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Abhaya Sumanasena - Real Wireless - Spectrum Options

Presentations from the SPF Cluster 2 & 3: Release Mechanisms & Flexible Spectrum Access workshop on 21 May 2018

More information about the UK Spectrum Policy Forum is available here.

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Abhaya Sumanasena - Real Wireless - Spectrum Options

  1. 1. Spectrum Options Dr. Abhaya Sumanasena, Spectrum lead, Real Wireless UK Spectrum Policy Forum - Cluster 2 & 3: Release Mechanisms & Flexible Spectrum Access, 21/05/2018
  2. 2. The background ● There is an unprecedented growth in mobile data usage. ● Access to public mobile spectrum has been a challenge during the last decade. ● There is a pressure for regulators to release more spectrum for public mobile usage. Similarly MNOs are constantly seeking more spectrum. 07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.2 Global Mobile Traffic by Connection Type [1] [1] https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/mobile-white-paper-c11-520862.html Whilst the availability of spectrum for all services and sectors important, this presentation is related to the applicability of spectrum sharing for public mobile usage.
  3. 3. Licensing options related to spectrum sharing 07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2017. All rights reserved.3 Sharing mechanism Concurrent shared access (CSA) Licensed shared access (LSA) Authorised shared access (ASA) Licence-exempt access with licensed anchor (LE-wLA) Description enables multiple operators to share access to the same portion of spectrum but in a coordinated and managed way enables incumbent licensed users to permit access to spectrum by way of a sub-licence thus enabling access to licensed spectrum but within a structured sharing framework enables dynamic use of spectrum at any time and any location where it is unused by the incumbent. The shared user must not cause interference to the incumbent, must be authorised by way of automated or geolocation database access enables generally authorised access to spectrum by devices that must be compliant with industry standards for low emissions and types of spectrum access. Devices must all share the same spectrum and are not protected from interference. This requires licensed carrier as an anchor point Sharing partners MNO-MNO Non-MNO/Govt with MNO Non-MNO/Govt with MNO MNO/Non-MNO with MNO Characteristics Geographical access Static Dynamic Unlicensed Example technologies or deployments DECT guard band (2x3.3 MHz in 1800 MHz in the UK) EU 2.3 GHz TVWS: 470-790 in Europe, CBRS LAA/LTE-U that requires licensed anchor carrier/bearer Source: A study prepared for the European Commission on Identification and quantification of key socioeconomic data to support strategic planning for the introduction of 5G in Europe, 2016, https://connectcentre.ie/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/EC-Study_5G-in-Europe.pdf Variations of these options can be considered as spectrum pooling and trading, partitioned by frequency, geography or time.
  4. 4. Spectrum pooling as a variation of CSA • Three alternatives: a. Each MNO is allocated some minimum amount of spectrum exclusively and the and the rest is pooled. b. all of the spectrum is pooled. c. all of the spectrum is divided between the MNOs but each MNO can make their spectrum available to others by some means, such as trading on a local geographical basis. 07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.4 • CSA would be more attractive if MNOs can share the same spectrum, with their relative rights defined in advance or by mutual agreement. The trade-off: MNOs having exclusive but potentially fragmented spectrum or the freedom to have access to larger BW with less certainty and the geographic restrictions that sharing would bring. Exclusive Exclusive Exclusive Exclusive Pooling (4 MNOs) Pooling Exclusive Exclusive Exclusive Exclusive Pooling Note: The graphic Illustration is similar to https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1603/1603.01080.pdf
  5. 5. Analysis of spectrum sharing approaches 07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2017. All rights reserved.5 Benefits Challenges CSA Easier to manage interference since MNOs have similar business models & compatible technologies Not likely to cope well when each MNO is targeting the same geographical area LSA Trend to harmonise this sharing mechanism internationally. Challenging if the incumbent is changing its usage and expanding ASA Possible to prioritise different users, hence high degree of control of spectrum usage. Dynamic control could lead to better utilisation of spectrum. Dynamic nature adds more complexity, QoS concerns in the peak hours. LE-wLA Great tool for innovation, least regulatory intervention. User locations are unknown Benefits and challenges depend on the spectrum band, regulatory regime and who’s evaluating e.g. MNO/Regulator. • We developed a framework for individual MNOs and regulators to compare the sharing approaches relevant to the local conditions . An example outcome for a particular scenario is shown below: Fator CSA LSA ASA LE- wLA Bandwidth QoS Spectrum m anagement New opportunities Costs for sharing Maturity of of sharing technology
