Changes in modern societies were driven by several factors, namely economic
and cultural globalization, scientific and technological progress, increased
access to information, or the acknowledgement of consumers’ rights. All these
changes originate the perception that ethical behavior is essential in
organization’s practices especially in the way they deal with aspects such as
human rights. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of
By social responsibility it is meant that organizations can meet its fundamental
goals of accomplishing a particular public endeavor or of increasing
shareholders’ profits, but at the same time fulfilling other important objectives
namely with regards the satisfaction of stakeholders’ interests.
Sometimes “social responsibility” is also associated with environmental
concerns and the protection of the commonwealth of life.
3. Types of hospital social responsibility
Passive social responsibility
1. Creating wealth and promoting employment.
2. Protecting the investment of all shareholders (namely the government in public hospitals).
3. Protecting the interests of all stakeholders.
4. Respecting human rights.
5. Abstention of environmental damage (namely in dealing with toxic waste).
6. Abiding to the law.
Active social responsibility
1. Implementing ethical codes of conduct.
2. Promoting reverse discrimination policies.
3. Public accountability of management decisions and performance indicators.
4. Protecting animal interests.
5. Contributing actively for environmental protection.
6. Engaging in national or international solidarity programs.
4. Principles of hospital corporate governance
1. Goals of hospital corporate governance: to increase its performance, to assure its social
responsibility namely concerning the search for the common good, and to promote conformance
with regards accountability arrangements in a fair and transparent way.
2. External controls
(a) Public accountability: Explicit, public detailed procedures for evaluating hospital
performance with full public report (use reports, performance reports, compliance reports,
consultants), global budgeting, fair grievance procedures (legal, non-legal), and adequate
(b) Stakeholders accountability: External mechanisms of reporting, public disclosure of the
processes and rationale adopted in management, external audit, financial account and annual
3. Internal controls
(a) Self-regulation: Internal audits, ethical codes and disclosure of directors’ performance and
(b) Board: Unitary versus dual board, mechanisms of appointment to the board, performance
5. Social Responsibilities and Law
• National and international law related to social responsibility is already in
practice, but law by itself is insufficient to promote such an ethical behavior.
• A different approach is needed because ethical rules do not exist in many
• Legislation is just a minimum that guides organizations conduct.
• Many providers are willing to do more than this minimum demanded by law,
requesting their certification of social responsibility under international
norms—Social Accountability SA 8000 and ISO 26000.
7. Drivers of social responsibility
SOCIALVALUES HOSPITAL PERFORMANCE
• Avoid unethical practices.
• Engaging in solidarity or cultural
• Promoting equality.
• Implementing ethical codes of conduct.
• Improving quality of care by influencing
convenience, comfort and safety of
8. DUTIES OF VETERINARIANS TO
• Veterinarian as citizen.
• Public health.
• Livestock production and
• Veterinarians and food
• Veterinarian as an Educator.
9. Veterinarian as a Citizen
• Veterinarians as good citizens possessed of special training, shall advise
concerning the health and husbandry of the animals, in the localities wherein
• They shall play their part in enforcing the laws of the community and in
substantiating the institutions that advance the interests of humanity.
• They shall cooperate with the authorities in the observance and enforcement
of sanitary laws and the laws relating to drugs, poisons and pharmacy made
for the protection of health.
10. Public health
• A veterinarian engaged in public health work shall enlighten the public
concerning quarantine regulations and measures for the prevention of
epizootic, zoonotic and food borne diseases and intoxications and
• At all times, the veterinarians shall notify the respective authorities of every
case of communicable diseases under their care in accordance with the laws,
rules and regulations of the authorities.
• When an epidemic prevails, the veterinarian shall continue his/her labor
without regard to the risk to his/her own health. She/he shall endeavor to
ensure hygienic handling of animal products and wastes thereof and educate
the public of food-borne diseases and intoxications.
11. • The “One Health One Medicine” concept has
become an accepted vision for professionals
working in the public health field.
• One health is a holistic systems approach to
understanding health across all species.
