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change management , answer of frequently asked question

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1. a. “Change is inevitable”. Justify this statement. 03
b. What are the driving forces for change? Which force is more ...
2
Ans to the question no -1 (a)
Justification of the statement-Change is inevitable
What is change
Generally change means ...
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If businesses fail to keep up with these constantly-moving targets, they lag behind, become stale
and, ultimately, fail....
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change management , answer of frequently asked question

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Generally change means making things different, to replace with another, growth opportunities. Change is life. If there was no change, we would not exist. Change is inevitable. In today's world, the only thing which is inevitable for all of us is constant change .As we progress from child through adulthood to old age, change happens, whether we like it or not.

Generally change means making things different, to replace with another, growth opportunities. Change is life. If there was no change, we would not exist. Change is inevitable. In today's world, the only thing which is inevitable for all of us is constant change .As we progress from child through adulthood to old age, change happens, whether we like it or not.

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change management , answer of frequently asked question

  1. 1. 1 1. a. “Change is inevitable”. Justify this statement. 03 b. What are the driving forces for change? Which force is more influential for change according to you? Give your opinion. 04 c. Contrast between planned and unplanned change with some examples. 03 2. a. “Resistance is any conduct that serves to maintain status quo in the face of pressure to alter the status quo.” Justify 02 b. Suppose you are HR manager of a company. Recently, top management has taken decision to change their office from manual to automation with latest technology. What are the probable resistances may create and why? What’s will be your role in overcoming resistances? Explain in your own. 06 c. What do you mean by active or passive resistance? Which one is constructive and why? 02 3. a. Make a relationship between leadership styles and change process successfully. 05 b. How emotional intelligence impact on developing effective leadership in organizations for change? Explain in brief. 05 4. a. Who is a change agent? What are the different models of change agency? Which model is most effective and why? Give your own opinion. 05 b. Suppose, you want to be a consultant or change agent in future- What are the important proficiencies you need to develop? Describe. 05
  2. 2. 2 Ans to the question no -1 (a) Justification of the statement-Change is inevitable What is change Generally change means making things different, to replace with another, growth opportunities. Change is life. If there was no change, we would not exist. Change is inevitable. In today's world, the only thing which is inevitable for all of us is constant change .As we progress from child through adulthood to old age, change happens, whether we like it or not. Why change is so important Change is important because only through meeting the challenge of change do we move closer to self-actualization. Change is important on so many levels.  Individual level  Organizational level In individual level Change enables ones to become the person he wants to be. Practicing and enacting change one selves is one of the most rewarding processes he will ever experience. It also displays a very valuable life skill. If one is able to pinpoint areas in ones career that he is unhappy with, or need further development, being able to change his approach shows a commitment to progression and a confidence in his own ability. In order to avoid stagnation, it’s important for internal changes to be made almost continuously. In Organizational level Any business in today's fast-moving environment that is looking for the pace of change to slow is likely to be sorely disappointed. The world changes every day. Society is constantly changing.
  3. 3. 3 If businesses fail to keep up with these constantly-moving targets, they lag behind, become stale and, ultimately, fail. Great business leaders understand this, which is why they continually look for ways to evolve and improve, because-  Technological innovation continues to accelerate  Disruption is continually driving marketplace evolution  Businesses that don’t continually change with their markets will fall behind  Those that change more quickly can gain an edge over their competitors  Ultimately, organizations that use obsolete processes or tools won’t be able to participate in the global economy The world is changing everyday: the population is changing, customer trends are changing, technology is changing and the economy is changing. Businesses who fail to embrace change can easily wind up as dinosaurs – out of touch and unable to compete under current trading conditions. Change in business is required so that we can be more productive, more efficient. According to Rupert Murdoch, “The world is changing very fast. Big will not beat small anymore. It will be the fast beating the slow.” According to Orlando A, Anaam C, The Change Agent, “Change is a permanent part of life. No matter who we are, where we live, how old or young, we all make changes in our lives. Most of us struggle with change… The ways we change inside, the ways we grow and learn, and become transformed are because of the changes in our lives.” According to Lao Tzu , “If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading.” According to Andy Warhol , “They always say time changes things, but you actually have to change them yourself.” So , from above we can conclude that ,we can not avoid the change. Not many things in life are inevitable. Even though we often fear it, change is one of the few things guaranteed in life. To cope up with this world , we have to face dynamic change (change upon change upon change).
  4. 4. 4 Ans to the question no -1 (b) The driving forces for change The concept of organizational change is in regard to organization-wide change, as opposed to smaller changes such as adding a new person, modifying a program, etc. Some experts refer to organizational transformation. Often this term designates a fundamental and radical reorientation in the way the organization operates. Change affects everybody, every business, every industry, every day. If you want to create a better future and succeed in your professional and personal life, you must understand the driving forces of change and how to lead, embrace and manage change. Change can be hard on leaders and team members alike if you don’t have a good understanding of the two primary forces of change:  external forces and  internal forces. External forces – • External forces can be very challenging. These are changes that we usually don’t choose. External forces in the general and task environments that force the organization to alter the way it competes. These include driving forces that shape change like:  Competitors movement  Changing customers’ needs and preferences  Supplier or sourcing instability.  Globalization and increased competition  Government policies
