O slideshow foi denunciado.
Presentations from the SPF Cluster 2 & 3: Release Mechanisms & Flexible Spectrum Access workshop on 21 May 2018
More information about the UK Spectrum Policy Forum is available here.
Dr. Abhaya Sumanasena, Spectrum lead, Real Wireless
UK Spectrum Policy Forum - Cluster 2 & 3: Release Mechanisms & Flexible
Spectrum Access, 21/05/2018
● There is an unprecedented growth in mobile data
● Access to public mobile spectrum has been a
challenge during the last decade.
● There is a pressure for regulators to release more
spectrum for public mobile usage. Similarly MNOs
are constantly seeking more spectrum.
07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.2
Global Mobile Traffic by Connection Type 
Whilst the availability of spectrum for all services and sectors important, this presentation is
related to the applicability of spectrum sharing for public mobile usage.
Licensing options related to spectrum sharing
07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2017. All rights reserved.3
with licensed anchor (LE-wLA)
operators to share
access to the same
portion of spectrum
but in a coordinated
and managed way
licensed users to permit
access to spectrum by way
of a sub-licence thus
enabling access to
licensed spectrum but
within a structured
enables dynamic use of spectrum
at any time and any location
where it is unused by the
incumbent. The shared user must
not cause interference to the
incumbent, must be authorised by
way of automated or geolocation
enables generally authorised access to
spectrum by devices that must be
compliant with industry standards for
low emissions and types of spectrum
access. Devices must all share the
same spectrum and are not protected
from interference. This requires
licensed carrier as an anchor point
Sharing partners MNO-MNO
Non-MNO/Govt with MNO MNO/Non-MNO with MNO
Characteristics Geographical access Static Dynamic Unlicensed
DECT guard band
(2x3.3 MHz in 1800
MHz in the UK)
EU 2.3 GHz TVWS: 470-790 in Europe, CBRS
LAA/LTE-U that requires licensed
Source: A study prepared for the European Commission on Identification and quantification of key socioeconomic data to support strategic planning for the introduction of 5G in Europe, 2016,
Variations of these options can be considered as spectrum pooling and trading, partitioned by
frequency, geography or time.
Spectrum pooling as a variation of CSA
• Three alternatives:
a. Each MNO is allocated some minimum amount
of spectrum exclusively and the and the rest is
b. all of the spectrum is pooled.
c. all of the spectrum is divided between the
MNOs but each MNO can make their spectrum
available to others by some means, such as
trading on a local geographical basis.
07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.4
• CSA would be more attractive if MNOs can share the same spectrum, with their relative rights defined in
advance or by mutual agreement.
The trade-off: MNOs having exclusive but potentially fragmented spectrum or the freedom to have
access to larger BW with less certainty and the geographic restrictions that sharing would bring.
Exclusive Exclusive Exclusive Exclusive
Pooling (4 MNOs)
Exclusive Exclusive Exclusive Exclusive
Note: The graphic Illustration is similar to https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1603/1603.01080.pdf
Analysis of spectrum sharing approaches
07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2017. All rights reserved.5
Easier to manage interference since MNOs have similar
business models & compatible technologies
Not likely to cope well when each MNO is
targeting the same geographical area
LSA Trend to harmonise this sharing mechanism internationally.
Challenging if the incumbent is changing its usage
Possible to prioritise different users, hence high degree of
control of spectrum usage. Dynamic control could lead to
better utilisation of spectrum.
Dynamic nature adds more complexity, QoS
concerns in the peak hours.
LE-wLA Great tool for innovation, least regulatory intervention. User locations are unknown
Benefits and challenges depend on the spectrum band, regulatory regime and who’s
evaluating e.g. MNO/Regulator.
• We developed a framework for individual MNOs and regulators to
compare the sharing approaches relevant to the local conditions . An
example outcome for a particular scenario is shown below:
Fator CSA LSA ASA
Spectrum m anagement
Costs for sharing
Maturity of of sharing technology
Key strategic outcomes from our study for GSMA on spectrum
● Exclusive usage has the highest value from the MNOs point of view. A
discount on the economic impacts is unavoidable when spectrum is shared.
