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Novel food processing technologies.pptx

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Novel food processing technologies.pptx

  1. 1. By Thongam Sunita, Shaghaf Kaukab, Th. Bidyalakshmi, K. Bembem & Renu Balakrishnan Scientists, ICAR-CIPHET
  2. 2. Introduction Fig. Conventional and novel food processing technologies • Non-thermal technologies meet the consumers demand for high quality, safe, nutritious, and minimally processed food • Ability to preserve foods without substantial heating • Retains their nutritional benefits and sensory characteristics • Reduction of energy and water consumption
  3. 3. Novel Non-thermal Technologies
  4. 4. High pressure processing
  5. 5. High pressure processing (HPP) • Also called high hydrostatic pressure processing, pascalisation or high pressure pasteurization • Effectively inactivates vegetative bacteria, yeast and moulds • Pressures from 100-800 MPa at ambient temperature • Inactivate spores when combined with high temperature (High Pressure Thermal Processing (HPTP)) • HPP retains sensory and nutritional quality of a liquid or solid, or chilled products
  6. 6. HPP Principle • Isostatic and Le Chatelier principle Fig. 1a Schematic representation of a high pressure processing vessel Fig. 1b Profile of pressure and temperature during HPP
  7. 7. HPP Equipments
  8. 8. HPP Applications • Increasing the shelf life of foods • Thawing of foods • Functional and physical modifications of foods -starch gelatinization, infusion of food value compounds, etc. forced water absorption,
  9. 9. Commercial HPP Products • First commercial HHP-processed foods were launched in 1990 as fruit products (jams) • Retort rice products, cooked hams and sausages, soy sauce, beverages, etc. Fig. Strawberry, apple, and blueberry jams; Rice cake; Retort rice products
  10. 10. Pulsed electric field
  11. 11. Pulsed electric field (PEF) technology • Application of high voltage (20 to 80 kV/cm) for short time (ms or µs) to foods placed between two electrodes • Mainly used as preservation technology • It destroys vegetative bacteria, yeast and moulds but not spores and not many enzymes. • Suitable for liquid or semi-solid food and solid food products • Food must be aseptically packaged and properly stored under refrigeration
  12. 12. PEF Processing System Fig. Schematic diagram of a general PEF-based food processing system (pilot scale)
  13. 13. Fig. Electroporation of cell PEF effect on cell
  14. 14. Figure 2: Fruit juices treated with PEF technology and example of a PEF unit on an industrial scale Pulsed electric field (PEF) technology
  15. 15. • Pasteurization of liquid foods (juices, milk & dairy products, soup and liquid eggs etc.) • Enzyme deactivation • Extraction (sugar from beetroot, juice from grapes or apple, and bioactive compounds ) • Bio-active compounds recovery • Meat processing (beef) • Dehydration • Wine processing • Pre-sowing seeds treatment • Manufacturing of French fries PEF Applications Fig. Dried strawberry: pre-treated (left) & non pre-treated (right) with PEF
  16. 16. PEF Benefits
  17. 17. Cold Plasma Technology
  18. 18. Cold Plasma (CP) Technology • Plasma: ionized gas containing reactive oxygen species (O, O2,O3, & OH), reactive nitrogen species (NO, NO2, & NOx), UV, free radicals, and charged particles • Plasma is generated when electrical energy is applied to a gas present between two electrodes • CP: ionized gas is formed by relatively low energy (1–10 eV) and electronic density (up to 1010 cm-3) • Gases used in food applications are argon (Ar), helium (He) and air • Electrode material are steel, aluminum, brass, iron, and copper
  19. 19. Fig. Streamer theory CP Generation
  20. 20. CP sources for food applications Fig. Cold plasma systems: (a) Dielectric barrier discharges, (b) Plasma jet, (c) Corona discharges, (d) Radiofrequency plasma (d1) Inductively coupled, (d2) Capacitively coupled radio frequency plasmas (CCP), and (e) Microwave plasma source DBD (b) PJ MW (d) RF
  21. 21. CP applications • Dielectric barrier discharge plasma is used for food treatment in-package (packaged cherry tomatoes), enzyme inactivation (tender coconut water, carrot juice) • Plasma jet in inactivation of bacteria in particulate foods (rice germ, black pepper powder, and sesame) • Corona Discharge plasma in pesticide degradation on grapes and strawberries • Radiofrequency plasma in starch modification (corn) • Microwave plasma works for surface sterilization or decontamination (washing of fresh-cut lettuce) • Protein allergenicity inhibition, Food packaging materials modification
  22. 22. CP Equipments Fig. Benchtop plasma treatment systems (Henniker Plasma company) (surface activation, cleaning and modification of a wide range of materials including polymers, metals, glass and ceramics) Fig. Cold plasma treatment ‘Coplas clean’ (Riedel Filtertechnik) (Eliminates odour molecules in the tobacco, tire, fish, seed, food and pet food industry)
  23. 23. Ultraviolet light
  24. 24. Ultraviolet light • UV is non-ionising radiation (100-400 nm) • Germicidal properties at wavelengths of 200–280 nm • Used for surface treatment and as a nonthermal alternative for fluid foods and ingredients Fig. UV radiation and wavelengths, and mechanism involved in microbial inactivation.
