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How to teach listening

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Teaching listening
Teaching listening
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How to teach listening

  1. 1. Angie Melissa Lizcano Angie Yolima Camacho Hernández Diana Cristina Oróstegui González HOW TO TEACH LISTENING
  3. 3. THE WHY AND HOW OF LISTENING- MOTIVATIONS AND MECHANICS We learn to listen and we listen to learn.
  4. 4. The primary purposes of Human Listening • This refers to the general idea of what is being said, as well as who is speaking to whom and why, and Listening for GIST how successful they are in communicating their point. Listening for • When we don't need to understand everything, but SPECIFIC only a very specific part. INFORMATION Listening in • When we cannot afford to ignore anything because DETAIL we don t know what kid of information we need. INFERENTIAL • The type of listening we do when we wish to know listening how the speaker feels. It may involve inferring.
  5. 5. Listening for Gist • A man speaking to a girl by phone. • He is asking her for suggestions about movies.
  6. 6. Listening for Specific Information Which are the type of movies she likes: • Comedy • Love stories • Foreign films
  7. 7. Listening in Detail • A man called Kathie • Asked her favorite kind of movies • He is making a party tonight • Kathie doesn´t like action movies because of the violence. • She enjoys comedies • She is not crazy about horror movies • Love stories are fun to watch • She likes foreign films
  8. 8. Inferential Listening • Man: Fine. Well, what do you think of horror movies or love stories? • Woman: Uh . . . I'm not really crazy about horror movies, but love stories are often fun to watch. Oh, and I really like foreign films, too.
  9. 9. WHY LISTENING IS DIFFICULT • Characteristics of the message • Characteristics of delivery • Characteristics of the listener • Characteristics of the environment
  10. 10. How to teach LISTENING CONTENT Bottom-up vs. Listening Listening Top-down texts Sources Pre-listening While- Post-listening skills and listening skills skills and activities and activities activities
  11. 11. Bottom-up versus top-down approaches to listening
  12. 12. Bottom-up versus top-down approaches to listening The bottom-up model emphasises the decoding of the smallest units- phonemes and syllables- to lead us towards meaning. The top-down model emphasises the use of background knowledge to predict content.
  13. 13. Processing input in the Bottom-up process Input goes through some stages: 1. Take in speech – hold phonological representation in working memory 2. Organize the P.R into constituents. 3. Identify each constituent and construct underlying prepositions. 4. Retain in working memory and purge it from P.R. Forget the wording and retain meaning.
  14. 14. Processing input in the Bottom-up process The guy I sat next to on the bus this morning on the way to work was telling me he runs a Thai restaurant in Chinatown. Apparently it’s very popular at the moment” • The guy • I sat next to on the bus • This morning • Was telling me • He runs a Thai restaurant in Chinatown • Apparently is very popular • At the moment
  15. 15. Processing input in the Bottom-up process The guy I sat next to on the bus this morning on the way to work was telling me he runs a Thai restaurant in Chinatown. Apparently it’s very popular at the moment” • I was on the bus • There was a guy next to me • We talked • He says he runs a Thai restaurant • It’s in Chinatown • It’s very popular now
  16. 16. Processing input in the Top-Down process “I heard on the news there was a big earthquake in China” • Where was the earthquake? • How big was it? • Did it cause a lot of damage?