Additional risk and complexities associated with spectrum sharing make
investment by mobile operators less certain compared to the case of
● Less dynamic sharing arrangements are more feasible and attractive:
Dynamic sharing crates inherent complexities and risks in both spectrum
valuation and sharing execution.
● The size of exclusions and contracts length can rapidly impair the economic
benefits: As sharing conditions and service exclusions become more severe,
the effects of shared spectrum deteriorate and the economic benefits are
07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.6
Source: A report prepared by Real Wireless and Deloitte for GSMA, https://www.gsma.com/spectrum/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/The-Impacts-of-
● “58% of the spectrum is already shared between two or more sectors”.
● “Dynamic shared access, enable more efficient re-use of spectrum where and when it is really needed”.
● “Benefits from spectrum sharing have been limited due to the difficulties in managing interference. Technology
advances in the recent years makes the interference management easier. For instance”:
1. “Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) technology: this can allow devices sharing spectrum to identify the
presence of other devices operating in their vicinity so they can avoid causing interference to them. At a
simple level, this approach is already used by some Wi-Fi equipment to help select the least congested”
2. “Geo-location database technology: make it easier for devices to identify spectrum that can be accessed on
a shared basis in a given location without causing interference to other spectrum users. This approach is
being used to enable white space access to the UHF TV bands and can also be applied in other frequency
07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.7
Source Ofcom: https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0023/62609/spectrum_sharing.pdf and
But no real active sharing in public mobile spectrum yet!
Real benefits from DSA needs to be evaluated carefully.
• The mobile spectrum has a non-uniform usage across different geographic areas.
• Mobile usage is mainly concentrated on where people live or work.
• National MNOs may not give much thought to the other areas since the revenue
from those areas is negligible compared to the other areas.
• DSA could be well suited for those “under used” areas :
07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.8
Location based licensing (treat
like fixed links)
Cannot scale to millions of small cells
Use it or Lose it Blocks mobile operators from long term planning
Dynamic Spectrum Expansion Only spectrum about to perish is used Simple, low cost and
flexible Can be implemented quickly Gets 100% of 5G
spectrum into local use
 The Rt Hon. the Lord Willetts, DSA
Global Summit 2018.
But how much incremental benefit is available if spectrum sharing is enabled in “under used” areas
compared to the challenges with implementation e.g. complexity, costs, competition concerns etc.?
Testbeds to establish use cases and techno-economic issues
● RW leads exploration of techno-economic drivers and diverse spectrum needs
● These testbeds focused on use cases, including explorations of neutral host business models.
● Testbeds focused on use cases
07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.9
● Application areas:
● On-site live event experience (eMBB)
● Cooperative media production (cMTC)
● Extreme network elasticity (network slicing
Smart Sea Port (Hamburg) Touristic City (Italy)
● Traffic light control (cMTC)
● Video surveillance (MBB)
● Sensor measurements (mMTC)
● Application areas:
● “Neutral Host” service operated in transport corridors
● Ultra-dense high capacity
● Each has their own slice of resources
Socio economic value generated from specific use cases in localised areas cannot be ignored.
The value of spectrum to serve these use cases needs to be compared with the economic value of the
● Spectrum sharing can bring benefits in some cases (for instance, if successful
cooperation between users is achieved).
● But moving away from exclusive usage potentially reduces the economic value of
the spectrum (from operators point of view).
● The reduction in the economic value varies widely across the spectrum band and
● A comprehensive cost-benefit analysis underpinned by a solid techno-economic
framework is required to understand the reality:
● Benefits from sharing
● Cost in terms of decreasing the value of spectrum (cost equipment ,complexity,
infrastructure, planning, additional requirements)
07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.10
For details contact us at:
Real Wireless Limited
PO Box 2218, Pulborough
West Sussex RH20 4XB, UK
07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.11