• It’s a recognition that human and animal health
are inextricably linked and one health is about
how to improve and defend the health and well-
being of all species with the co-operation of
physicians and veterinarians.
• But the One Health concept is NOT just about
zoonoses. It must also take into account issues
such as sustainable development, global trade,
travel, global warming and geo-political
12. Livestock production and technology
A veterinarian shall strive for the betterment of animal production through timely
advice/propaganda on scientific management.
It should include:
• Economically viable and hygienic housing.
• Adoption of scientific breeding schedule.
• Disease prevention of routines.
• Reproductive health monitoring, hygienic and systematic care before, at and
• Care of new born.
• Hygienic collection of farm products.
• Proper disposal of animal products and wastes thereof.
• She/he should strive to educate the public and para-veterinary staff personnel
regarding timely insemination and aseptic handling during A.I. and discourage the
unscientific unhygienic insemination.
14. Veterinarians and food regulatory
• The goal of veterinarian in food regulation is to ensure that the public food
supply is safe from disease caused by food contamination from infected food
animals. Such contamination can occur during all phases of food animal
production, from farm to fork including farming, slaughtering, processing,
packaging, storage, and cooking.
• Efforts to control outbreaks of Zoonotic diseases, such as Anthrax, E. coli,
Brucellosis, Salmonellosis, Trichinosis, Influenza, Tuberculosis, Swine flu,
• The veterinarian also interacts with the regulating authorities by sponsoring
programs to prevent and treat such diseases and support the development and
distribution of safe and effective vaccines, pharmaceutical diagnostics, and
drugs against these diseases.
15. • Monitoring food, air, and water-supply pollution.
• Observing food manufacturing and processing for the presence of additives
• Conducting research on the safety of genetically modified foods.
• Amassing larger food and supply inventories for countries to access in times
• Assisting with the identification of malicious contamination of food for
Veterinarians and food regulatory
16. Veterinarian as an Educator
• Veterinarians should provide information to their clients,
which benefits more than just their pets.
• They help develop evidence of these health benefits and
present them to our local medical health officers. They
make them aware that they have a greater role in public
health than just rabies control.
• Dog bite prevention tool kits available with veterinarians
are a useful tool to educate school children.
• Contact with other professions in a public health context is
an important first step. They work on strengthening
communication and future collaboration with the medical
• Their education and experience gives them the unique tool
to play an important role in public health and to go beyond
puppies, kittens and bull evaluations.
17. VETERINARY PRACTICE MANAGEMENT
• The practice management in veterinary is not integrated as that of human
• Most veterinary doctors work in isolation with that of pharmaceuticals, feed
industry, sophisticated equipment manufacturers, laboratory facilities,
breeders / their association, animal welfare organisations etc.
• The veterinary business world is more complex and competitive and the need
for effective and efficient management is of greater importance than in the
• The concept of “EVERYONE MANAGES” and delegation with
empowerment are becoming more common.
18. Veterinary management can be divided into:
• Information technology
• Human resources
• Marketing and sales
• General office management
• Health and safety
• Human resource management
Practice Management in 21st Century
19. The HR management in the past had the following five inputs:
• Training On The Job
Practice Management in 21st Century
20. • Recruitment
• Induction Training
• Lifelong Learning / Training
• Employment Legislation
• Job Descriptors
• Contracts Of Employment
• Staff Health And Safety
• Rotas Coaching
Practice Management in 21st Century
While the Present management input includes:
21. WHAT MAKES A GOOD VETERINARY
• Praise and thanks
• Constructive criticism
• Pride in the job
• Tact, diplomacy, patience and
• Communication and listening
• A sense of humour, and
• Support network
The veterinarian should possess the following qualities to maintain high
standards and to be called as ‘good’:
The staff and clients expect their veterinarians to take the lead.
Confidence is all about being sure of one’s self and one’s own abilities.
The following stops us from being confident:
• Lack of job knowledge
• Lack of self-belief
• Lack of self –esteem
• Lack of assertiveness
Good veterinarian has to have a thorough knowledge of their job and the job of
his fellow staff and believe in their own abilities.
A veterinarian needs to be assertive.
