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  1.   “An Action Not A Position”
  2. a person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal".
  3. o Leadership is a ‘process’ [focusing on what leaders actually do] and a ‘property’. o As a process, leadership is the use of non- coercive influence to shape the group’s or organization’s goals, to motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals, and to help define group or organizational culture. o As a property, leadership is the set of characteristics attributed to individuals who are perceived to be leaders.
  4. Is leadership a position of office or authority? Or Is leadership an ability in the sense that he is a leader because he leads?
  5. A leader by its meaning is one who goes first and leads by example, so that others are motivated to follow him. To be a leader, a person must have a deep-rooted commitment to the goal that he will strive to achieve it even if nobody follows him!
  6.  A requirement for leadership is personal vision - the ability to visualize your goal as an accomplished fact; a thing already achieved.  “The very essence of leadership is that you have to have vision. You can't blow an uncertain trumpet.” Theodore M. Hesburgh  The leader has to be practical and a realist, yet must talk the language of the visionary and the idealist.” Eric Hoffer
  7. To be a leader, one must have followers. To have followers, one must have their trust. How do you win their trust? Why would others trust you? Most important, are you worthy of their trust?
  8. Leadership and management are related, but they are not the same. Organizations need both leadership and management if they are to be effective. Leadership is necessary to create change; management is necessary to achieve orderly results.
  9.  While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types: 1. “Great Man” 7. “Management” 2. “Trait” 8. “Relationship” 3. “Contingency” 4. “Situational” 5. “Behavioural”
  10.  According to this point of view,  great leaders are simply born with the necessary internal characteristics such as charisma, confidence, intelligence, and social skills that make them natural- born leaders.  Great man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed.  The term "Great Man" was used because, at the time,
  11.  Similar in some ways to Great Man theories,  Trait theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership.  Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioural characteristics shared by leaders. For example, traits like extraversion, self- confidence, and courage are all traits that could potentially be linked to great leaders.
  12.  Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation.  According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation.
  13.  Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables.  Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making. For example, in a situation where the leader is the most knowledgeable and experienced member of a group, an authoritarian style might be most appropriate.  In other instances where group members are skilled experts, a democratic style would be more effective.
  14.  Behavioural theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Consider it the flip-side of the Great Man theories.  Rooted in behaviourism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders, not on mental qualities or internal states.  According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.
  15.  Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account.  These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process.  In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others.
  16.  Management theories, also known as transactional theories, focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance.  These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments.  Managerial theories are often used in business; When employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished.
  17.  Relationship theories, also known as transformational theories, focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers.  Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfil his or her potential.  Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards.
  18.  Power can be explained as the ability of one person or group to cause another person to do that they might not have done on their own. It resides in individuals, formal groups and informal groups. Power is also a major resource of directing and controlling organizational goals and activities.
  19. It is very important aspect and plays significant role in the organizations. It’s not only organizations but people in the organization also seek power. It is important for the organization and for its people due to the following reasons and they are:-
  20.  1. Power helps in controlling the people and other resources in the organizations so that they cooperate and help to achieve an organization's current goals. 2. Power is used to engage in politics and influence decision-making process. It helps in promoting new and more appropriate organizational goals. 3. Power influences complexity, formality and centralization of activities in the organizations. 4. The individuals who posses power can determine the size of the organization, allocation of rewards, selection of technology etc. 5. Power is an important aspect that is required for the efficient functioning of the organization
  21. The simplest form of power is that vested in the position of 'manager'. A manager has subordinates who must do his or her bidding, only within legal and organizational rules. The basic employment transaction is 'we give you money, you do as your are told'.
  22.  Legitimate Power o The authority that a manager has by virtue of his or her position in the firm  Reward Power o The ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards. o Effective managers use reward power to signal to employees that they are doing a good job
  23. Coercive Power o The ability of a manager to punish others. • Examples: verbal reprimand, pay cuts, and dismissal • Limited in effectiveness and application; can have serious negative side effects Expert Power o Power that is based on special knowledge, skills, and expertise that the leader possesses. o Tends to be used in a guiding or coaching
  24. Referent Power o Power that comes from subordinates’ and coworkers’ respect , admiration, and loyalty o Possessed by managers who are likable and whom subordinates wish to use as a role model
  25.  Leadership styles may vary among different countries or cultures.  European managers tend to be more people- oriented than American or Japanese managers.  Japanese managers are group-oriented, while U.S managers focuses more on profitability.
  26. This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want to be done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions.
  27. This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. A leader is not expected to know everything—this is why you employ knowledgeable and skilled people. Using this style is of mutual benefit as it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.
  28. In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is a style to be used when you fully trust and have confidence in the people below you.
  29.  Leadership is a key factor in making any organisation successful.  It is aptly mentioned by Stephen covey, a famous management consultant, that managers are important but leaders are vital for lasting organisational success.  A leader not only commits his followers to organisational growth but also pool the needed resources, guides and motivates his subordinates.
  30.  Leadership influences the behavior of people and makes them positively contribute their energies for the benefit of the organization.  A leader maintains personal relations an helps the followers to fulfill their needs.  He provides the follower with needed confidence, support and encouragement and thereby creates pleasant work environment.
  31.  Leader plays a key role in introducing required changes in the organization.  He persuades, clarifies and inspires people to accept the changes.
  32.  A leader handles conflicts effectively and does not allow adverse effect resulting from the conflict. A good leader always allow his followers to share their feeling and disagreement but persuades them by giving suitable clarifications
  33.  A leader provides training to their subordinates.  A good leader always builds up his successor and helps in smooth succession process.
  34.  
  35. 1. Employees need to be supervised closely, or they are not likely to do their work ? 2. Employees want to be a part of the decision-making process ? 3. In complex situations, leaders should let subordinates work problems out on their own ? Questionnaire
  36.  4. It is fair to say that most employees in the general population are lazy ? 5. Providing guidance without pressure is the key to being a good leader ?  6. Leadership requires staying out of the way of subordinates as they do their work ?
  37. 7. As a rule, employees must be given rewards or punishments in order to motivate them to achieve organizational objectives ? 8. Most workers want frequent and supportive communication from their leaders ? 9. As a rule, leaders should allow
  38. 10. Most employees feel insecure about their work and need direction ? 11. Leaders need to help subordinates accept responsibility for completing their work ? 12. Leaders should give subordinates complete freedom to solve problems on their own ?
  39. 13. The leader is the chief judge of the achievements of the members of the group ? 14. It is the leader’s job to help subordinates find their “passion.” ? 15. In most situations, workers prefer little input from the leader ?
  40. 16. Effective leaders give orders and clarify procedures ? 17. People are basically competent and if given a task will do a good job ? 18. In general, it is best to leave subordinates alone ?