  17. 17. Activating Schemata “I’m going to the dentist this afternoon” • A setting (the dentist office) • Participants (the dentist, the patient…) • Goals ( to have check up or to replace a filling) • Procedures (injections, drilling…) • Outcomes (fixing the problem, pain, discomfort)
  18. 18. Top-down process develops • INFERATION 1. Setting 2. Role and goals 3. Causes of effects 4. Unstated details 5. Anticipate questions
  19. 19. Combining top-down & bottom-up processes
  20. 20. Listening texts ‘Language is powerful not only because there are competent speakers but because there are competent listeners’ (Sweden Graphics)
  21. 21. Listening texts What makes a good listening text? Authentic versus Pedagogic
  22. 22. What makes a good Listening Text? Interest Length Cultural Quality of accessibility reading Speech act/ Content Delivery Discourse Speed structure Density Number of Speakers Language Level Accent
  23. 23. Content FEATURE QUESTIONS TO ASK Interest Will this be interesting for my students? Cultural accessibility Will my students understand the context and ideas? Does it discuss abstract concepts or is it based on Speech act/ Discourse everyday transactions? structure Does the information come thick and fast or are there Density moments in which the listener can relax? Is the majority of the vocabulary and grammar Language level appropriate for my students?
  24. 24. Delivery FEATURE QUESTIONS TO ASK Will I need to cut part of the recording because it 1. Length is too long? Is it long enough? 1. Quality of recording Is the recording clear? Will background noise affect comprehension? 1. Speed Do the speakers talk too fast for my students? 1. Number of speakers Are there many voices, potentially causing confusion? 1. Accent Is the accent familiar? Is comprehensible?
  25. 25. Authentic versus Pedagogic AUTHENTIC SCRIPTED  Overlaps and interruptions between • Little overlap between speakers. speakers.  Normal rate of speech delivery. • Slower (maybe monotonous) delivery.  Relatively unstructured language. • Structured language, more like written English.  Incomplete sentences, with false starts, • Complete sentences. hesitation, etc.  Background noise and voices. • No background noise.  Natural stops and starts that reflect the • Artificial stops and starts that reflect speaker’s train of thought and the and idealised version of communication listener’s ongoing response. (in which misunderstandings, false starts, etc never occur)
  26. 26. Authentic versus Pedagogic Authentic
  27. 27. Authentic versus Pedagogic Pedagogic
  28. 28. Listening Sources ‘A wise man listening to a fool will learn more than a fool listening to a wise man’ (Anonymous)
  29. 29. Listening Sources • Teacher Talk 1. • Student talk 2. • Guest speakers 3. • Textbook recordings 4.
  30. 30. Listening Sources • Television, video, 5. DVD and radio • Songs 6. • The Internet 7.
  31. 31. Pre- While- Post- Listening Listening Listening
  32. 32. Pre- listening skills and activities ‘People never listen without a purpose , except perhaps in a language class’ (Gary Buck)
  33. 33. PRE-LISTENING ACTIVITIES Activating Schemata/Predicting Establishing reasons for listening Generating Questions Pre- teaching Vocabulary
  34. 34. PRE-LISTENING ACTIVITIES Activating Schemata/Predicting Brainstorming Visuals Realia Texts and words Opinions, ideas and facts
  35. 35. Brainstorming GOAL: To generate large numbers of ideas based on a topic or a problem. STAGES All Whittling the ideas contributions down to do before are accepted listening to factual without passages with one criticism. main topic.
  36. 36. Brainstorming Activities Students work alone, making notes From one to many on paper, before sharing the ideas with the group.
  37. 37. Brainstorming Activities Students in groups make a poster based on a given topic. A time limit Poster Display on this activity tends to keep the students focused. Other activity: Brainwalking
  38. 38. Visuals ADVANTAGES • They are immediate and evocative. • Students learn better when seeing images. • Visuals can help activate the schemata relating to any theme and any type of listening passage.
  39. 39. Visuals They can be used to help students Pictures recognise the lesson theme.
  40. 40. Visuals
  41. 41. Visuals Guess what’s Students make guesses in groups happening about what is going on. Film clips Intriguing pictures
  42. 42. Visuals Students are given a story told in Picture Story pictures. Their task is to tell the story in groups.
  43. 43. Visuals Picture Story
  44. 44. Visuals Students look at a chart, table or Diagrams graph. This provides a conceptual framework for their listening. Venn Diagram TENNIS FOOTBALL
  45. 45. Realia  It acts as a link between the world of the classroom and the outside world.  It is especially well suited to listening to anecdotes and stories.  Objects in general bring with them memories and associations are aspects of our schemata.
