at Northwestern University defines “digital divide” as “a spectrum of inequality across segments of the population depending on differences along several dimensions of technology access and use.” –Hargittai, 2003
  6. Looking at this graph you will notice that the difference in regions is primarily associated with whether the region is a “developed” or “developing” region. A “developed” country is one that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure, a “developing” country has a low living standard and either a substandard technological infrastructure or an almost non-existent one. Advanced telecommunication networks tend to be more readily available in “developed” regions. In “developing” regions other utilities are often unavailable or scarce such as electricity which would also be needed to run broadband infrastructures.
  7. As you can see this graph is comparing fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions to mobile-broadband subscriptions. Advanced telecommunication companies are investing more in mobile-broadband services than fixed-wired broadband services because it is the most cost-effective solution for them. Mobile-broadband infrastructure upgrades do not require upgrading the cabling going into the consumer’s homes which can be very costly to utility businesses.
  8. As fixed –broadband services start to become more affordable broadband penetration will begin to increase. As upper income households migrate to advanced telecommunications networks, which escape public interest obligations, the pool of resources available to support the narrowband (dialup) networks shrink and the burden of maintaining the dial up network will increase dramatically. Prices will rise and the quality of service will decline. There are already proposals to raise basic dial-up rates by four dollars per month in charges to try and force people off the lines and over to their broadband services.
  9. This graph shows some previous stated information but provides a basic view of how the world is utilizing telecommunication networks. Individuals using the internet is increasing however their means of gaining access to the Internet is based on numerous telecommunication networks such as cable, satellite, mobile-broadband, and some are still utilizing dial-up connections. Mobile cellular subscriptions have skyrocketed since 2001 and are on the rise, fixed-wired broadband services are rising but at a much slower rate due to the cost of building the advanced telecommunication infrastructures, active-mobile broadband subscriptions are on the rise, and fixed-telephone subscription are on the decline due to their slow speeds in regards to dialup and the fact that people value mobile phones more than traditional land lines.
  10. The graph shows what most adult Americans use for reasons as to why they do not use the internet. The internet is not just a communications tool, it can also enhance many aspects of life and increase the standard-of-living for all who use it. Americans who have broadband access tend to view those without broadband access as being disadvantaged. Having access to the internet is almost a necessity these days especially when it comes to finding jobs and career opportunities, learning career skills, getting health information, learning new things that might improve or enrich one’s life, and most government services are transitioning to online resources.
  11. Telecommunications Act of 1996 Designed to: Increase competition between cable and telephone companies. Increase jobs within the economy by removing regulatory barriers to entry. Decrease prices to consumers for advanced informational technologies. Actually did: Decreased competition because the Act allowed companies to Shed approximately half a million jobs. Increased prices to consumers because the Act deregulated cable rates. Between 1996 and 2003 cable rates had skyrocketed by nearly 50 percent and local phone rates went up by more than 20 percent. Cable companies have not responded to this Act by lowering prices but have actually added capacity and have started bundling services. By not lowering the price, cable companies are not helping lower income families afford their services even though they may think they are offering consumers a good deal. An example, that comes to mind is when I was switching from satellite to cable this year. I only wanted to subscribe to cable and internet however they pushed a bundle package of cable, internet, and phone services to me. I said that I only wanted cable and internet, they then said that it would be cheaper if I bought the bundle instead of just what I wanted. This made absolutely no sense to me then however after doing a great deal of research for this project and reading through the Telecommunications Act of 1996 it was clear to me what they were doing. Consumers are almost being punished for not subscribing to these service bundles. Politics that were driven by wealth and power played an enormous role in the failure of this acts intended purpose as signed into law by President Clinton. This act primarily benefited special interest groups – local phone companies, long-distance providers, and cable and broadcast corporations.
  12. What is Universal Service? Universal service refers to the practice of providing a baseline level of services to every resident of a country. To promote the availability of quality services at just, reasonable, and affordable rates to increase access to advanced telecommunications services throughout the Nation. Universal service funds are collected through telecommunication services to: Promote reasonable and affordable rates for consumers. Increase nationwide access to advanced telecommunications services. Advance the availability of such services to all consumers, including those in low income, rural, and high cost areas at rates that are reasonably comparable to those charged in urban areas. Provide equitable and non-discriminatory contributions from all providers of telecommunications services to fund supporting universal service programs.
  13. You may be asking yourself, universal service funds are collected but who gets to use them? Low Income (Lifeline/Linkup Programs) that provides discounted phone service to low-income consumers. School and Libraries (E-Rate Program) which provide discounted telecommunications and Internet to schools and libraries. Rural Health Care programs get to use the funds to help provide reduced rates to rural health care providers for their telecommunications and Internet services. High cost areas get to use the funds to provide subsidies to telecommunications carriers so that consumers in underserved, remote, or low competition areas can pay telephone service rates similar to the rates people in urban areas pay.
  14. Why can’t universal service funds be used to provide affordable internet access to everyone? Cable companies currently do not pay into the Universal Service Fund. Since the FCC has refused to define the advanced telecommunications network operated by cable companies for broadband as a telecommunications service it cannot use universal service funds.
  15. In this graph you will see how data gathered by the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. The data shows how Americans view different uses of the internet. The data shows that most Americans who do not have the internet view themselves as having disadvantages when it comes to finding out about job opportunities, learning new things to enrich their lives, and wish that they could keep up with the news. Since most government and health services are moving their forms online adults often find that they are at a disadvantage because they lacking the resource to get this much needed information.
  16. Executive Order: Accelerating Broadband Infrastructure Deployment June 2012 – President Barack Obama The Federal Government controls nearly 30 percent of all land in the United States and has goals to expand broadband infrastructures. Develop and implement a strategy to facilitate the timely and efficient deployment of broadband facilities on Federal lands, buildings, and rights of way, federally assisted highways, and tribal lands. “Dig once requirements” designed to reduce the number and scale of repeated excavations for the installation and maintenance of broadband facilities in rights of way.
  17. This slide hits closer to home for me as I am from New York State. This slide shows how income levels within New York State are a key determining factor as to whether or not people can afford broadband services.
  18. This slide shows how a persons educational level determines whether or not they will purchase broadband services. It is evident that individuals with education above a high school graduation value having the internet more and often use it to improve their lives and constantly increase their skills and knowledge.
  19. This slide shows the age-groups of people in New York State and how likely they are to adopt broadband services. People in the 18-24 years old age group have a higher tendency to adopt broadband because they see the value and have pretty much experienced how useful it is over the years growing up with it. The 65 & over age group tends to value it less as they have always gotten their information in other forms such as the radio, newspapers, and television and don’t choose to subscribe to broadband services as they can still get the information they want in these forms.
  20. I would like to discuss some ideas and solutions to help lessen the digital divide & digital inequality gaps that are within the school district and town in which I live.
  21. Monthly tech nights: These opportunities could be open to the staff, general public, and parents. This type of event would serve as professional development for the staff, it would introduce the general public to new technologies along with ways to use them, and it would allow the parents to see what the students are learning. If you put in measures to teach the parents about the technology they will become an educational resource for their children when they have projects or homework to do that involves the use of technology at home.