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Chapter 12 power point

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Chapter 12 power point

  1. 1. © Cengage Learning 2016© Cengage Learning 2016 An Invitation to Health: Building Your Future, Brief Edition, 9e Dianne Hales Alcohol and Tobacco 12
  2. 2. © Cengage Learning 2016 After reading this chapter, the student should be able to: • Outline the patterns of alcohol consumption among different populations • Discuss the patterns, reasons, and perils of drinking on campus • Describe the characteristics of alcohol and its effects on human health, including serious disorders Objectives
  3. 3. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Review racial, ethnic, and gender differences in alcohol-related risks • Examine the health consequences of alcohol-related disorders • Compare the patterns of tobacco consumption among the populations in America, including college students • Discuss gender, racial, and ethnic differences in tobacco consumption Objectives (cont’d.)
  4. 4. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Identify immediate effects of tobacco consumption on body and brain functions • Evaluate the serious health risks and dangers associated with cigarette smoking • Review the health risks posed by different forms of tobacco • Compare the different ways of quitting • Analyze the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke on health Objectives (cont’d.)
  5. 5. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Alcohol causes more disability and premature death than any cause other than heart disease • Many Americans use alcohol – Most do not misuse or abuse it • Types of people who should not drink at all – Recovering alcoholics, pregnant women, anyone who plans to drive, those younger than 21, and those taking certain medications Drinking in America
  6. 6. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Motivations – Feeling of relaxation – To heighten the sense of masculinity or femininity associated with drinking – Social ease – Role models – Relationship issues – Childhood abuse or trauma – Unemployment Why People Drink
  7. 7. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Highest proportion of heavy drinkers and those with alcohol abuse disorders – 18 to 25 years old • Abuse of alcohol – Top health concern for college students • College men drink more and more often than college women – Women’s drinking is on the rise • Increases risk of sexual assault Drinking on Campus
  8. 8. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) – Type of alcohol in beverages • Hand sanitizers can contain as much as 60 percent alcohol • Methyl (wood) alcohol is a poison • Amount of alcohol in drinks varies – Beer: five percent alcohol – Wine: about 12 percent alcohol – Distilled spirits: 50 percent alcohol Understanding Alcohol
  9. 9. © Cengage Learning 2016
  10. 10. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Directly and quickly absorbs into bloodstream – Carried to the heart, liver, and brain – Metabolized by the liver • Alcohol has nearly as many calories as fat • Some effects on the brain – Impaired perception and motor skills – Dulled smell, taste, and temperature sensation The Impact of Alcohol on the Body
  11. 11. © Cengage Learning 2016
  12. 12. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Women absorb 30 percent more alcohol into bloodstream than men – Due to smaller quantity of protective enzyme • Result: women become intoxicated more easily • Fetal alcohol syndrome – Result of drinking while pregnant • Race influences tendency to drink – Whites drink more than African Americans – Asian Americans tend not to drink at all Alcohol, Gender, and Race
  13. 13. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Some symptoms of alcohol use disorder – Drinking larger amounts of alcohol or for a longer time than intended – Strong urge or craving to use alcohol – Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down – Using alcohol in hazardous situations • Alcoholism – Chronic, progressive, and often fatal disease Alcohol-Related Disorders
  14. 14. © Cengage Learning 2016 • About 18 percent of Americans use some form of tobacco – Combustible (smokable) products most dangerous • Some reasons why people smoke – Limited education – Underestimation of risks – Adolescent experimentation or rebellion – Parental role models Tobacco in America
  15. 15. © Cengage Learning 2016 • 68 percent of college students have never smoked – 20 to 25 percent currently smoke – Most smokers start before age 18 • White students have highest rates of smoking • Students may smoke to manage stress • Social smokers – Smoke less often than others Tobacco Use on Campus
  16. 16. © Cengage Learning 2016 • 35 percent of males in developed countries smoke – 50 percent in developing countries • Some specific risks to men – Increased risk of prostate cancer – Reduced sexual performance • Some specific risks to women – Osteoporosis, fertility reduction, and early menopause Smoking, Gender, and Race
  17. 17. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Nicotine: primary active component of tobacco – One of the most toxic poisons – Directly affects the brain • Tobacco companies have increased levels of nicotine in cigarettes • Tobacco produces tar, a carcinogen • Smoke contains carbon monoxide – 400 times the level considered safe Tobacco’s Immediate Effects
  18. 18. © Cengage Learning 2016
  19. 19. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Premature death • Heart disease and stroke • Cancer – Smoking causes 80 percent of all cases of lung cancer • Respiratory diseases • Gum disease • Anxiety and panic attacks Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking
  20. 20. © Cengage Learning 2016
  21. 21. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Cigars – Can cause lung and digestive tract cancer • Water pipes (hookahs) – Smoke passes through water prior to inhalation – Risks are similar to or greater than cigarettes • Pipes • Bidis – Skinny, sweet-flavored cigarettes Other Forms of Tobacco
  22. 22. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Clove cigarettes – Contain two-thirds tobacco and one-third clove • Smokeless tobacco – Just as addictive as smoking • Snus – Similar to chewing tobacco Additional Tobacco Forms
  23. 23. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Physical benefits – After 15 smoke-free years, risk of smoking- related cancer drops to same level as those who never smoked • Mental benefits – Quitters less likely to report anxiety or depression • Nicotine-replacement therapy – Allows smokers to taper off gradually – Various forms include patches and gum Quitting Tobacco Use
  24. 24. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Mainstream smoke – Inhaled by smokers • Sidestream smoke – Inhaled by everyone around a smoker – Contains twice as much tar and nicotine • Thirdhand smoke – Nicotine residue left on furniture, walls, and carpet Environmental Tobacco Smoke

Notas do Editor

  • Figure 12.2 How many standard drinks are you drinking?
  • Figure 12.4 The effects of alcohol abuse on the body
    Alcohol has a major effect on the brain, damaging brain cells, impairing judgment and perceptions, and often leading to accidents and altercations. Alcohol also damages the digestive system, especially the liver.
  • Figure 12.5 The immediate effects of nicotine on the body
    The primary active ingredient is nicotine, a fast-acting and potent drug.
  • Figure 12.6 Some effects of smoking on the body
    Smoking harms the respiratory system and the cardiorespiratory system. The leading cause of death for smokers is heart attack.

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