  46. 46. Realia Using Photos Activity:  The teacher brings photos of friends and family.  Ss will guess who the people are. Activity 2:  Bring in photos of themselves at different ages.  Ss make guesses about what type of person the teacher was at each stage.
  47. 47. Realia Guides, maps and They can be used as stimuli for conversations about places and travel brochures for features of towns and cities.
  48. 48. Texts and words Students read the transcripts with Gap-fill exercises blanked out words or phrases. It's late in the _________; she's wondering what clothes to wear. She'll put on her _________ and ________ her long blonde hair. And then she asks me, "Do I ______ alright?" And I say, "Yes, you _______ wonderful tonight." From ‘Wonderful Tonight’ by Eric Clapton.
  49. 49. Texts and words Students read the transcripts with Gap-fill exercises blanked out words or phrases. It's lady in the evening; she's wondering what nose to wear. She'll put on her May cup, and washes her long blonde hair. And then she asks me, "Do I cook alright?" And I say, "Yes, you cook wonderful tonight." Students underline anything that doesn’t seemright
  50. 50. Texts and words The teacher provides a list of key words from Key words the passage. The students use these words to predict what will happen in the text.
  51. 51. Opinions, ideas and facts  With slightly higher-level learners.  List of quotations to be discussed. Quotations  Students will relate the quotations to the content of the listening. ‘If you think education is expensive, try ignorance’. ‘Good teaching is part preparation and part theatre’. ‘The goal of education is to replace an empty mind with an open mind.’
  52. 52. PRE-LISTENING ACTIVITIES Establishing reasons for listening Make the purpose realistic Make the goal achievable Get the students involved
  53. 53. Establishing reasons for listening From title to The teacher gives the students a title which question encapsulates the listening passage. How to look after a rabbit How do you look after a rabbit?
  54. 54. PRE-LISTENING ACTIVITIES Generating Questions Higher-order Questions Lower-order Questions Display Questions
  55. 55. Generating questions Higher-order questions: Do you play touches on any contemporary issues? Lower-order questions: Who does Macbeth kill first? Display questions: Teacher: What time is it, The teacher is asking Denise? for a correct form Student: Two- thirty rather than for any Teacher: Very good, Denise! thought.
  56. 56. PRE-LISTENING ACTIVITIES Pre- teaching Vocabulary Pre- teach words that are essential to the meaning of the passage or to the completion of the set task. Pre-teaching words may also give students confidence as well as potentially useful information about the topic.
  57. 57. While- listening skills and activities ‘No man ever listened himself out of a job’ (Calvin Coolidge)
  58. 58. WHILE-LISTENING ACTIVITIES Listening for GIST Listening for DETAIL Inferring Participating actively Note-taking Dictation Listen and Do
  59. 59. Listening for GIST Listening for the main idea. What? Who? Why?
  60. 60. Listening for DETAIL Bingo Times, dates, Spot the numbers. difference A story told twice Mixed focus Hoarse whisperers
  61. 61. Inferring Pause and Not her, not Twelve predict him questions
  62. 62. Participating actively listen and interrupted describe storytelling truth or lie Information transfer
  63. 63. Note-taking Choose only Use titles and important Paraphrase subtitles information Use Use symbols Use spaces abreviations and numbers Use emphatic Use diagrams markers Techniques
  64. 64. Note-taking guide note- phone taking messages hidden picture chart summary Note-taking activities
  65. 65. Dictation 1. How long should the text be? 2. 6. Are there any How will I deal unknown words? with punctuation If so, how and (having taught the when will I deal term first)? with them? DICTATION 5. 3. How will I know Waht speed when my students should I are ready to speak at? continue? 4. Where will I pause?
