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Chapter 7 lecture outline

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Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness
7
The Joy of Fitness
LectureOutline
I. What Is Physical Fitness?
A. Introduction
1. Physica...
Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness
f. Spiritual
g. Environmental
C. Working Out on Campus
1. Only half of undergraduates—54.2 ...
Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness
a. Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become increasingly soft
and porous, making t...
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Chapter 7 lecture outline

  1. 1. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness 7 The Joy of Fitness LectureOutline I. What Is Physical Fitness? A. Introduction 1. Physical fitness is the ability to respond to routine physical demands, with enough reserve energy to cope with a sudden change. 2. The six health-related components of physical fitness are: a. Cardiorespiratory Fitness i. The ability of the heart to pump blood through the body efficiently. b. Muscular Strength i. The force within muscles, measured by the absolute maximum weight that you can lift, push, or press in one effort. c. Muscular Endurance i. The ability to perform repeated muscular effort; it is measured by counting how many times you can lift, push, or press a given weight. d. Flexibility i. The range of motion around specific joints. e. Body Composition i. The relative amounts of fat and lean tissue (bone, muscle, organs, water) in the body. f. Metabolic Fitness i. Refers to reduced risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which can be achieved through a moderate-intensity exercise program. B. Fitness and the Dimensions of Health 1. Instructors, coaches, and consumers are pursuing a broader vision of total fitness that encompasses every dimension health: a. Physical b. Emotional c. Social d. Intellectual e. Occupational
  2. 2. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness f. Spiritual g. Environmental C. Working Out on Campus 1. Only half of undergraduates—54.2 percent of men and 48.8 percent of women—meet the current recommendations for moderate or vigorous exercise. 2. College men are generally more active than women. 3. As students progress from their first to fourth year of studies, they exercise less. 4. In research on influences on students’ health behaviors, peer pressure to exercise (for men more than women), and having an exercise partner, a flexible class schedule, access to fitness facilities, and a sense of being stressed all increase physical activity. II. Physical Activity and Exercise A. Introduction 1. Physical activity refers to any movement produced by the muscles that results in expenditure of energy. 2. Exercise is a type of physical activity that require planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement with the intent of improving one or more components of physical fitness. B. The Benefits of Exercise 1. Longer Life a. In various studies, physical activity increased life expectancy by 1.3 to 5.5 years. 2. Healthier Heart and Lungs a. Sedentary people are about twice as likely to die of a heart attack as people who are physically active. b. Exercise makes the lungs more efficient. c. Cardiorespiratory fitness declines more rapidly after age 45, but exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy weight, and not smoking can help maintain cardiorespiratory health throughout life. 3. Protection against Cancer a. Physical activity may reduce the risk of several cancers, including breast, colon, endometrial, prostate, and possibly pancreatic. b. It may also help to prevent cancer by regulating sex hormones, insulin, and prostaglandins and by enhancing the immune system. c. The combination of excess weight and physical inactivity may account for a quarter to a third of all breast cancer cases. 4. Better Bones
  3. 3. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness a. Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become increasingly soft and porous, making them susceptible to injury. b. Exercise during adolescence and young adulthood may prevent bone weakening and fractures in old age. 5. Lower Weight a. Exercise may help to control weight by suppressing appetite. 6. Better Mental Health and Functioning a. Exercise is an effective – but underused – treatment for mild to moderate depression and may help in treating other mental disorders. b. Lifelong fitness may protect the brain as we age. 7. Benefits for Students a. In research on more than 1.2 million men, strong cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood was associated with higher intelligence, better grades, and greater success in life. 8. Brighter Mood and Less Stress a. Exercise boosts mood, elevates self-esteem, increases energy, reduces tension, improves concentration and alertness, and relieves stress. 9. A More Active and Healthy Old Age a. Exercise slows the changes that are associated with advancing age such as loss of lean muscle, increase in body fat, and decrease in work capacity. 10. Enhanced Sexuality a. By improving physical endurance, muscle tone, blood flow, and body composition, exercise improves sexual functioning. C. Exercise Risks 1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disease that results in thickening or enlargement of the heart that affects up to 1 in 500 people. a. HCM accounts for 40 percent of all deaths on athletic fields in the United States. 2. College students who play contact sports such as football may be at risk of a condition called chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), the result of multiple mild head injuries. III. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans A. Overview 1. Recommendations from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans: a. All adults should avoid inactivity.
