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Chapter 2 power point

  1. 1. © Cengage Learning 2016© Cengage Learning 2016 An Invitation to Health: Building Your Future, Brief Edition, 9e Dianne Hales Your Psychological and Spiritual Well-Being 2
  2. 2. © Cengage Learning 2016 After reading this chapter, the student should be able to: • Identify the characteristics of emotionally healthy individuals • Summarize the components of positive psychology that can lead to a happy and purposeful life • Discuss the impact of spirituality on individuals Objectives
  3. 3. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Review the relationship between sleep and health • Relate mental health to a person’s overall well-being • Describe the key factors related to depressive disorders, their symptoms, and treatments • Summarize four categories of anxiety disorders Objectives (cont’d.)
  4. 4. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Identify the risk factors, symptoms, and therapeutic approaches for other mental disorders discussed in this chapter • Outline the patterns of committing or attempting suicide among Americans • List treatment options available for mental disorders Objectives (cont’d.)
  5. 5. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Characteristics of emotionally healthy people – Determination and effort to be healthy – Flexibility to deal with changing circumstances – Sense of meaning and purpose – Compassion for others – Sense of control over mind and body – Increased depth and satisfaction in personal relationships Emotional Health
  6. 6. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Ability to perceive reality and the motivations of others • Ability to function and carry out responsibilities • Ability to form relationships • Ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity Mental Health
  7. 7. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Aspects of the human condition that lead to happiness, fulfillment, and flourishing • Develop self-compassion – Healthy self-acceptance • Boost emotional intelligence – Ability to use emotions to guide thinking and actions The Lessons of Positive Psychology
  8. 8. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Meet your needs – Recognize physical and emotional needs • Include safety, security, love, and self-esteem • Boost self-esteem – Feeling of belief and pride in ourselves – Develops over time – Strategy: develop practice of positive thinking and talking Lessons of Positive Psychology (cont’d.)
  9. 9. © Cengage Learning 2016
  10. 10. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Happy people: – Live eight to nine years longer – Make $15,000 more per year – Less likely to become divorced • Roots of happiness – Genetic component (50 percent) – Life circumstances (10 percent) – Thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors (40 percent) Pursuit of Happiness
  11. 11. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Become optimistic – Inclined to anticipate the best possible outcome – People can change outlook over time • Cognitive-behavioral techniques • Manage your moods – Sustained emotional state lasting for days – Determine and change the cause of a bad mood if possible More Lessons of Positive Psychology
  12. 12. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Ability to identify basic purpose in life • Spirituality – Belief in a higher power – Gives rise to strong sense of purpose, values, morals, and ethics – May be expressed through religion • Particular system of faith and worship – Church attendance may add two to three years of life • Sense of community Spiritual Health
  13. 13. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Spiritual intelligence – Discovery of a wisdom within ourselves – Sense of inner peace – Tap into highest parts of ourselves, others, and the world • Clarify values – Consider consequences of actions – Choose freely – Publicly affirm and act out values Achieving Spiritual Health
  14. 14. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Sit quietly • Start small • Step outside • Use activity to tune into your spirit • Ask questions of yourself • Trust your spirit • Develop a spiritual practice – May be religious or non-religious Spiritual Enrichment
  15. 15. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Most commonly used form of complementary and alternative medicine • Prayer: – Boosts morale – Lowers agitation, loneliness, and life dissatisfaction – Enhances ability to cope – Fosters a state of peace and calm Consider the Power of Prayer
  16. 16. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Benefits of a grateful spirit – Improved mood – Increased energy – More positive views of the social environment – Better sleep – More productive coping strategies – Greater appreciation of life and possessions • Strategy: keep a diary and record three things each day for which you are grateful Cultivate Gratitude
  17. 17. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Letting go of anger and pain • Reclaims power to choose • A process, not a one-time event • Involves the conscious and unconscious mind Forgiveness
  18. 18. © Cengage Learning 2016 • One-third of Americans say they get enough sleep • 50 to 70 million adults suffer from sleep disorders • Student night life and alcohol use compound sleep problems for college students • Sleep has many impacts on health – One example: body’s immunity to disease Sleepless on Campus
  19. 19. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Mental disorders can undermine physical well-being • Undergraduates living on campus – Lower depression rates than those living off campus • Students with past or current financial distress – Greater likelihood of depression and anxiety Understanding Mental Health
  20. 20. © Cengage Learning 2016
  21. 21. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Key contributors to depression in college students – Stress – Too little sleep – Academic or athletic pressures • Depression twice as common in women – Brain chemistry and sex hormones play a role Depressive Disorders
  22. 22. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Sadness that does not end • Destroys a person’s joy for living • Little interest in pleasurable activities • Lack of concentration • Trouble sleeping and lack of energy • Eating more or less than usual • Feeling helpless • Contemplating suicide Major Depressive Disorder
  23. 23. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Medication – Most common treatment approach today • Psychotherapy (talk therapy) – Combination of psychotherapy and medication most effective approach for most • Bipolar disorder (manic depression) – Mood swings from depressive to euphoric – Affects about four percent of the population Treating Depression
  24. 24. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Phobias • Panic attacks – Reach peak intensity within ten minutes – Panic disorder: recurring attacks • Generalized anxiety disorder – Excessive or unrealistic apprehension that causes physical symptoms • Obsessive-compulsive disorder – Involves recurring thought and action Anxiety Disorders
  25. 25. © Cengage Learning 2016 • ADHD – Common disorder in childhood – Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity • Autism spectrum disorder – Four times more likely to occur in boys than girls – Causes: genetic factors, maternal trauma, brain abnormalities, parental age – Symptoms usually occur before age two Other Common Disorders
  26. 26. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Schizophrenia – One of the most debilitating mental disorders – Symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking – Strong genetic basis • Nonsuicidal self-injury – Deliberately harming oneself – Intent: to relieve painful thoughts or feelings – Usually starts in the early teens Other Disorders (cont’d.)
  27. 27. © Cengage Learning 2016 • 1.1 million Americans attempt suicide yearly – Two-thirds experienced depressive symptoms at time of their death – Whites at highest risk – Increased significantly among middle aged men and women • 4.5 million suicide survivors in the U.S. • Many factors influence suicide Suicide
  28. 28. © Cengage Learning 2016 • 75% of those needing treatment do not receive treatment – Median delay is 10 years • Mental health counseling – Psychotherapy – Psychodynamic therapy – Cognitive-behavioral therapy • Psychiatric drugs Overcoming Problems of the Mind

Notas do Editor

  • Figure 2.1 The Maslow pyramid
  • Figure 2.3 The mentally healthy individual

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