  66. 66. Dictation interactive Dictogloss picture dictation dictation running translation- Translate dictation Dictation activities
  67. 67. Listen and Do Simon says last one is out stand up if change chairs if grab the word
  68. 68. Post- listening skills and activities ‘Listen a hundred times; ponder a thousand times; speak once’ (Turkish proverb)
  69. 69.  Reflecting  Checking and summarising  Discussion  Creative responses  Critical responses Post- listening activities
  70. 70. Reflecting If there is any problem we must look at: • Pronunciation (can-can´t) • Unknown vocabulary • Speed of speech (whaddayathinkaboutit) • Syntax • World knowledge (acronym, name or place)
  71. 71. Checking and Summarising Techniques: Take it in turns Note comparison
  72. 72. Discussion Techniques: Personalise Pros and cons
  73. 73. Creative Responses Techniques: • Genre transfer • Write on • Sound effect story
  74. 74. Critical Responses QUESTION EXAMPLES FURTHER COMMENT Do I believe the speaker? Don’t walk under that How do I know this is leader! It’ll bring you bad true? luck What evidence is there? Do I trust the speaker? I didn´t do it! No body How is the utterance saw me do it! You can´t influenced by the prove anything! speaker’s motives? Could the speaker have Weapons of mass The way they say things said it differently? If so, destruction have not yet can conceal or distort the how? Would this have been found message. Words come changed the meaning? with connotations. Skilled speakers know this and may exploit it
  76. 76. Purposes of the activity 1. To develop imaginative skills. 2. To promote discussions among students. 3. To focus students on the contextual, lexical and grammatical aspects of the lyrics. 4. To relate students’ thoughts to world issues. 5. To allow students to compare a song and a poem. 6. To encourage students to explore further on the theme and write creatively.
  77. 77. Pre- Listening Activity  Give out the lyrics of the song with some lines missing. Ask students to predict what these lines are and write them.  Compare the answers with a partner or tell the whole class why they have these answers.
  78. 78. While-listening activity 1. Play the song and ask students to write down the missing parts of the lyrics. Compare the lyrics with their previous answers. 2. Play another music video of ‘Imagine’ (A perfect circle – Imagine) (Remind the students that there may be some scenes which make them sick or uncomfortable.)
  79. 79. Post-listening activity 3. Ask students to choose one scene from the music video which can best represent their feeling when they listen to the song/ which impresses them most (e.g. wars, protests, starvation, injured children, the Pope, space programme, luxury cars, etc.) Explain their answers. (Variation: Show pictures of world issues from magazines, newspapers or other websites while students are listening to the song.) 4. Play the song again (with or without video). Ask students to write down some impressive verses from the lyrics and their feelings on the double-entry journal.
  80. 80. Post-listening activity 5. Show students the poem ‘Imagine’ by Mike Murphy. (Worksheet 2). 6. Ask students to write down some impressive verses from the poem and their feelings on the double-entry journal. 7. Ask students to compare the two journals. Which (the song or the poem) do they like most and why? Ask students to try to sing the poem when the teacher plays the music of ‘Imagine’ by John Lennon.
  81. 81. Post-listening activity 8. Ask students to write a review or a reflection on the song or the poem. What are their dreams? Are they the same as the song writer’s or the poet’s? (Variation: Ask students to rewrite one or two stanzas (or more) of the song lyrics and sing aloud.)
  82. 82. • Anderson, A and Lynch, T (1988) Listening, Oxford University Press. • Brown, G (1990) Listening to Spoken English (2nd edition) Longman. • Harmer, Jeremy (2008). How to teach listening. Pearson Education Limited. FURTHER • Rixon, S (1986) Developing listening skills, ELT. READING • Rost, M (2002) Teaching and Researching Listening, Pearson Education. • Ur, P. (1984) Teaching Listening Comprehension, Cambridge University Press. • White, G (1998) Listening, Oxford University Press