  4. 4. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness b. For substantial benefits, adults should do at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. c. For additional and more extensive health benefits, adults should increase their aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 150 minutes a week of vigorous- intensity aerobic activity. d. Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities on two or more days a week. 2. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend: a. Moderately intense cardiorespiratory exercise 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week or b. Vigorously intense cardiorespiratory exercise 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week and c. 8 to 10 strength-training exercises, with 8–12 repetitions of each exercise, twice a week. B. How Much Exercise Is Enough? 1. The minimum amount of exercise required for a significant lowering of the risk of premature dying is 500 MET minutes of exercise a week. 2. A single MET, or metabolic equivalent task, is the amount of energy a person uses at rest. IV. The Principles of Exercise A. Overload Principle 1. Requires a person exercising to provide a greater stress or demand on the body than it’s usually accustomed to handling. 2. Progressive overloading—gradually increasing physical challenges— provides the benefits of exercise without the risk of injuries. B. FITT 1. The acronym FITT sums up the four dimensions of progressive overload: frequency, intensity, time, and type. a. Frequency i. Health officials urge Americans to engage in moderate-intensity aerobic activity most days, and resistance and flexibility training two or three days a week. b. Intensity i. Exercise intensity varies with the type of exercise and with personal goals. c. Time (Duration)
  5. 5. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness i. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends 30 to 45 minutes of aerobic exercise, proceeded by 5 to 10 minutes of warm-up and followed by 5 to 10 minutes of stretching. d. Type (Specificity) i. The specificity principle refers to the body’s adaptation to a particular type of activity or amount of stress placed upon it. C. Reversibility Principle 1. The reversibility principle is the opposite of the overload principle. If you stop exercising, you can lose as much as 50 percent of your fitness improvements within two months. V. Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness 1. Aerobic exercise, which improves cardiorespiratory endurance, can take many forms, but all involve working strenuously without pushing to the point of breathlessness. 2. Anaerobic exercise involves activities in which the amount of oxygen taken in the body cannot meet the demands of the activity. A. Monitoring Intensity 1. Resting heart rate is the number of heartbeats per minute during inactivity. 2. Target Heart Rate a. The ACSM recommends working at 50 to 85 percent, depending on your level of fitness, of maximum heart rate to get cardiorespiratory benefits from your training. 3. The Karvonen Formula a. The Karvonen formula is another mathematical formula for determining your target heart rate (HR) training zone. 4. Rating Perceived Exertion (RPE) a. A self-assessment scale that rates symptoms of breathlessness and fatigue. B. Designing an Aerobic Workout 1. An aerobic workout should include: a. Warm-up i. The ACSM concluded that preparing for sports or exercise should involve a variety of activities and not be limited to stretching alone. b. Aerobic activity i. The current recommendation is to keep moving for 30 to 60 minutes, either in one session or several briefer sessions, each lasting at least 10 minutes. c. Cool-down
  6. 6. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness i. Ideally, you should walk for 5 to 10 minutes at a comfortable pace before you end your workout session. C. Aerobic Options 1. Stepping Out: Walk the Walk a. Walking may reduce the risk factors for cardiorespiratory disease, such as insulin resistance, as much as vigorous activity does. 2. America on the Move a. The national “America on the Move” program recommends 10,000 steps each day. b. You take about 5,000 steps just to accomplish your daily tasks. Adding about 2,000 steps brings you to a level that can improve your health and wellness. Another 3,000 steps can help you lose excess pounds and prevent weight gain. 3. Jogging and Running a. To enhance aerobic fitness, long, slow, distance running is best. b. To improve speed, try interval training which is repeated hard runs over a certain distance, with intervals of relaxed jogging in between. 4. Other Aerobic Activities a. Swimming b. Cycling c. Spinning d. Cardio kick-boxing e. Rowing f. Skipping rope g. Stair climbing h. Stair-climbing i. Inline skating j. Tennis k. Zumba VI. Building Muscular Fitness A. Overview 1. Strength workouts are important because they enable muscles to work more efficiently and reliably. 2. Muscular strength is the maximal force that a muscle or group of muscles can generate for one movement. 3. Muscular endurance is the capacity to sustain repeated muscle actions. 4. The best way to reduce your body fat is to add muscle-strengthening exercise to your workouts. B. Muscles at Work
