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Chapter 9 power point

  1. 1. © Cengage Learning 2016© Cengage Learning 2016 An Invitation to Health: Building Your Future, Brief Edition, 9e Dianne Hales Reproductive Choices 9
  2. 2. © Cengage Learning 2016 After reading this chapter, the student should be able to: • Describe the process of conception • Review the reasons for practicing abstinence and nonpenetrative sex • Summarize the methods, benefits, risks, and use of contraception • Explain the major types of barrier contraceptives Objectives
  3. 3. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Review the types of hormonal contraceptives • Describe the fertility awareness methods • Discuss the incidence and usage of emergency contraception • Explain male and female sterilization • Outline several reasons some individuals and couples choose not to have children Objectives (cont’d.)
  4. 4. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Discuss the options available when faced with an unwanted pregnancy • Compare medical and surgical abortion • Summarize preconception care, home pregnancy tests, prenatal care, and complications of pregnancy • Identify the stages of childbirth • Discuss the causes of infertility and the options available to infertile couples Objectives (cont’d.)
  5. 5. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Creation of sperm begins in males at puberty – Production regulated by hormones – Sperm form in the seminiferous tubules in the testes • Stored in the epididymis until ejaculation • Women are born with their lifetime supply of ova – Between 300 and 500 eggs eventually mature Conception
  6. 6. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Sperm travels through vagina to uterus and up the fallopian tubes • Sperm can survive for two to five days in the female reproductive tract – Unfertilized egg lives 24 to 36 hours • Sperm must penetrate ovum’s outer membrane to fertilize the egg • Fertilized egg divides to form a blastocyst – Implants into lining of the woman’s uterus Process of Conception
  7. 7. © Cengage Learning 2016
  8. 8. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Contraception – Method designed to prevent conception • Practicing abstinence – 100% effective birth control method • Outercourse – Pregnancy still possible if ejaculation occurs near vaginal opening Abstinence and Nonpenetrative Sexual Activity
  9. 9. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Survey: about 57 percent of college students report using contraception • Failure rate of a contraception method – Number of pregnancies occurring per year for every 100 women • Withdrawal of penis before ejaculation – Not a reliable method • Some medical conditions can pose risk with certain contraception methods Contraception
  10. 10. © Cengage Learning 2016
  11. 11. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Condoms – Provide some protection against HIV and STIs – No side effects – Non-prescription • Female condom – Considered as good as male condom for preventing infection • Contraceptive sponge – Blocks entrance to the uterus Barrier Contraceptives
  12. 12. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Vaginal spermicides and film – Some made for use with a diaphragm • Diaphragm – Rubber cup inserted to cover the cervix – Obtained by prescription – Available in various sizes – Used with spermicide • Cervical cap • Femcap Additional Barrier Contraceptives
  13. 13. © Cengage Learning 2016
  14. 14. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Oral contraceptives (“the pill”) – Popular method with those under age 30 – Combination oral contraceptives • Contain two hormones • May be monophasic or multiphasic – Progestin-only pills – Extended use pills • Lybrel suppresses monthly periods Hormonal Contraceptives
  15. 15. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Contraceptive patch • Contraceptive vaginal ring • Intrauterine device (IUD) • Contraceptive injection – Must be given every 12 weeks • Contraceptive implants – Provide effective birth control for up to three years Additional Hormonal Contraceptives
  16. 16. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Rhythm method – Also called calendar method – Identifies “safe” days of a woman’s individual menstrual cycle • Basal body temperature method – Identifies day of ovulation based on changes in basal (resting) body temperature • Cervical mucus method – Identifies ovulation by changes in mucus consistency Fertility Awareness Methods
  17. 17. © Cengage Learning 2016
  18. 18. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Contraception method used after unprotected intercourse – Or after failure of another method • Condom breaking or coming off – Available without a prescription – Uses hormones to delay or inhibit ovulation, block fertilization or implantation • Use has doubled recently among young women ages 20 to 24 Emergency Contraception
  19. 19. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Vasectomy – Male sterilization – Performed in a doctor’s office in about 20 minutes – Doctor cuts and ties off ends of each vas deferens to block flow of sperm • Tubal ligation or tubal occlusion – Female sterilization – Can be done with laparoscopy Sterilization
  20. 20. © Cengage Learning 2016
  21. 21. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Reasons for choosing not to bear children – More freedom and time with partner – Career advancement – Concern about overpopulation of Earth – Concerns about hostile work environment for mothers – Realizing you “can’t have it all” • Deliberately choosing what’s important to them Childfree By Choice
  22. 22. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Giving up child for adoption – Option for women who feel abortion is not right for them – Number of waiting adoptive parents greatly exceeds number of newborns • Adoption reform – Mandatory counseling – Extending time period a mother can change her mind about giving up her child Unwanted Pregnancy
  23. 23. © Cengage Learning 2016 • About two-thirds of abortions are performed within eight weeks of pregnancy • Medical abortion – Using drugs to terminate a pregnancy • Suction curettage – Laminaria used to stretch the cervix – Vacuum system draws contents out of uterus Abortion
  24. 24. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Some typical emotions – Relief, sadness, guilt • Victims of violence have more anxiety following an abortion • Abortion is a very controversial ethical and political issue – Abortion legalized in some states in the 1960s – 1973: Roe v. Wade decision legalized nationally The Psychological Impact of Abortion
  25. 25. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Preconception care – Risk assessment and nutrition • Prenatal care – Healthy diet – Exercise – Avoid smoking, alcohol, and drugs • 40 weeks of pregnancy divided into three trimesters – Many bodily changes in mother and baby Pregnancy
  26. 26. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Labor – Begins with cervical effacement (thinning) and dilation – Contractions progress from light and infrequent to very strong and frequent – Baby’s head usually emerges first • Caesarean Birth – Surgical delivery – Baby lifted out through abdominal incision Childbirth
  27. 27. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Failure to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse • Assisted reproductive technology – Artificial insemination – In vitro fertilization • Occurs in a laboratory dish – Birth rate of multiples increases Infertility

Notas do Editor

  • Figure 9.1 Fertilization
    a) The efforts of hundreds of sperm may allow one to penetrate the ovum’s corona
    radiate, an outer layer of cells, and then the zona pellucida, a thick inner membrane.
    (b) The nuclei of the sperm and the egg cells merge, and the male and female chromosomes
    in the nuclei come together, forming a zygote. (c) The zygote divides into
    two cells, then four cells, and so on. (d) As fluid enters the ball, cells form a ball of
    cells called a blastocyst. (e) The blastocyst implants itself in the endometrium.
  • Figure 9.2 Comparing effectiveness of birth control methods
  • Figure 9.6 Diaphragm
  • Figure 9.9 Safe and unsafe days
    Events in the menstrual cycle determine the relatively safe days for avoiding pregnancy in unprotected intercourse.
  • Figure 9.11 Female sterilization, or tubal ligation

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