2. The term control has different connotations depending upon the context of the
use of the term.
In manufacturing, it refers to a device or mechanism installed to guide or
regulates the activities or operation of an apparatus, machine, person, or system.
In law, it refers to controlling interest.
In management, as an authority to order and manage the workings and
management of an entity.
There are different concepts of control which are used in different contexts.
In the first concept control is an executive function.
In the second concept it is intimately connected with restriction.
In the third concept it is a process which guides activity towards some
In short, Managerial Control is an executive function involving 3 components; i.e.
I. Setting Standards
II. Measuring Actual Performance
III. Taking Corrective Action
3. Some Important Definition of Managerial Control are as follows:
"Control, in its managerial sense, can be defined as the presence in a business of
that force which guide to a predetermined objective by means of predetermined
policies and decisions.“
- By Dalton E. Macfarland
"Controlling is the measuring and correcting the activities of subordinates to
ensure that events are conform to plans.“
- By Koontz and O'Donnell
"Control is the process of checking actual performance against the agreed
standards or plans with a view to ensuring adequate progress and satisfactory
- By E.F.L. Brech
4. "Control consists in verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the
plans adopted, the instructions issued and principles established. It has object to
point out weaknesses and errors in order to rectify them and prevent
- By Henry Fayol
"Control is the process of checking to determine whether or not plans are being
adhered to, whether or not proper progress is being made towards the
objectives and goals and acting. It is necessary to correct any deviation.“
- By Theo Haimann
Managerial control is one of the primary functions of management, and it
involves setting performance standards, measuring performance and taking
corrective actions when necessary.
Some Important Definition of Managerial Control are as follows:
5. 1. Control is a Managerial Function/Process
Control is a basic managerial function of every
manager and the responsibility of line authority.
2. Control is forward looking
Control is not a past activity. Control initiates
remedial measures to minimize the mistakes that had
happened in the past.
3. Control exists at each level of Organization
Control is an exercise at all levels of management, i.e.,
top level, middle level and bottom level.
6. 4. Control is a Continuous Process and Never Ending
Control involves constant analysis of objectives,
policies, procedures, positions, performance standards
etc. It starts from planning and continues till so long
the enterprise survives.
5. Control is closely linked with Planning
Planning sets the course and controlling keeps it on
course. Once control process is over its findings are
integrated into planning to prescribe new standards
7. 6. Purpose of Controlling is Goal Oriented and hence
The controlling has positive purpose both for the
organization (to make things happen) and individuals
(to give up a part of their independence for the
attainment of organizational goals).
7. Dynamic Process
Control is flexible and not rigid. Control results in
corrective actions which may lead to change in the
performance of other.
8. 8. Corrective Action
Control is achieved only when corrective action is
taken on the basis of feedback information. It is the
action which adjusts performance to predetermined
standards whenever deviations occur.
9. Control is People-oriented
The approach to managerial control is people-oriented.
It is people who exercise control.
14. IMPORTANCE OF MANAGERIAL
1. Guides the Management in Achieving Predetermined Goals:
The continuous flow of information about projects keeps the long range of
planning on the right track. It helps in taking corrective actions in future if the
performance is not up to the mark.
2. Ensures Effective Use of Scarce and Valuable Resources:
The control system helps in improving organizational efficiency. Various control
devices act as motivators to managers. The performance of every person is
regularly monitored and any deficiency if present is corrected at the earliest.
Controls put psychological pressure on persons in the organization. On the other
hand control also enables management to decide whether employees are doing
3. Facilitates Coordination:
Control helps in coordination of activities through unity of action. Every manager
will try to coordinate the activities of his subordinates in order to achieve
15. IMPORTANCE OF MANAGERIAL
Similarly the chief executive also coordinates the functioning of various
departments. The control acts as a check on the performance and proper results
are achieved only when activities are coordinated.
4. Leads to Delegation and Decentralization of Authority:
A decision about follow-up action is also facilitated. Control makes delegation
easier/better. Decentralization of authority is necessary in big enterprises. The
management cannot delegate authority without ensuring proper control.
The targets or goals of various departments are used as a control technique.
Various control techniques like budgeting, cost control; pre action approvals etc.
allow decentralization without losing control over activities.
5. Spares Top Management to Concentrate on Policy Making:
For control processes management’s attention is not required every now and then.
The management by exception enables top management to concentrate on policy
17. On the basis of Timing:
Control can focus on events before, during, or after a process. Such controls may be
respectively called as Preventive, Detective, and Corrective.
1. Feed forward Control:
The objective of feed forward control or preliminary control is to anticipate the likely
problems and to exercise control even before the activity has started or problem has
occurred or been reported. It is future directed.
