Rice Introduction, origin, floral description, floral formula and cultivation in Sindh and Pakistan
1. Topic: Rice Crop
Group Leader Name:
Group Members Name:
Name Course Title/Code:
Name Presenting Under:
Name Teacher name
Name (Lecturer at)
Name Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics
Name Faculty of Crop Production
Name Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam
2. Introduction To Rice
Botanical Name: Oryza setiva (Asian Rice)
Oryza glaberrima (African Rice)
Chromosomes Number: 24
Division : Phanerogams
Sub-Division : Angiosperms
Class : Monocotyledon
Series : Glumacea
Sub class : Glumiflorae
Family : Poaceae/Gramineae
Sub family : Poaideae
Tribe : Oryzeae
3. Nutrient value of rice ( in 100
Carbohydrates 80 g
Water 11.61 g
Protein 7.13 g
Dietary fiber 1.3 g
Sugars 0.12 g
Fat 0.66 g
Calcium 28 mg
Vitamin B3 1.62 mg
Vitamin B5 1.014 mg
Iron 0.8 mg
Vitamin B1 0.070 mg
4. The current scientific consensus, based on archaeological and linguistic evidence, is that
rice was first domesticated in the Yangtze River basin in China. By the late Neolithic
(3500 to 2500 BC).
The spread of japonica rice cultivation to Southeast Asia started with the migrations of
the Austronesian Dapenkeng culture into Taiwan between 3500 to 2000 BC.
Rice was cultivated in South Asia from as early as 5,000 BC. "Several wild cereals,
including rice, grew in the Vindhyan Hills, and rice cultivation, at sites such as Chopani-
Mando and Mahagara, may have been underway as early as 7,000 BC. Rice appeared in
the Belan and Ganges valley regions of northern India as early as 4530 BC and 5440 BC.
African rice has been cultivated for 3,500 years. Between 1500 and 800 BC, Oryza
glaberrima propagated from its original center, the Niger River delta, and extended to
Origin of Rice
5. Rice in
World Year-Year Production in Millions matric Tones Cultivation
Ofﬁcially released mutant varieties of rice in the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database, March 2007
Country Names-----------No: of Verities Country Name-----------No: of Verities Country Name---------No: of Verities
Bangladesh 5 Japan 70 Brazil
Korea 7 Burkina Faso 3 Myanmar
China 222 Nigeria 3 Costa Rica
Pakistan 10 Ivory Coast 26 Philippines
France 5 Portugal 1 Guyana
6. Rice is the world’s most important food crop with a total production around
600 million tones occupying 11% of the world’s total arable land.
1st China (176.34 millions of metric tons) largest producer of rice in the world.
2nd India (116.50 millions of metric tons) largest producer of rice in the world.
3rd Indonesia (51.49 millions of metric tons) largest producer of rice in the world.
1st Myanmar (205 kilograms per capita) largest consumer of rice in the world.
2nd Vietnam (169 kilograms per capita) largest consumer of rice in the world.
3rdLao PDR (168 kilograms per capita) largest consumer of rice in the world.
7. Rice in
Production Areas Yield Annual consumption calories (%)
(m: metric tons) (thousands/hectares) (metric tons/hectare) (kilograms/capita)
6.72 2,225 3.02 18 8 %
Pakistan is the 12th largest rice producer.
Pakistan is 5th largest exporter of rice.
Pakistan is the 27th largest rice consumer.
Export of rice from Pakistan decreased from US $2.18 billion in 2009-10 to US $1.92 billion in 2012-13 that is of 19%.
Pakistan mainly exports rice to UAE, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kenya and Afghanistan.
Rice accounts 2.7% of the value added in agriculture and 0.6% of GDP.
Rice sowing area is estimated at 2.31 million hectares, 10.1% less than last year’s area of 2.57 million hectares.
Production of rice decreased from 6.95 million tones in 2008-09 to 5.54 million tones in 2012-13.
It is the second staple food after wheat.
8. Rice in
In Sindh, rice is grown on about 2 million acres of land with per acre yield of
local verities at 55 – 60 mounds and 90-120 mounds hybrid verities /acre
yield, which like all crops in Pakistan does not reflect actual potential.
Rice sector employs about half a million of rural labour force.
Overall, Sindh produces 35% of the country’s rice with annual production at
around 3.5 million tons of which 2 million tons of milled rice is produced by
more than 800+ rice mills.
The main Irri-6 variety produced in Sindh is not consumed locally because it
does not appeal to local culinary tastes. As such, rice produced in Sindh is by
and large exportable surplus.
Annual export earnings are about $1 billion with the price of Irri-6 hovering
around $450 per metric ton on average.
Major rice growing areas in Sindh are Larkana, Dadu, Shikarpur, Qambar-
Shahdadkot, Jacobabad, and Kashomore districts in upper Sindh while
Thatta, Badin, and Tando Muhammad Khan are major areas in lower Sindh.
9. Each plant has 5-6 tillers.
Stem or culm often erect, cylindrical, hollow except at nodes.
It is tillering habit.
Shallow fibrous root system.
Leaves alternate, distichously with parallel venation
and sheathing leaf base.
Presence of ligules, lodicules.
Inflorescence is panicle or spike.
Fruit is a caryopsis.
10. Floral DescriptionStamen:
Each stamen is composed of an anther and a filament.
An anther includes elongated sacs where pollen grains are stored.
The filament is a long, thin stem that holds the anther. The vascular bundles in the filament transport nutrient and to the anther.
The carpel consists of the female parts of the rice flower, the stigma, style and the ovary.
The stigma receives pollen grains, which will then be transported into the ovary, where fertilization occurs.
On a rainy day, or when the temperature is too low/ high, the lodicules shrink, causing the spikelet to close.
When the floral parts mature, the lodicules will swell and open the spikelet to expose the mature floral parts.
Lemma and Palea:
These are hardened, modified stems that protect floral organs.
The lemma is relatively larger than palea.
When the spikelet is closed, the lemma partly encloses the palea.
The pointed end on the top of the lemma is called an Awn.
The sterile lemma s are much smaller in size than the lemma, and they do not bear flower, hence their name “sterile”
A pedicle branches from every node on the secondary rachis and a flower produce on top of it.
11. Floral Formula
6 stamens per Spikelet.
2 Lodicules are present (Presenting
Calyx and corolla) forming Perianth.
Protected by Lemma and Palea.
Incomplete:( those flower which is
missing one/two whorls).
Perfect: Those flower which containing
only essential whorls (Androecium &
Zygomorphic: Capable of division into
symmetrical halves by only one
Floral Formula= †,O, P(2), A(6), G1
12. Industries/Mills in
Pakistan Top 10 largest Mills of Rice in the Pakistan.
1. 1.BAHOO RICE MILLS
2. 2. BARKAT RICE MILLS
3. 3. PUNJAB RICE MILLS
4. 4. GALAXY RICE MILLS
5. K.K RICE MILLS
6. AMIR RICE MILLS
7. PAKISTAN RICE MILLS (Karachi)
8. BASMA RICE MILLS (Karachi)
9. DEEN RICE TRADERS (Gujranwala)
10. RICE MASTER (Kamoke
13. By-Products of
Rice Straw: It is plant fiber used as food for domestic animals or used for fire or
Rice Bran: Produced from the outer layer of the brown rice grain. Used in
cereals, mixes and vitamin concentrates due to its high levels of vitamin B6, iron,
phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, niacin, and thiamin. Also rich in fiber.
Rice Bran Oil: Extracted from the outer layer on the brown rice kernel. A high
quality, delicate tasting cooking oil. Studies have shown that it is effective in
lowering blood cholesterol levels.
Rice Flour: Produced from either white or brown rice ground. Its free from
gluten so is non-allergenic. Used to produce rice pasta, crisps, cereals and
Rice Hulls: The inedible outer husk layer has many uses from fuel in power
plants to mulch and abrasives. It can be used as a packing material to pad
fragile cargo during shipping
Rice Starch: Produced from the endosperm of the grain, used as a thickener in
sauces and desserts. Also used in the manufacture of Rice Syrup.
Ash from Hulls: Can be used to clean discolored teeth and turned into cellulose
products e.g. rayon and rice fuel. Rice Syrup A natural sweetener, less intense
than traditional sugar syrups and honey. Produced through a hydrolysis process.
Broken Rice: Pieces of rice kernels (that are less than ¾ of a full kernel) are
used in the manufacture of various products, including rice flour and pet foods.
Brewers Rice: An ingredient used in brewing, especially prized by some Beer
manufacturer's, where it is the premium ingredient. Brewers rice is also used for
the processing of other ferment products.