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Chapter 8 power point

  1. 1. © Cengage Learning 2016© Cengage Learning 2016 An Invitation to Health: Building Your Future, Brief Edition, 9e Dianne Hales Sexual Health 8
  2. 2. © Cengage Learning 2016 After reading this chapter, the student should be able to: • Analyze the links between the dimensions of health and sexuality • Describe women’s sexual health and female sexual anatomy in detail • Discuss men’s sexual health and male sexual anatomy in detail Objectives
  3. 3. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Review the characteristics of healthy, responsible sexual relationships • Categorize types of premarital sexual relationships • Discuss sexual diversity in human beings • Define the major types of sexual activity in which human beings engage Objectives (cont’d.)
  4. 4. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Outline the stages of sexual response in men and women • Identify the characteristics and risk factors of sexually transmitted diseases • Describe the fundamentals of safeguarding your sexual health • Discuss the nature, incidence, signs and symptoms, and diagnosis and treatments of common STIs Objectives (cont’d.)
  5. 5. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Involves a positive and respectful approach – Free from coercion or violence • Sexual health of emerging adults (18-25) – At greater risk than rest of the population – Greater likelihood of STIs • Sexuality affects various dimensions of health – Physical, emotional, social, and more Sexual Health
  6. 6. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Recommendations – Regular heath maintenance exams – Contraceptive counseling for those not wishing to become pregnant – Pre-pregnancy counseling for those wishing to conceive – Screening for chlamydia for age 24 or younger – Cervical cancer and HIV screening Women’s Sexual Health
  7. 7. © Cengage Learning 2016
  8. 8. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Monthly cycle associated with ovulation, potential conception, and menstruation • Hormones stimulate growth of immature eggs stored in follicles • Ovulation triggered at mid-cycle – Egg cell (ova) released • If ova not fertilized, menstruation occurs – Uterine lining discharged during a period The Menstrual Cycle
  9. 9. © Cengage Learning 2016
  10. 10. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Some symptoms of PMS – Irritability – Anxiety and difficulty concentrating – Headache – Water retention and breast tenderness • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) – Regular symptoms of depression and physical symptoms during last week of cycle Premenstrual Syndrome
  11. 11. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Sperm – Male reproductive cells – Stored in the epididymis – Transported outside the body by ejaculation • Circumcision – Removal of the foreskin on the penis – May be done for religious or health reasons Men’s Sexual Health
  12. 12. © Cengage Learning 2016
  13. 13. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Characteristics of a healthy sexual relationship – Consensual – Nonexploitative – Honest – Mutually pleasurable – Protected against unintended pregnancy and STIs Responsible Sexuality
  14. 14. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Monogamous sex – Important to have understanding between both partners as to whether sexual relationship will be monogamous • Important discussions to have with partner – Sexual history • Includes number of partners and STIs – Method of birth control to be used Making Sexual Decisions
  15. 15. © Cengage Learning 2016 • In past 40 years, premarital sex has become common in young adults – More socially acceptable in the context of a relationship • Hooking up – Casual sex without commitment or intimacy • Friends with benefits – Varied sexual behaviors between friends • Romantic relationships Sexual Behavior
  16. 16. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Average American adult reports having sex once a week • Married couples – About 58 times per year • Americans who have attended graduate school – Among least sexually active population segments Sex in America
  17. 17. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Heterosexuals – Attracted to the opposite sex • Homosexuals – Prefer partners of their own sex – Often referred to as gays and lesbians • Bisexuality – Sexual attraction to both males and females • Transgender individuals identify with a sex other than their birth sex Sexual Diversity
  18. 18. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Celibacy – May or may not include masturbation • Abstinence – About 2.5 million teens have pledged to abstain from sex • Fantasy – Can be pleasurable by itself – Men’s and women’s fantasies differ Sexual Activity
  19. 19. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Masturbation – Men generally see as normal and healthy – Women may struggle with stigma and taboo • Nonpenetrative sexual activity (outercourse) – Kissing, touching, and stimulating erogenous regions • Vaginal intercourse – Preferred form for most heterosexual couples Sexual Activity (cont’d.)
  20. 20. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Oral sex – Condom should be used to prevent infection • Anal stimulation – Anus can produce intense erotic responses • Anal intercourse – Penetration of anus by the penis Types of Sexual Activity (cont’d.)
  21. 21. © Cengage Learning 2016
  22. 22. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Excitement – Rush of blood to genitals causes erection in men – Vaginal lubrication in women • Plateau – Penis increases in length and diameter – Vagina swells • Orgasm – Three to twelve pelvic muscle contractions Sexual Response
  23. 23. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Ejaculation – Discharge of semen by a male • Female orgasm results from stimulating the clitoris • Resolution – Sexual organs return to normal state • Refractory period – Time period during which males are incapable of another orgasm Sexual Response (cont’d.)
  24. 24. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Term STI is replacing STD – Many infected people do not show symptoms • Estimated 65 million Americans have an STI – Transmitted mainly through direct sexual contact Sexually Transmitted Infections and Diseases
  25. 25. © Cengage Learning 2016
  26. 26. © Cengage Learning 2016 • A is for “Abstain” – STIs can be transmitted through oral sex • B is for “Be faithful” – No risk for STI if neither partner has had sex with anyone else • C is for “Condoms” – Check expiration date • Both men and women can get STIs – Risk for women is greater The ABCs of Safer Sex
  27. 27. © Cengage Learning 2016
  28. 28. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Human papillomavirus (HPV) – Most common STI – Vaccination exists • Genital herpes – HSV-1 causes cold sores around the mouth – HSV-2 is sexually transmitted • Chlamydia – Most widespread sexually transmitted bacterium in the U.S. Common STIs
  29. 29. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) – A complication of an STI • Gonorrhea – Causes yellow-white pus discharge from the penis • Non-gonococcal urethritis – Inflammation of the urethra • Syphilis • HIV/AIDS More Common STIs