One can make correction only for future activities.
2. Concurrent Control:
Concurrent control monitors ongoing employee activity to ensure consistency with
quality standards takes place while an activity is on or in progress. It involves the
regulation of ongoing activities that are part of transformation process to ensure that
they conform to organizational standards.
The technique of direct supervision is the best-known form of concurrent control. 3.
The control takes place after the job is over. Corrective action is taken after analysing
variances with the planned standards at the end of the activity. It is also known as ‘post
action control’, because feedback control is exercised after the event has taken place.
18. On the basis of Designing Control Systems:
1. Market Control:
Control is based upon market mechanisms of competitive activities in terms of price
and market share. Different divisions are converted into profit centres and their
performance is evaluated by segmental top line (turnover), bottom line (profit) and the
2. Bureaucratic Control:
Bureaucratic control focuses on authority, rule and regulations, procedures and
policies. Most of the public sector units in India go in for bureaucratic control.
3. Clan Control:
The control systems are designed in a way that give way to shared vision, shared values,
norms, traditions and beliefs, etc., part of the organisational culture.
It is not based upon hierarchical mechanisms, but work-related and performance
measures. This kind of control is most suitable for the organisations which use team
style of work groups and where technology changes very fast.
19. On the basis of Levels:
1. Operational Control :
Its focus remains upon the processes used by the organisation for transforming the
inputs (resources) into outputs (products/services). Operational controls are used at the
lower management. Quality control, financial controls are part of operational controls.
2. Structural Control:
Two important forms of structural control can be bureaucratic control and clan
control, about which we have already talked. Structural control is exercised by top and
3. Tactical Control:
Since tactical control deals with the departmental objectives, the controls are largely
exercised by middle management levels.
4. Strategic Control:
Strategic controls are early warning systems. Strategic control is the process to
determine whether the effectiveness of a corporate, business and functional strategies
are successful in helping organisations to meet its goals. Strategic controls are exercised
by top level management.
20. On the basis of Responsibility:
This way control may be internal and external. Internal control permits highly
motivated people to exercise self-discipline. External control means that the thread of
control is in the hands of supervisor or manager and control is exercised through
21. Managerial control system involves four steps. First of all, the
manager establishes the standards of performance to ensure
that performance is in accordance with the plans. After this
under the second step, the manager will measure the
performance, and under the third step he will compare it with
predetermined standards. This will lead the manager to know
whether the actual performance has come up to the expected
standards or if there is any deviation. In case of any deviation,
the manager will take immediate corrective action which is the
final step in the step of controlling.
23. 1. Establishing the Standards of Performance :
The first and the foremost step in the control process is the
establishment of standards for the measurement of
performance. They are the expression of goals of the enterprise
or the department.
Standards may be tangible (clear, concrete, specific, and
generally measurable) – numerical standards, monetary,
physical, and time standards; and intangible (relating to human
characteristics) – desirable attitudes, high morale, ethics, and
24. 2. Measure of Actual Performance :
The second step in the control process is the measurement of
actual performance. It should measure the actual performance
and compare it with the standards. The quantitative
measurement should be done in cases where standards have
been set in numerical terms. This will make the evaluation quite
easy and simple. In other cases, the performance should be
measured in terms of qualitative factors.
25. 3. Comparing Performance with the Standards :
The third step in the control process is the comparison of
performance with established standards. Managers often base
their comparisons on information provided in reports that
summarize planned versus actual results. Such reports may be
presented verbally or in written form or through computerized
26. 4. Taking Corrective Action and Reinforcement of Successes :
The fourth and final step in the control process is taking
corrective action. When significant deviation from standards are
detected, corrective action obviously called for. This involves
taking certain decisions by the management like re-planning or
redrawing of goals or standards, reassignment or reclassification
of duties. It may also necessitate reforming the process of
selection and training of workers. Thus, control function may
require change in all other managerial functions. If the
standards are found to be defective, they will be modified or set
up again in the light of observations.
28. Focus on Objectives
and Timely Action
Suggestive as well
Focus on Functions
Flexibility Attention to Human
29. A control system is not an automatic phenomenon but deliberately created.
Though different organisations may design their control systems according to
their unique and special characteristics or conditions, yet in designing a good and
effective control system the following basic requirements must be kept in view:
1. Focus on Objectives and Needs:
The effective control system should emphasise on attainment of organizational
objectives. It should function in harmony with the needs of the enterprise. For
example, the personnel department may use feed forward control for recruiting a
new employee, and concurrent control for training.