  7. 7. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness 1. Overloading is demanding more of muscles than you usually do. a. To develop strength, do a few repetitions with heavy loads. b. To increase endurance, do many more repetitions with lighter loads. 2. In an isometric contraction, the muscle applies force while maintaining an equal length. 3. An isotonic contraction involves movement, but the muscle tension remains the same. 4. Isokinetic contraction is a constant speed contraction. C. Designing a Muscle Workout 1. A workout with weights should exercise your body’s primary muscle groups: a. Deltoids (shoulders), pectorals (chest), triceps and biceps (back and front of upper arms), quadriceps and hamstrings (front and back of thighs), gluteus maximus (buttocks), trapezius and rhomboids (back), and abdomen. 2. A weight-training program is made up of reps (the single performance, or repetition, of an exercise, such as lifting 50 pounds one time) and sets (a set number of repetitions of the same movement). 3. Free Weights vs. Machines a. Free weights offer great versatility for strength training and can be used for a variety of exercises to work specific muscle groups. b. Strength-training machines i. Can ensure correct movement which helps protect against injury ii. Isolate specific muscles which is good for rehabilitating an injury or strengthening a specific body part iii. Can tax muscles in ways that a traditional barbell cannot D. Recovery 1. The ACSM recommends a minimum of 8 to 10 exercises involving the major muscle groups two to three days a week 2. Never work a sore muscle. 3. Allow no less than 48 hours, but no more than 96 hours, between training sessions. E. Core Strength Conditioning 1. Core strength refers to the ability of the muscles to support your spine and keep your body stable and balanced. 2. The major muscles of your core include the transverse abdominis, external and internal obliques, and rectus abdominis. F. Muscle Dysmorphia 1. Also referred to as “bigorexia,” or “reverse anorexia” is a condition that primarily affects male body builders.
  8. 8. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness 2. Its primary characteristics include giving up important activities to work out, avoiding situations that include body exposure, preoccupation with body size, and continued use of exercise, diet, or performance-enhancing substances despite physical or psychological harm. G. Drugs Used to Boost Athletic Performance 1. The risks include cancer, liver disease, blood diseases, severe arthritis, and sexual dysfunction. 2. Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone that promote growth of skeletal muscle and increase lean body mass. a. Taking them to improve athletic performance is illegal. b. Use may lead to liver tumors, jaundice, fluid retention, high blood pressure, decreased immune function, and severe acne. c. In men they may cause shrinking of the testicles, reduced sperm count, infertility, baldness, and development of breasts. d. Women may experience growth of facial hair, changes or cessation in menstrual cycle, enlargement of the clitoris, and a deepened voice. 3. Androstenedione – this testosterone precursor is normally produced by the adrenal glands and gonads. a. It is a controlled substance, and its use is illegal. 4. Creatine is an amino acid made by and stored by the body and stored predominantly in skeletal muscle. a. It may increase strength and endurance. 5. GBL (gamma butyrolactone) is marketed as a performance enhancer and muscle builder. 6. Ergogenic aids are substances, such as caffeine, baking soda, and glycerol, used to enhance energy and provide athletes with a competitive edge. 7. Human growth hormone increases lean body mass but does not affect exercise capacity or aerobic endurance. 8. Erythroprotein (EPO) is a hormone that increases red blood cell production and improves endurance. VII. Becoming More Flexible A. Overview 1. Flexibility is the characteristic of body tissues that determines the range of motion achievable without injury at a joint or group of joints. 2. Two Types of Flexibility: a. Static flexibility refers to the ability to assume and maintain an extended position at one end point in a joint’s range of motion.