Notas do Editor

  • Figure 8.1 The female sex organs and reproductive structures
  • Figure 8.2 The menstrual cycle(a) In response to the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the gonadotropins FSH and LH. Levels of FSH and LH stimulate the cycle (and in turn are affected by production of estrogen and progesterone).
    (b) FSH does what its name says: It stimulates follicle development in the ovary. The follicle matures and ruptures, releasing an ovum (egg) into the fallopian tube.
    (c) The follicle produces estrogen, and the corpus luteum produces estrogen and progesterone. The high level of estrogen at the middle of the cycle produces a surge of LH, which triggers ovulation.
    (d) Estrogen and progesterone stimulate the endometrium, which becomes thicker and prepares to receive an implanted, fertilized egg. If a fertilized egg is deposited in the uterus, pregnancy begins. If the egg is not fertilized, progesterone production decreases, and the endometrium is shed (menstruation). At this point, both estrogen and progesterone levels have dropped, so the pituitary responds by producing FSH, and the cycle begins again.
  • Figure 8.3 Male sex organs and reproductive structures
  • Figure 8.4 A cross-sectional view of sexual intercourse
    Sperm are formed in each of the testes and stored in the epididymis. When a man
    ejaculates, sperm carried in semen travel up the vas deferens. (The prostate gland
    and seminal vesicles contribute components of the semen.) The semen is expelled
    from the penis through the urethra and deposited in the vagina, near the cervix.
    During sexual excitement and orgasm in a woman, the upper end of the vagina
    enlarges and the uterus elevates. After orgasm, these organs return to their normal
    states, and the cervix descends into the pool of semen
  • Figure 8.6 How STIs spread
    Most STIs are spread by viruses or bacteria carried in certain body fluids.
  • Figure 8.7 Continuum of risk for sexual relationships and behaviors
    STI risks increase as relationships become less familiar and exclusive and as sexual
    activities become unprotected and receptive.