2. Immediate Warning and Timely Action:
Rapid reporting of variations is at the core of control. An ideal control system
could detect, not create bottlenecks and report significant deviation as promptly
as possible so that necessary corrective action may be taken well in time. This
needs an efficient system of appraisal and timely flow of information.
30. 3. Indicative, Suggestive as well as corrective:
Controls should not only be able to point to the deviations, but they should also
suggest corrective action that is supposed to check the recurrence of variations
or problems in future.
Control is justified only if indicated or experienced deviations from plans are
corrected through appropriate planning, organizing, staffing and directing.
Control should also lead to making valuable forecasts to the managers so that
they become aware of the problems likely to confront them in the future.
4. Understandable, Objective, and Economical:
Controls should be simple and easy to understand, standards of performance are
quantified to appear unbiased, and specific tools and techniques should be
comprehensive, understandable, and economical for the managers.
They must know all the details and critical points in the control device as well as
its usefulness. If developed and complex statistical and mathematical techniques
are adopted, then proper training has to be imparted to managers.
31. Standards should be determined based on facts and participation. Effective
control systems must answer questions such as, “How much does it cost?” “What
will it save?” or “What are the returns on the investment?”
The benefits of controls should outweigh the costs. Expensive and elaborate
control systems will not suit, for example to small enterprise.
5. Focus on Functions and Factors:
Control should emphasise the functions, such as production, marketing, finance,
human resources, etc and focus on four factors – quality, quantity, timely use
and costs. Not one, but multiple controls should be adopted.
6. Strategic Points Control:
Control should be selective and concentrate on key result areas of the company.
Every detail or thing cannot and is not to be controlled in order to save time,
cost and effort.
Certain strategic, critical or vital points must be identified along with the
expectations at those points where failures cannot be tolerated.
32. 7. Flexibility:
Control must not become ends in themselves. It must be environment friendly
and be able to make modifications or revisions necessitated by the rapidly
changing and complex business environment. Flexibility in control system is
generally achieved by the use of alternative plans or flexible budgets.
8. Attention to Human Factor:
Excess control causes corruption. It should not arouse negative reactions but
positive feelings among people through focus on work, not on people. The aim of
control should be to create self-control and creativity among members through
enmeshing it in the organisational culture.
Controls have to be consistent with the organization structure, where the
responsibility for action lies, position, competence, and needs of the individuals
who have to interpret the control measures and exercise control. The higher the
quality of managers and their subordinates, the less will be the need for indirect
33. Many techniques have been developed to control the activities in management.
Some of the important techniques are:
to be kept
• Just-in time
• Critical Path
34. Finance is related with mobilization of funds and their utilization and the
return on them. Financial control is exercised through the following:
1. Financial Statements:
Income statement and Balance Sheet
2. Financial Audits:
Financial audits, either internal or external are conducted to ensure that
the financial management is done in line with the generally accepted
policies, procedures, laws, and ethical guidelines. Audits may be internal
(by Organisation’s own staff), external (statutory audit by chartered
accountants), and management audit (by experts).
35. 3. Ratio Analysis:
Ratio analysis monitors liquidity, profitability and debt.
4. Budgetary Controls:
Budgetary control is the process of constructing budgets, comparing actual
performance with the budget one and revising budgets or activities in the
light of changed conditions.
5. Break-Even Analysis:
It is a tool deals with cost-volume-profit relationships.
Accounting includes standard cost approach, direct costing, and marginal
36. In the field of marketing, to see that customer gets right product at the
right price at the right place and through right communication, the
control is exercised through the following:
1. Market Research:
It is to assess customers’ needs, expectations and the delivery; and the
2. Test Marketing:
To assess consumer acceptance of a new product, a small-scale marketing
is done. HUL uses Chennai for most of its test marketing.
3. Marketing Statistics:
Marketing managers control through marketing ratios and other statistics.
37. Human resource control is required to have a check on the quality of new
personnel and also to monitor performances of existing employees so as to
determine firm’s overall effectiveness.
Goal setting, instituting policies and procedures to guide them are to help
them. Common controls include performance appraisals, disciplinary
programmes, observations, and development assessments.
Human Resource control:
All organizations have confidential and sensitive information to be kept
secret. How to control access to computer databases is very important.
This has become a key contemporary issue in control. Organizations keep
a watch on employee’s computer usage in general and internet in
38. To ensure quality production in right quantity at right time economically
production controls are required. Two of the important techniques
include: Inventory control (ABC Analysis, Economic Order Quantity, Just-in
time inventory control), and quality control (through inspection, statistical
Network analysis is most suitable for the projects which are not routine in
minimizing cost and completing project well in time. Network analysis
makes use of two techniques – Programme Evaluation and Review
Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM).