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Chapter 11 power point

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Chapter 11 power point

  1. 1. © Cengage Learning 2016© Cengage Learning 2016 An Invitation to Health: Building Your Future, Brief Edition, 9e Dianne Hales Addictions 11
  2. 2. © Cengage Learning 2016 After reading this chapter, the student should be able to: • Explain how substance abuse and other addictive behaviors affect every dimension of health • Describe the dangers of a gambling addiction • Review and give examples of substance abuse on college campuses Objectives
  3. 3. © Cengage Learning 2016 • List the effects that drugs have on the brain, body, and behavior • Summarize the benefits and the adverse effects of caffeine • Describe the harmful effects of inappropriate use of over-the-counter and prescription drugs Objectives (cont’d.)
  4. 4. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Identify the types and possible causes of substance use disorders • Classify common drugs of abuse according to their characteristics and harmful effects • Outline the principles of drug abuse treatment Objectives (cont’d.)
  5. 5. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Increased risk-taking correlates with certain lifestyle and health behaviors – Frequent alcohol use and binge drinking – Smoking – Low physical activity – Low vegetable and fruit intake – Poor sleep Risky Behaviors
  6. 6. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Gambling disorder – Persistent and recurrent problematic gambling – Affects more men than women – More common than alcohol dependence – Generally develops over the course of years Gambling
  7. 7. © Cengage Learning 2016 • More than six in ten college students have never used marijuana or illegal drugs • Top forms of drug use – Marijuana – Prescription drug misuse • Why students do not use drugs – Spirituality and religion – Academic engagement – Perceived harmfulness Drug Use on Campus
  8. 8. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Methods of entering the body – Swallowing, inhaling, and injection • Toxicity – Drug dose at which it becomes poisonous to the body • Each person responds differently to different drugs • Drugs tend to intensify emotional state a person is in Understanding Drugs and Their Effects
  9. 9. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Stimulant • Some effects of caffeine – Relieves drowsiness, increases alertness, sharpens concentration and may relieve migraines • For most people, caffeine poses few serious health risks – Doctors recommend limiting intake to 500 mg per day Caffeine and Its Effects
  10. 10. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs – Painkillers, nasal sprays, laxatives, eye drops, sleep aids, and cough syrup • Prescription drugs – Popular painkillers for nonmedical use • Oxycodone and hydrocodone – College women use more antidepressants than men • Drug interactions can occur between OTC and prescription drugs Medications
  11. 11. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Characteristics – Taking a substance in larger amounts or higher frequency than originally intended – Persistent desire to cut down or stop – Unsuccessful efforts to cut down or stop – Cravings – Failure to fulfill obligations Substance Use Disorders
  12. 12. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Types of dependence – Physical and psychological • Drug dependence a brain disease – Drugs change biochemistry and anatomy of neurons – Rise in dopamine levels differs for different drugs Dependence
  13. 13. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Cannabinoids – Marijuana and hashish – THC is major psychoactive ingredient • Medical marijuana – Used for a variety of reasons • Alleviating cancer pain, neck pain and glaucoma • Preventing and treating migraines and seizures • Marijuana legalized in Washington and Colorado in 2012 Common Drugs of Abuse
  14. 14. © Cengage Learning 2016
  15. 15. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Herbal drugs – Salvia – Khat • Synthetic designer drugs – Emerging very quickly – Examples: K2, Spice, “bath salts”, “party pills” • Club drugs – Rohypnol, fentanyl, and many others – Use dropping in recent years Drugs of Abuse (cont’d.)
  16. 16. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Ecstasy (MDMA) – More likely than other stimulants to kill young, healthy people • Medical emergencies have increased 75 percent in recent years • Amphetamine • Methamphetamine – Less expensive and more addictive than cocaine or heroin – Leading problem drug Additional Drugs of Abuse
  17. 17. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Cocaine – Crystalline white powder that is sniffed or snorted – Many risks and potential health consequences • Depressants – Benzodiazepine – Rohypnol • Can incapacitate and cause memory loss More Drugs of Abuse
  18. 18. © Cengage Learning 2016
  19. 19. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Powerful narcotics (painkillers) • Morphine • Codeine • Heroin – Most widely abused opioid in the U.S. • LSD – Popular in the 1960s and in the 1990s • Peyote – Less widely used in the U.S. Opioids and Hallucinogens
  20. 20. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Ketamine – Anesthetic used by veterinarians – Blocks chemical messengers that carry sensory input – Misused as a date rape drug • PCP – Use peaked in the 1970s • Inhalants produce vapors with psychoactive effects Dissociative Drugs
  21. 21. © Cengage Learning 2016 • 6.1 million Americans in need of substance abuse treatment – More than 5 million never seek treatment • 12 step programs – Alcoholics anonymous – Narcotics anonymous • Relapse prevention – Learning to avoid cues that can set off cravings Treating Substance Dependence and Abuse

Notas do Editor

  • Figure 11.3 Impact of marijuana
  • Figure 11.4 Some effects of cocaine on the body

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