2. Discovery method
Discovery Learning is a technique
of inquiry-based learning and is
considered a constructivist-based
approach to education.
• It was introduced by burner.
• This popular theory encourages
learners to build on past experiences,
and knowledge and their intuition
imagination and creativity and search
for new information to discover facts.
3. Bruner’s Beliefs
Bruner believes that students
must be active—they must
identify key principles for
themselves rather than simply
This process has been called
Bruner believes that students
learn by doing
4. Why use?
Used in social science to clarify facts and concepts unlike heuristic method
used in science to formulate or testify laws and principles
Facts and concepts are explained in an objective manner unlike heuristic
method where subject matter is comprehended subjectively
Discovery is related to past events while heurism is concerned with
phenomena at present
E.g., “Courses of Aurangzeb’s failure in south India” is a discovery and
“Causes of law productivity of agriculture lands in India is a heuristic method
10. 5 principles
• Principle 1: problem solving
• Principle 2: learner management
• Principle 3: integrating and connecting
• Principle 4: information analysis and
• Principle 5: failure and feedback.
11. Three modes of representation
• Enactive: ( 0-1 year) a mode of representing past events through
appropriate more motor responses.
• Iconic : ( 2-6 years plus) as symbol system which represents things by
design feature that include remoteness and arbitrariness.
• Symbolic: (7 years) Summarize events by the selective organization all
percepts and of images.
• Spiral and scaffolding
• These takes advantage of Bruner’s interpretation of scaffolding, where
the teacher guides the student through the three modes.
• In pre discovery the child is given an
opportunity to explore at will, pacing
himself, and making his own decisions
regarding what to do.
• In this form of discovery, the teacher
becomes a resource person, to be used by
the child as needed.
14. Independent discovery activities
The teacher directed investigations enabled the students to develop
skills in carrying out investigations in small groups.
This strategy encompasses Activities which are not highly structured
in design but are flexible to allow students to find their own way.
Student can be encouraged to improvise apparatus and to
supplement laboratory equipment with local resources.
The open-ended investigations allow students to demonstrate and
Strength scientific skills leading to the development of more
advanced science process skills.
• In guided discovery the teacher is
assumes a more controlling role by
helping the child to make correct
decisions and supplying pertinent in
formation at appropriate moments.
• Guided discovery also known as
inductive approach, is a technique where
a teacher provides examples of a
language item and helps the learners to
find their rules themselves
the objectives of
this activity include
can be set as a
question to be
answered or a
problem to be
The problems may
often arise from the
questioning or daily
the starting point as
students have not
been exposed to
this strategy in their
17. Teachers and
• Teacher presents some examples.
• Learners are invited for brainstorming.
• Teacher puts more examples
• Learners are invited to compare both sets
• Teacher presents some non-examples.
• Learners are encouraged to draw
comparison and contrast.
• Learners classify the features and patterns
and uncover some relationships
• Learners finally state the new concept they
• Problem solving questions are one way of
18. Some suggestions
encourage students to design their own experiments and allow them to try out their ideas
discuss with the students the progress of their investigation as well as encourage them to discuss with each
discuss the results of investigation and methods of drawing interferences
listen ideas of students and probe their weaknesses
encourage students to explore their reasons for their ideas
have students review critically the procedures of investigation
while allocating topics interest of students should be given due to concentration
20. How can we
content based upon
each student need
• Survey student
make sure they