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Chapter 3 power point

  1. 1. © Cengage Learning 2016© Cengage Learning 2016 An Invitation to Health: Building Your Future, Brief Edition, 9e Dianne Hales Personal Stress Management 3
  2. 2. © Cengage Learning 2016 After reading this chapter, the student should be able to: • Outline the types of stress and the effects of stress on people • Identify stressors commonly reported by different groups across America • Examine the most common causes of stress that individuals face Objectives
  3. 3. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Summarize the incidence, symptoms, and treatment of the stress disorders associated with traumatic life events • Outline how the body responds to stress • Describe how stress can affect a person’s heart, immune system, gastrointestinal system, and susceptibility to cancer Objectives (cont’d.)
  4. 4. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Discuss practical techniques of stress management • Summarize how time management can help prevent stress Objectives (cont’d.)
  5. 5. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Defined as “a non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it” • Stressor – Anything that triggers a state of arousal – May be positive or negative • Eustress: positive stress • Distress: negative effects of stress Stress
  6. 6. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Physical stress triggers body changes – Heart, muscles, immune system, and more • Chronic stress affects thoughts and feelings • Stress can sidetrack spiritual health • Relationships are affected by life stress • Stress can interfere with brain function • External forces can cause or intensify stress Stress and the Dimensions of Health
  7. 7. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Acute time-limited stressors – Examples: timed test or public speaking • Brief naturalistic stressors – Example: taking the SAT • Life change events – Planned and unpredictable events • Distant stressors – Happened in the past – Continue to impact emotions Types of Stressors
  8. 8. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Survey results: average stress level 4.9 out of 10 • Symptoms – Fatigue – Poor sleep – Sense of being overwhelmed • People who say they manage stress well report a lower stress level Stress in America
  9. 9. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Common student stressors – Test pressures – Financial problems – Frustrations or delays in reaching goals – Relationship problems – Daily hassles • Reactions to stress vary – Women more likely to feel stressed about finances, relationships, and daily hassles Stress on Campus
  10. 10. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Minority ethnic groups experience various forms of stress – Some examples: discrimination stress and achievement stress Minority Students
  11. 11. © Cengage Learning 2016 • More common than overt racism • Microassaults – Conscious, intentional acts or slurs • Microinsults – Rude verbal and nonverbal expressions • Microinvalidation – Subtle nullifications of thoughts or feelings of another Microaggression Toward Minorities
  12. 12. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Factors influencing anger – People are working longer hours • Less patience – Technology enables 24/7 availability • Economic stress – Unemployment • Job stress or burnout • Illness and disability Other Stressors
  13. 13. © Cengage Learning 2016 • About half of all people experience at least one traumatic life event – Car accident – Unexpected death in the family – Tornado, earthquake – Violent act • Vast majority of people able to recover and continue with their lives Traumatic Life Events
  14. 14. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Disabling symptoms following a traumatic event • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – Can occur following captivity, combat, or violent incident • Symptoms of PTSD – Distressing memories or dreams – External reminders of the event – Persistent negative emotions, such as guilt Acute Stress Disorder
  15. 15. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Cascade of internal changes that mobilize the body for action – “Fight-or-flight” response – Affects heart, muscles, brain • Once threat passes, body returns to homeostasis • General adaptation syndrome – Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion – See Figure 3.2 The Stress Response
  16. 16. © Cengage Learning 2016
  17. 17. © Cengage Learning 2016
  18. 18. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Heart – Mulling over stressful events elevates blood pressure • Immune system – Chronic stress breaks down immune system • Stress influences how much and what we eat • Stress-related inflammation can affect cancer growth The Impact of Stress
  19. 19. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Techniques – Journaling: writing down feelings – Exercise – Cognitive restructuring • Get rid of inaccurate or self-defeating thoughts – Meditation Managing Stress
  20. 20. © Cengage Learning 2016
  21. 21. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Progressive relaxation – Intentionally increase and then decrease tension in the muscles – Work through the body, focusing on each area • Visualization – Create mental picture that helps focus mind • Biofeedback – Using measurements of a body process to adjust that process • Examples: heart rate or muscle tension Routes to Relaxation
  22. 22. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Meditation – Brings about changes in various brain regions • Mindfulness – Being fully present in the moment – Focusing on the present time • Yoga – May lower harmful compounds associated with stress that increase inflammation Routes to Relaxation (cont’d.)
  23. 23. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Symptoms of poor time management – Rushing – Consistent lateness – Fatigue – Inability to make choices or decisions – Sense of being overwhelmed by demands Stress Prevention: Taking Control of Your Time
  24. 24. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Schedule your time in advance • Develop a game plan • Identify time robbers • Make the most of classes • Develop an efficient study style • Cut large problems into smaller pieces • Focus on the task at hand • Keep workspace orderly Time Management Solutions

Notas do Editor

  • Figure 3.1 The effects of stress on the body
  • Figure 3.2 General adaptation syndrome
  • Figure 3.3 Benefits of meditation

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