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People, Engagement and Process Mapping - Lorna Prince

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People, Engagement and Process Mapping - Lorna Prince

  1. 1. Development Conference 2015: Doing it Differently People, Engagement and Process Mapping: how to get the best from people when mapping Lorna Prince Organisation Development Practitioner, The University of Stirling
  2. 2. Session Outline 1. Bring in recent learning from the field of neuroscience and the behaviour sciences to explore social engagement in the work/lean context 2. Introduce a model of people engagement and explore its 5 domains of engagement 3. Within each of the 5 areas, start to consider various methods to connect with your audience and create a more rewarding interaction • Qualifying statement no 1 – I am not a lean specialist practitioner • Qualifying statement no 2 – I am not a neuroscientist • However I am a qualified, experienced people management and development practitioner
  3. 3. What is our brain for? Scene Setting: primary purpose of our brain
  4. 4. Scene Setting: minimise threat – maximise reward
  5. 5. .. . Reptilian Brain Brain stem – oldest part Controls the body’s vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, body temperature and balance Autopilot Cogitative Brain The neocortex - thinking brain • Logic, Consciousness • Language, Abstract , Imagination, learning • Cognitive reasoning • Complex decision making Reasons, rationalises Mammalian Brain The limbic system • Emotions, Value judgements, Habits • Strong influence on behaviour, often unconsciously Amygdala. Guardhouse to the emotional centres Decisions Scene setting: brain evolution
  6. 6. Scene Setting: 1:2:4 approach
  7. 7. Scene Setting: social brain ‘Most processes operating in the background when your brain is at rest are involved in thinking about other people and yourself.’ Lieberman The brain experiences the workplace first and foremost as a social system.
  8. 8. The SCARF model identifies 5 domains of social experience that enable lean leaders to minimise a potential threat response and instead enable the reward response to be activated. Dr David Rock, 2009 The SCARF Model https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Wu33SdjeCs
  9. 9. Status is defined as one’s relative sense of position in a community that is considered important to the individual. It is about where you sit in the ‘pecking order’. The way to gain a good reputation is to endeavour, to be what you desire to appear. Socrates SCARF: Status (or reputation)
  10. 10. Lessons to consider • Status is significant driver of behaviour at work • People will spend a lot of attention to protect, and build, their status • Status is relative – no universal scale that fits all • When everyone is trying to be higher status than others, there is a decrease in relatedness - social connectivity Activities • Status is relative, no one universal scale – it is determined by the individual • Acknowledge and recognition where due • Ensure all participants opinion are included • Provide opportunities for learning and growth • Be willing to be wrong, open to correction • Delegate where you can • Seek permission on when to provide feedback – feedback creates a threat response SCARF: Lessons for Status
  11. 11. Activity: build a paper aeroplane
  12. 12. Certainty is about our need for clarity and the perception of how well you can accurately prediction the future. ‘Tell people what you are going to tell them, tell them, then tell them what you have told them’ Adage Scarf: Certainty
  13. 13. Lessons to consider • The brain is a pattern-recognition machine that is constantly trying to predict the near future/make sense of our world • Without certainty, the brain uses dramatically more energy or cognitive resources • Mild uncertainty can attract interest– a new situation creates a mild threat response, increasing adrenalin levels just enough to spark curiosity and energize people Activities • Transparent practice is the foundation on which the perception of certainty rests therefore provide a level of certainty by being transparent with the lean project/change • Provide regular updates • Be clear on expectations • Share plans and rationales for the project • Chunk large projects down SCARF: Lessons for Certainty
  14. 14. Activity: Find another piece of paper and build plane no 2
  15. 15. Autonomy is a sense of control over the events in one’s life and the perception that one’s behaviour has an effect on the outcome of a situation. ‘Control leads to compliance; autonomy leads to engagement’ Pink The proverb warns, 'You should not bite the hand that feeds you.' But maybe you should, if it prevents you from feeding yourself’ Szasz, Prof Scarf: Autonomy
  16. 16. Lessons to consider • We are constantly attuned, mostly at subconscious level, to the ways in which social encounters either threaten or support our level of autonomy and control • Uncontrollable stress can be highly destructive, whereas the same stress interpreted as escapable is significantly less destructive Activities • Sound ground rules at the start of the mapping project establishes the boundaries within which individuals can exercise creativity and autonomy. Sound ground rules hard-wires autonomy into the processes • When in a stress situation that has been caused by a threat to the individual’s autonomy, find choices – alternatives. The perception of choice is crucial if you want to reduce the level of threat and stress. SCARF: Lessons for Autonomy
  17. 17. Concerns one’s sense of connection to and security with others - this is whether someone is perceived as similar or dissimilar to oneself – friend of foe, trust versus distrust. ‘We must establish a person connection with each other. Connection before content. Without relatedness no work can occur’ P Block, OD Specialist Scarf: Relatedness
  18. 18. Lessons to consider • We are wired to be social • Social connections are a primary need, as important as food and water • Safe connections with others are vital for healthy collaborations • People are classed as friend or foe quickly, in the absence of positive cues foe is default • We process information from out-groups using different brain (neural) networks than we use for our self and for people who we perceive as like us Activities • Consider opportunities that create social bonding at the human level: handshakes, names, snippets of information, the weather, shared stories, hobbies • Set up clearly defined buddy groups, mentoring or coaching programs, or small working groups • Small groups appear safer than large groups • Trust and empathy cannot be assumed. They develop only when people’s brains start to recognise former strangers as friends SCARF: Lessons for Relatedness
  19. 19. Activity: Introduce yourself to a stranger Make sure you: • Stand up • Shake hands • Say your name and what you do for a living • What your key learning point has been so far today at the conference • Smile and use eye contact!
  20. 20. Fairness refers to the perception of nonbiased and fair connections with, and exchanges between people – such as recognition for contribution, equal pay for equal value work, sharing with everyone. ‘Treating others with fairness and dignity is the ‘rain’ that helps them grow and be fruitful’ ‘Restart Compassion and Justice’ Scarf: Fairness (or equity)
  21. 21. Lessons to consider • Fairness is about perception • The experience of fairness produces reward responses in the brain - similar to those that occur from eating chocolate • As with status, people perceive fairness in relative terms • Morale can remain relatively high when people perceive that hard decisions are being handled fairly and that no one group is treated with preference - that there is a rationale for every hard decision Activities • Be open and transparent about the lean project with the group/team: • unfairness is easy to trigger • Find ways to sense increasing fairness around you • Don’t let any ‘unfairness’ go – pick it up and remedy it • Be careful of fairness being linked with issues such as certainty, autonomy or relatedness – as emotions can get intense • Ensure you are clear, open and fair – maybe more than is necessary Scarf: Fairness (or equity)
  22. 22. Summary
  23. 23. Lean in Higher Education Conference 2016 • Title: People, Culture and Lean in Higher Education • Dates: Tuesday 1st November to Thursday 3rd November 2016 • Place: The University of Stirling • Website: http://www.stir.ac.uk/lean2016/  to register an interest and find out lots more! • Comprehensive day programme: keynotes, workshops, panel discussions and master classes • Interactive, networking social events – dinner in Stirling Castle
  24. 24. Questions ‘When will we make the same breakthroughs in the way we treat each other as we have made in technology?’ Zeldin , 2000
  25. 25. Additional Reading • Your Brain at Work, David Rock • The Handbook of NeuroLeadership, David Rock and Al Ringleb • The Neuroleadership Institute

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