  6. 6. Key strategic outcomes from our study for GSMA on spectrum sharing ● Exclusive usage has the highest value from the MNOs point of view. A discount on the economic impacts is unavoidable when spectrum is shared. Additional risk and complexities associated with spectrum sharing make investment by mobile operators less certain compared to the case of exclusive spectrum. ● Less dynamic sharing arrangements are more feasible and attractive: Dynamic sharing crates inherent complexities and risks in both spectrum valuation and sharing execution. ● The size of exclusions and contracts length can rapidly impair the economic benefits: As sharing conditions and service exclusions become more severe, the effects of shared spectrum deteriorate and the economic benefits are rapidly reduced. 07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.6 Source: A report prepared by Real Wireless and Deloitte for GSMA, https://www.gsma.com/spectrum/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/The-Impacts-of- Licensed-Shared-Use-of-Spectrum.-Deloitte.-Feb-2014.pdf
  7. 7. Ofcom’s views… ● “58% of the spectrum is already shared between two or more sectors”. ● “Dynamic shared access, enable more efficient re-use of spectrum where and when it is really needed”. ● “Benefits from spectrum sharing have been limited due to the difficulties in managing interference. Technology advances in the recent years makes the interference management easier. For instance”: 1. “Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) technology: this can allow devices sharing spectrum to identify the presence of other devices operating in their vicinity so they can avoid causing interference to them. At a simple level, this approach is already used by some Wi-Fi equipment to help select the least congested” frequencies”. 2. “Geo-location database technology: make it easier for devices to identify spectrum that can be accessed on a shared basis in a given location without causing interference to other spectrum users. This approach is being used to enable white space access to the UHF TV bands and can also be applied in other frequency bands;” 07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.7 Source Ofcom: https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0023/62609/spectrum_sharing.pdf and https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0021/71436/statement.pdf But no real active sharing in public mobile spectrum yet!
  8. 8. Real benefits from DSA needs to be evaluated carefully. • The mobile spectrum has a non-uniform usage across different geographic areas. • Mobile usage is mainly concentrated on where people live or work. • National MNOs may not give much thought to the other areas since the revenue from those areas is negligible compared to the other areas. • DSA could be well suited for those “under used” areas [1]: 07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.8 Option Comment Location based licensing (treat like fixed links) Cannot scale to millions of small cells Use it or Lose it Blocks mobile operators from long term planning Dynamic Spectrum Expansion Only spectrum about to perish is used Simple, low cost and flexible Can be implemented quickly Gets 100% of 5G spectrum into local use [1] The Rt Hon. the Lord Willetts, DSA Global Summit 2018. But how much incremental benefit is available if spectrum sharing is enabled in “under used” areas compared to the challenges with implementation e.g. complexity, costs, competition concerns etc.?
  9. 9. Testbeds to establish use cases and techno-economic issues ● RW leads exploration of techno-economic drivers and diverse spectrum needs ● These testbeds focused on use cases, including explorations of neutral host business models. ● Testbeds focused on use cases 07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.9 ● Application areas: ● On-site live event experience (eMBB) ● Cooperative media production (cMTC) ● Extreme network elasticity (network slicing Traffic control/Surveillance Barges measurements Smart Sea Port (Hamburg) Touristic City (Italy) ● Applications: ● Traffic light control (cMTC) ● Video surveillance (MBB) ● Sensor measurements (mMTC) ● Application areas: ● “Neutral Host” service operated in transport corridors ● Ultra-dense high capacity ● Each has their own slice of resources Socio economic value generated from specific use cases in localised areas cannot be ignored. The value of spectrum to serve these use cases needs to be compared with the economic value of the spectrum
  10. 10. Summary ● Spectrum sharing can bring benefits in some cases (for instance, if successful cooperation between users is achieved). ● But moving away from exclusive usage potentially reduces the economic value of the spectrum (from operators point of view). ● The reduction in the economic value varies widely across the spectrum band and the usage. ● A comprehensive cost-benefit analysis underpinned by a solid techno-economic framework is required to understand the reality: ● Benefits from sharing ● Cost in terms of decreasing the value of spectrum (cost equipment ,complexity, infrastructure, planning, additional requirements) 07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.10
  11. 11. For details contact us at: e info@realwireless.biz w real-wireless.com/blog twitter.com/real_wireless Real Wireless Limited PO Box 2218, Pulborough West Sussex RH20 4XB, UK 07 June 2018 Confidential & © Real Wireless Ltd. 2018. All rights reserved.11