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Chapter 1 power point

  1. 1. © Cengage Learning 2016© Cengage Learning 2016 An Invitation to Health: Building Your Future, Brief Edition, 9e Dianne Hales The Power of Now 1
  2. 2. © Cengage Learning 2016 After reading this chapter, the student should be able to: • Differentiate health and wellness in the context of the dimensions of health • Assess the current health status of Americans, including health goals and health disparities • Compare the health trends of students with those of Americans in general Objectives
  3. 3. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Explain the influences on behavior that support or impede healthy change • Identify the stages of change Objectives (cont’d.)
  4. 4. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Health – Soundness of body, mind, and spirit • Individuals have different definitions of health • Wellness – Deliberate lifestyle choices that enhance physical, mental, and spiritual health – A decision to move toward optimal health Health and Wellness
  5. 5. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Six dimensions of health – Physical health – Psychological health – Spiritual health – Social health – Intellectual health – Environmental health The Dimensions of Health
  6. 6. © Cengage Learning 2016 • America spends more than any other nation on health care • U.S. life expectancy has increased to all- time high – Still lower than Japan, Switzerland • Healthy life expectancy – Years lived without disease or disability • Small percentage of Americans have adopted healthy behaviors Health in America
  7. 7. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Objectives published by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) – Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death – Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve health of all groups – Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all – Promote healthy development and behaviors at every stage of life Healthy People 2020
  8. 8. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Americans of racial and ethnic groups other than whites – More likely to suffer disease and disability • Poverty is a key factor • Longevity gap between black and white individuals is four to six years Health Disparities
  9. 9. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Black Americans lose more potential life years to homicide, stroke, and diabetes – Compared to whites • One in three Hispanics has prediabetes • American Indian and Alaskan Native women less likely to receive prenatal care • Caucasians more prone to osteoporosis, cystic fibrosis, and skin cancer Why Race Matters
  10. 10. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Blacks have higher rates of colon, stomach, prostate, and pancreatic cancer – Highest death rates for lung cancer • Black women more than twice as likely to die from cervical cancer than white women • Native Hawaiian women most likely to die from breast cancer Cancer Screening and Management
  11. 11. © Cengage Learning 2016 Sex, Gender, and Health • Sex depends on male or female reproductive organs • Gender refers to a person’s self- representation as male or female • Health differences between men and women – More males die before birth • Also more likely to be born prematurely or die as an infant
  12. 12. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Overall mortality rate 41 percent higher in men than in women • Cardiovascular disease is leading cause of death for women in the U.S. • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women • Women are 70 percent more likely to suffer depression during their lifetime Sex and Health Differences
  13. 13. © Cengage Learning 2016
  14. 14. © Cengage Learning 2016 • College students are a diverse group – Ethnicity, age, and type of school – More connected, yet more isolated • Weak interpersonal and communication skills – Entering a world with an accelerating pace of change • Nine of ten students rate their health as good, very good, or excellent Health on Campus
  15. 15. © Cengage Learning 2016 • ACHA survey results – Highest BMIs of any developed country – Fewer than half get recommended amounts of physical activity – 62 percent reported alcohol consumption with the past months – 13-15 percent reported smoking tobacco or marijuana within the past month – Only 10 percent get enough sleep to feel rested Health Habits of Young Americans
  16. 16. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Many chronic problems begin early in life – Osteoporosis – High blood pressure – High cholesterol • Prevention: best weapon against cancer and heart disease • Protection – Immunizations, use of condoms, and wearing seat belts The Promise of Prevention
  17. 17. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Perceptions of young adults – Overestimate immediate pleasure – Underestimate negative consequences • College age men more likely than women to engage in risky behaviors – Unprotected sex – Dangerous driving – Use of drugs and alcohol – Suicide Understanding Risky Behaviors
  18. 18. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Change is difficult – 40 to 80 percent of those who try to change bad habits lapse back within six weeks • Influences that shape behavior – Predisposing factors • Examples: knowledge, beliefs, and values – Enabling factors • Examples: skills and resources – Reinforcing factors • Examples: praise, rewards, and encouragement Making Healthy Changes
  19. 19. © Cengage Learning 2016
  20. 20. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Reasons people take a health-related action – Attempt to avoid negative consequence – Expect a positive outcome – Believe they can successfully take action How and Why People Change
  21. 21. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Precontemplation – No intention of making a change • Contemplation – Alternate between resisting and wanting to change • Preparation – Deciding to change and making a plan • Action Six Stages of Change
  22. 22. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Maintenance – Strengthen, enhance, and extend the changes • Termination – Change becomes status quo Stages of Change (cont’d.)
  23. 23. © Cengage Learning 2016
  24. 24. © Cengage Learning 2016 • Sense of self-efficacy – Belief in your ability to change – High self-efficacy correlates with high success • Locus of control – Sense of being in control of your life – External if you believe external forces play a greater role in determining your fate – Internal if you believe your actions shape your outcome Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control

Notas do Editor

  • Figure 1.1 Some of the many ways men and women are different
  • Figure 1.2 Factors that shape positive behavior
  • Figure 1.3 The stages of change and some change processes

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