  9. 9. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness b. Dynamic flexibility is the ability to move a joint quickly and fluidly through its entire range of motion with little resistance. B. The Benefits of Flexibility 1. Prevention of injuries 2. Relief of muscle strain 3. Relaxation 4. Relief of soreness after exercise 5. Improved posture C. Stretching 1. Static stretching involves a gradual stretch held for a short time. 2. Passive stretching uses your own body, a partner, gravity or weight as an external force or resistance to help your joints move through their range of motion. 3. Active stretching involves stretching a muscle by contracting an opposing muscle. 4. Dynamic stretching increases the range of motion around a joint or group of joints by using active muscular effort, momentum, and speed. 5. Ballistic stretching is characterized by rapid bouncing movements. D. Stretching and Warming Up 1. While stretching does not prevent injuries from jogging, cycling, or swimming, it may benefit sports like soccer and football, which involve bouncing and jumping. 2. For aerobic activities, one of the best times to stretch is after an aerobic workout. E. Stretching and Athletic Performance 1. In some cases, active stretching can impede rather than improve performance in terms of muscle force and jumping height. VIII. Mind–Body Approaches A. Yoga 1. Yoga comes from the Sanskrit word meaning “union,” and consists of various breathing and stretching exercises that unite all aspects of a person. 2. Benefits include: a. Improved flexibility b. Protection of joints c. Stronger, denser bones d. Enhanced circulation e. Lower blood pressure f. Relief of stress-related symptoms and anxiety
  10. 10. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness g. Lower blood sugar h. Reduced pain in people with back problems, arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and other chronic problems i. Improved lung function in people with asthma j. Less inflammation, fatigue, and depression in breast cancer survivors B. Pilates a. Pilates exercises improve flexibility and joint mobility and strengthen the core by developing pelvic stability and abdominal control. C. T’ai Chi 1. Ancient Chinese practice, designed to exercise body, mind, and spirit. 2. It gently works muscles, focuses concentration, and improves the flow of “qi” (often spelled “chi”), the vital life energy that sustains health. IX. Keeping Your Back Healthy A. Low back pain causes more disability than nearly 300 other conditions worldwide, according to new research, and nearly 1 in 10 people around the globe suffers from an aching low back. B. One of the most effective ways to prevent or recover from back problems is to strengthen the core muscles. X. Sports Nutrition A. Introduction 1. Athletes in competitive sports may have increased energy requirements. a. Athletes generally do not need more protein. b. Complex carbohydrates are essential in an athlete’s diet. c. Including the right types of fats in the daily diet can actually improve athletic performance. B. Water 1. We need more than any other nutrient. 2. The ACSM recommends fluid intake before, during, and after exercise to regulate body temperature, and replace body fluids lost through sweating. 3. Hyponatremia or water intoxication is too much water during long prolonged bouts of exercise. C. Sports Drinks 1. Consuming a high-carbohydrate, high-caffeine sports drink 10 to 60 minutes before exercise may improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and endurance, but athletes should consider the effects on their metabolic health. 2. Nonfat milk may be more effective than soy or sports drinks like Gatorade at burning fat and building lean muscles mass.