  25. 25. Ultraviolet light sources • Commercially available UV sources: low- and medium-pressure mercury lamps (LPM and MPM), pulsed light (PL), and light- emitting diodes (LEDs) • Low-pressure mercury lamps are the most favored for most germicidal applications • Pulsed UV light lamp emit high power UVC light at regular intervals, (1 μs - 0.1 s; 200–1100 nm) Fig. Schematic diagram of UV-C radiation device.
  26. 26. Parameters related to UV light processing D (J/m2)=I × t, where I=intensity t=exposure time UV irradiance or UV intensity flux
  27. 27. Impact of UVC radiation
  28. 28. Advantages & Limitations of UVC radiation
  29. 29. • UV radiation has been successfully applied to fluid food matrices and surfaces • Pasteurization of milk and juices Impact of UVC radiation
  30. 30. Ultrasound processing
  31. 31. Ultrasound generation • Ultrasound refers to sound waves with frequencies above 20 kHz High frequency ultrasound Power ultrasound • Frequency=20-100 kHz • Sound intensity= 10-1000 W/cm2 • Frequency=2-20 MHz • Sound intensity= 100 mW/cm2 -1 W/cm2 • Used in food safety applications • Piezoelectric effect or piezoelectricity is the physical concept for generation of ultrasound • Ultrasound transducer: contains a piece of piezoelectric ceramic material (barium titanate, lithium sulfate, lead metaniobate, or lead zirconate titanate) sandwiched by two electrodes; upon application of frequency alternate voltage to the electrodes, the piezoelectric material starts to vibrate rapidly and generate ultrasonic waves
  32. 32. Propagation of Ultrasonic waves • Most ultrasound applications involve a liquid
  33. 33. Phenomenon of ultrasound application Fig. Formation of acoustic cavitation bubbles
  34. 34. Ultrasonic Processing Systems Fig. (a) Ultrasonic probe system and (b) Ultrasonic bath (Crest Ultrasonics) Probe system (or ultrasonic horn) • Most widely used • Perform a target operation • High-power dissipation per unit area • System with 500 to 600 W (laboratory) and 16000 W (commercial) • Operated in batch or continuous mode • A number of probe units can be connected in series or in parallel (continuous mode Bath system (or Tank system) • Consist of transducers (bottom), bath filled with water (or disinfector added) • Used for cleaning applications • Food produce surface decontamination • Acoustic power density is lower than that of probe systems Dual-/Multi-Frequency Ultrasound System Airborne Ultrasonic System Focused Ultrasound System
  35. 35. Applications • Pasteurization (thermal sonication and mano-thermo-sonication) of liquid food such as apple cider, orange juice, carrot juice, mango juice, milk, etc. • Surface Decontamination of Fresh Produce (spinach, apple, etc.) Fig. An automatic oak wine barrel cleaning system using a 4 kW ultrasonic transducer (Cavitus Pty Ltd.)
  36. 36. Gamma Ray, Electron Beam, and X-ray Irradiation
  37. 37. Introduction • Ionizing radiation to kill bacteria in foods was patented in the early 20th century • USFDA approved food irradiation for wheat, spices, meat, poultry, fruits, and vegetables
  38. 38. Gamma-ray, X-ray, and electron beam Fig. Electromagnetic spectrum • Gamma-ray, X-ray, and electron beam are ionizing radiations • Ionizing radiation technologies used for food applications • Gamma radiation sources are (cobalt–60 with emission energy levels of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV and cesium-137 with emission energy of 0.66 MeV) Cobalt–60 • Main source of gamma irradiation • Half-life of 5.27 years Cesium-137 • Half-life of 30.17 years
  39. 39. • Electron beams are high energy electrons • 10 MeV (maximum level) is allowed for food application by U.S. FDA. • Electron beams are produced by a particle accelerator • Penetration ability of electron beam is 3.9 cm for 10 MeV in high moisture foods
  40. 40. • The international unit for the radiation dose is the Gray (Gy) • One Gray is one joule of energy absorbed by one kilogram of water • Dosimetry is the measurement and calculation of absorbed doses Dose and Dosimetry Applications • 0.2–1.0 kGy are used for disinfestation of fruits and vegetables • 1–5 kGy can be used to inactivate vegetative bacteria • >10 kGy are used for sterilization of dry foods such as spices, herbs, Fig. Radura (International food irradiation symbol)
  41. 41. THANK YOU