Assertiveness may not come naturally but some techniques can be learnt.
Being assertive will enable the veterinarian to-
• Handle confrontation more easily
• Avoid stress
• Be able to say the right thing at the right time
• Have greater self-confidence and self-esteem
• Leave people with a positive impression of them
• Prevent others manipulating them
• Stay in control
Assertiveness is needed for dealing with conflict, when negotiating and when leading
teams and motivating staff.
• Responsibility does not end with the
title of a manager. Managing a
veterinarian practice is a big
• They have to carry out their role in the
very best of their ability.
• Avoiding responsibility may be due to
fear or lack of knowledge or even
laziness or sometimes veterinarian feel
imposing rules or discipline may not be
liked by their colleagues.
• When veterinarian takes responsibility
they gain far more respect.
All veterinarians must have high personal standards.
Their actions establish the standards that their staff will be expected to reach.
High standards will be needed in-
• Attitude to the job - always positive and enthusiastic
• Willingness - always doing the extra mile at all times
• Time keeping - always there at least 10 minutes before they are
• due to start work
• Dress - always smart and tidy
• Politeness/manner/mood - always friendly and polite
• Organization - always tidy and organized
26. • The fellow staff must be able to see veterinarians in top level as managers or
administrators in their respective organisations.
• It’s important to visit to all areas on a regular basis, be seen by all staff, talk to
them, ask questions, find out what is happening that day and show an interest
in everything that is going on.
• Having an “open-door policy” will encourage staff to visit their
administration and discuss their problems. This will help to learn what is
really happening and understand the staff feeling.
A veterinarian must create an environment in which people do thing because
they want to and not by force.
The starting point for a good motivator is being motivated themselves.
Motivation is infectious.
Veterinarian need to ask themselves the following questions:
• Do I look forward to going to work each day?
• Do I enjoy my job?
• Do I believe in what I am doing?
• Do I show this to my staff?
• Praise and thanks
28. • Motivated staff are more productive, work better together, have more
commitment and motivate each other.
• It is important for veterinary managers to help their staff develop and grow.
• It is important to praise staff if they do a good job and thank them if they do
the extra work.
• But never over do this as too many thanks or praise will become meaningless.
29. Constructive criticism
• Veterinarian has to discipline their co-workers and staff for which
constructive criticism is essential.
• The co-workers or staff needs to take up such criticism in a
positive frame of mind.
• They need to help and understand the change situation to improve
30. Pride in the Job
• Veterinarian need to show pride in their job, practice and pride in their staff.
• They need to instill this pride in all staff members.
All these qualities are needed in abundance, for dealing with partners, staff,
clients, suppliers, media etc.
Tact, diplomacy, patience and understanding
31. Communication and Listening
• A successful manager must have good communication skills and techniques.
• Communication at personal level is also important.
• Listen to what their staff has to say.
• Listening exhibits care and improves relationship building.
• Veterinarians as managers or administrators must have no ‘favorites’.
• Setting same rules for all and not making exceptions for some staff or clients.
• Once credibility is lost in this area it will be very difficult to re-establish.
o Veterinarians should know their own strengths, weaknesses and
limitations. She/he should not be afraid to seek help if necessary.
o Veterinarian with little experience may also ask other staff to explain an
unknown procedure than to pretend that they understand.
o This will help to earn respect.
33. A Sense of Humor
• A veterinary manager must have a good sense of humor.
• Becoming stressed or depressed will not help either the manager or the staff.
Meeting other colleagues working in similar organization is important.
It helps to know the working pattern and build confidence and motivation.
It also helps to understand the functioning of various organizations, their
management problems and solutions.
• Being the fellow residents of this apartment known as “Earth” , it is one of
our duties to maintain a systemic balance between different species be it the
prevention of extinction of one or to reduce the flare up of another .Working
as a connecting link between humans and other species ,a work as big as the
production of a vaccine of a deadly virus to a work as meagre as treating a
common cold becomes our responsibility and to carry out that responsibility
there are certain etiquettes and rules that need to be followed. A sense of value
of life of others and that of yourself is an important factor for a fair, just and
so a healthy society.