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Chapter 15 power point

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Chapter 15 power point

  1. 1. © Cengage Learning 2016© Cengage Learning 2016 An Invitation to Health: Building Your Future, Brief Edition, 9e Dianne Hales A Lifetime of Health 15
  2. 2. © Cengage Learning 2016 After reading this chapter, the student should be able to: • Discuss trends in life expectancy in the United States • Examine the factors that influence successful aging • Evaluate the impact of aging on physical activities and mental processes Objectives
  3. 3. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Contrast the different ways in which people prepare for medical crises • Discuss the emotional responses to dying • Explore the causes and consequences of suicide • Interpret how people generally react to the loss of a loved one Objectives (cont’d.)
  4. 4. © Cengage Learning 2016 • U.S. life expectancy expected to increase to 79.5 years by 2020 • Americans less likely to reach age 50 than peers in 16 other developed countries – Americans in poorer health at 50 due to chronic illness and obesity • American men between 20 and 24 – Risk of dying from violence seven times higher than any other developed country Will You Live to 50?
  5. 5. © Cengage Learning 2016
  6. 6. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Aging – Characteristic pattern of normal life changes as one grows older • Key factors to living long and well – Regular exercise, weight management, and not smoking – Avoiding or delaying chronic illness – Genetic factors contribute Successful Aging
  7. 7. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Enjoyment of life contributes to a healthier and more active old age • Lack of physical activity – Increases mortality • Some physical activity is better than none – 30 minutes a day has benefits – Exercise slows loss of lean muscle tissue Factors Influencing How We Age
  8. 8. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Obesity: most common nutritional disorder in older Americans • Obesity health risks – Diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and arthritis • Obesity paradox – Being overweight correlates with six percent lower risk of dying • Thinness in old age often a sign of serious illness Nutrition and Obesity
  9. 9. © Cengage Learning 2016 • The brain can repair itself – When neurons die, surrounding cells fill in gaps and establish new connections • Brain shows signs of aging starting in middle age – Dips in memory, reasoning, and cognitive functions • Mental acuity does not decline with physical aging – Wisdom increases The Aging Brain
  10. 10. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Ability to remember newly learned information declines with age • Using the brain greatly decreases risk of memory loss – Puzzles, crafts, and hobbies – Reading and playing mind-engaging games may lower a brain protein linked to Alzheimer’s disease Memory
  11. 11. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Menopause – Complete cessation of menstrual periods for 12 successive months – Average age 51.5 • Reproductive system begins changing a decade earlier • Perimenopause – Four to ten year transition prior to menopause – Egg cells die off at a faster rate Women at Midlife
  12. 12. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Night sweats due to hormonal changes • Hot flashes – Caused by drop in estrogen levels • Women with lifelong depression more likely to experience early perimenopause • Some effects of dwindling estrogen levels – Dry skin and mouth – Urinary tract infections Symptoms of Perimenopause
  13. 13. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Estrogen only or combination of estrogen and progestin • Designed to relieve menopausal symptoms – Current recommendation: take for fewer than five years • Earlier research: hormone therapy increases risk of heart attack, memory loss, and dementia – Contradicted by newer research Menopausal Hormone Therapy
  14. 14. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Testosterone declines 30 to 40 percent – Occurs between the ages of 48 and 70 • Other changes – Decreased muscle mass, greater body fat, and lower energy • Testosterone supplements – Double the risk of cardiovascular disease • Prostate enlarges – Pinches urethra, causing reduced urine flow Men at Midlife
  15. 15. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Fitness and better health results in a better sex life • Average statistics – Men remain sexually active until age 70, and women until age 66 • Women with partners remain sexually active longer • Aging results in physical changes – Less vaginal lubrication in women – More time required for ejaculation in men Sexuality and Aging
  16. 16. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Some physical changes are inevitable – See Figure 15.2 for details • Aging brains and bodies more susceptible to Alzheimer’s and osteoporosis • Additional challenges – Depression, substance abuse, and safe driving • Those aged 65 or older may suffer mild cognitive impairment The Challenges of Age
  17. 17. © Cengage Learning 2016
  18. 18. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Progressive deterioration of brain cells and mental capacity • Age is the top risk factor – By age 85, more than half of men and women have Alzheimer’s • Dementia – Loss of previous mental capabilities • No medical cure – Medication can alleviate symptoms Alzheimer’s Disease
  19. 19. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Health care proxy – Advance directive giving someone else power to make health decisions on your behalf – Also called medical power of attorney or health care power of attorney • Five wishes document – Includes health care proxy and other wishes • Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders – Apply to hospitalized patients Preparing for Medical Crises and the End of Life
  20. 20. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Risk of death doubles every eight years after about age 25 – Death rate continues to rise until about age 106 • Death education – No longer seen as taboo subject – Challenges individuals to acknowledge personal mortality • To create a more meaningful life Death and Dying
  21. 21. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Functional death – End of all vital functions, including heartbeat and respiration • Cellular death – Gradual cessation of cellular activity after heart stops beating • Brain death – End of all brain activity • Spiritual death Definitions of Death
  22. 22. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Denial • Anger • Bargaining – Bargaining with God for a way to reverse or postpone dying • Depression – Patient must be allowed to grieve • Acceptance Emotional Responses to Dying
  23. 23. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Increases with age – Most common in those aged 65 or older • 10 to 40 unsuccessful attempts for every completed suicide • Some main factors – Terminal illness – Hopelessness Suicide
  24. 24. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Cause of death can affect reactions of friends and acquaintances • Stage theory of grief – Shock-numbness – Yearning-searching – Disorganization-despair – Reorganization • Grief peaks within six months and acceptance increases over time Grief
  25. 25. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Mood swings • Physical sickness • Interruption of sleep patterns • Some widows have increased rates of depression and suicide • Friendships and remarriage offer greatest protection against health problems • Complicated grief is long lasting – Professional treatment can help Grief’s Effects on Health

Notas do Editor

  • Figure 15.1 The age boom
  • Figure 15.2 The effects of aging on the body

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