  11. 11. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness D. Dietary Supplements 1. Vitamin and mineral supplements do not provide benefits to healthy, well-nourished individuals. 2. Vitamin supplements marketed for athletes are poorly regulated, and some may be adulterated with banned substances, such as ephedrine. E. Energy Bars 1. Little scientific research has studied the benefits of the various types of energy bars, including their effects on blood glucose levels and athletic performance. XI. Safe and Healthy Workouts 1. To prevent exercise-related problems before they happen, use common sense and take appropriate precautions, including: a. Get proper instruction. b. Make sure you have good equipment and keep it in good condition. c. Always warm up before and cool down after a workout. d. Stay active throughout the week and do not overdo on weekends. e. Use reasonable protective measures. f. Go with a buddy. g. Take each outing seriously. h. Never combine alcohol or drugs with any sport. B. Temperature 1. Heat Cramps a. Heat cramps are caused by profuse sweating and the consequent loss of electrolytes. 2. Heat Syndromes a. More serious temperature-related conditions that include heat exhaustion and heat stroke. 3. Heat exhaustion a. Heat exhaustion is a mild form of heat-related illness that can be caused by exercise or hot weather. 4. Heat Stroke a. A heat stroke can occur when the body temperature rises to 106 degrees Fahrenheit or higher within 10 to 15 minutes. 5. Protecting Yourself from the Cold a. Because frostnip is painless, you may not even be aware that it is occurring. b. Frostbite is more severe. i. There are two types of frostbite, superficial and deep frostbite.
  12. 12. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness c. Hypothermia occurs when the body temperature falls below 95 degrees Fahrenheit and requires emergency medical attention. C. Exercise Injuries 1. Types of injuries include: a. Acute injuries—sprains, bruises, and pulled muscles—result from sudden trauma, such as a fall or collision. b. Overuse injuries result from overdoing a repetitive activity, such as running. 2. PRICE a. Protect the area with an elastic wrap, sling, splint, cane, crutches, or air cast. b. Rest to promote tissue healing. c. Ice the area immediately. d. Compress the area with an elastic bandage until swelling stops. e. Elevate the area above your heart. 3. Overtraining a. Signs of overdoing it include persistent muscle soreness, frequent injuries, unintended weight loss, nervousness, and an inability to relax. 4. Exercise Addiction a. Excessive exercise can become a form of addiction, and “exercise dependence” is not uncommon among young men and women. Key Terms active stretching acute injuries aerobic exercise anabolic steroids anaerobic exercise ballistic stretching body composition cardiorespiratory fitness dynamic flexibility dynamic stretching exercise FITT flexibility functional fitness hypothermia isokinetic isometric isotonic MET (metabolic equivalent of task) metabolic fitness
  13. 13. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness 141 muscle dysmorphia muscular endurance muscular strength osteoporosis overload principle overloading overtrain overuse injuries passive stretching physical activity physical fitness progressive overloading range of motion Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) rep (or repetition) resting heart rate reversibility principle set specificity principle static flexibility static stretching target heart rate MindTap: Global Health Watch Questions and Suggested Responses The following questions appear in MindTap. Though student responses will vary, the Suggested Reponses are examples of correct answers. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reports that a sedentary lifestyle may be more to blame than caloric intake for higher obesity rates in the United States. 1) Why are womenespeciallysusceptibletothe risingobesityratesinAmerica? Suggested Response: Adult women reported a much lower level of leisure-time physical activity than 20 years ago. Specifically, 51.7% of young women report no physical activity, as opposed to 43.5% of adult men. 2) In lightof these findings,whatcanwe do to helpreduce the risingobesityrate inthe United States? Suggested Response: Our country can encourage towns and communities to provide parks, bike trails, and other safe places for physical activity. We must also be sure to provide an adequate supply of healthy foods, and empower families and individuals to take control of their own health. Reference: Less Exercise, Not More Calories, Responsible for Expanding Waistlines. (2014, August 24). NewsRx Health.
  14. 14. Chapter 7 – The Joy of Fitness 141 Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA381015480&v=2.1&u=olr_health_watch&it=r &p=HRCA&sw=w&asid=438197d7dd5aad22225c7cc94ada8dc4

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