  5. 5. 5  Technological change  Economic factors  Political factors Internal forces –  While internal forces can still be challenging, one have more control over these changes. Internal forces inside the organization cause it to change its structure and strategy; some internal forces are responses to external pressures, but are significant enough to be considered separately. They might include low performance, low satisfaction, conflict, or the introduction of a new mission, new leadership. Driving forces that internal forces include ,are-  System dynamics  Organizational design and structure  Individual and group expectations  Managerial and administrative processes Force which is more influential for change according to me According to me , External forces are more influential for change. Generally external forces is beyond the control of the manager, but manager has control over internal forces. Again, internal forces have to be settled up by the change of external forces. External environment affects the organizations both directly and indirectly. The organizations do not have any control over the variables in such an environment. Accordingly, the organization cannot change the environment but must change themselves to align with the environment. Moreover , an organization have to be changed according to the environment. If organization don’t focus on external environment , than it becomes failure one. That’s why , external forces are more influential.
  6. 6. 6 When the organization's general or task environment changes, the organization's success often rides on its ability and willingness to change as well. Modern manager is change-conscious and operating in the constantly changing environment. Many external changes bombard the modern organizations and make change inevitable. The general environment has social, economic, legal and political and technological dimensions. Any of these can introduce the need for change. In recent years, far-reaching forces for change have included developments in information technology, the globalization of competition, and demands that organizations take greater responsibility for their impact on the environment. For continued success, a business must be ready to adapt to external forces. To adapt, an organization must recognize what external forces are likely to prompt change. Ignoring those external forces, and pretending that an organization operates in a vacuum, can lead to its failure in the market or to its collapse from within. Since there is no way to control such external factors, it is critical to maintain change management agility.That is, organizations should be able to change efficiently, effectively, and quickly.
  7. 7. 7 Ans to the question no -1 (c) Planned vs. unplanned change Planned change Unplanned change Change that is designed and implemented in an orderly and timely fashion in anticipation of future events Change that is a piecemeal response to events and circumstances as they develop A planned change can bring in the desired result for a business and can help in improving some portions of it An unplanned change can be chaotic and may bring in unexpected results. If the outcome of a situation remains unclear or unknown, the changes may not be expected and can be a sort of unplanned change Wide scope Narrow scope Change are planned in anticipation of event Change are made on occurrence of an event Huge amount of resource as required. Have not too many resources, like time, money, knowledge ,skills as required. Intentional or goal oriented Accidental
  8. 8. 8 Ans to the question no -2 (a) Resistance is any conduct that serves to maintain status quo in the face of pressure to alter the status quo What is resistance to change Resistance to change is the action taken by individuals and groups when they perceive that a change that is occurring as a threat to them. Causes of resistance to change includes  lack of communication about the change,  employees have prior negative experiences with past change,  lack of organization of the change process . In order to create change within an organization without resistance is impossible from all employees. Justification of statement One of the most important tasks of managers is to facilitate changes smoothly. Change in the current work environment is continuous and happens at a fast rate. Change is always inevitable but so is resistance to change. It is basic human nature of people to try and keep their methods and customs constant. This is where change management comes into play. An organization always must strive to adapt to change if it wants to be successful. Organizations that fail to change can be forced out of the market; this is why employees who show resistance to change puts it at risk. This statement means that the employees want to keep the current state of affairs therefore they display behaviors that will protect them from any effects that might result from the change. Several dynamics in the market threatens to change the status quo therefore an organization can change. These changes can result in job losses or even strict working Example-Change in product and service, administrative system, organizational size or structure, introduction of new technology. Example-Changing employee demographics, performance gap, governmental regulation, economic competition in global arena.
  9. 9. 9 conditions. Some employees develop resistance because of they because they want to maintain the status quo, as they  fear of the unknown,  loss of control,  don’t want the change,  Don’t want the change because they want things have always been done a certain way.  fear of losing company benefits,  fear of workplace freedom  fear of their jobs Loss of face  Loss of competency  Need for security  Poor timing  Force of habit  Lack of support  Lack of confidence According to Kurt Lewin’s Model of Change Process “Resistance is any conduct that serves to maintain status quo in the face of pressure to alter the status quo” is- Unfreezingthe statusquo.
  10. 10. 10 Ans to the question no -2 (b) If the office change from manual to automation with latest technology, than what will be the probable resistances When we talk about organizational change we will need to pass many barriers if we want to succeed in intentions to improve the business. we need to mention that this process isn’t simply a journey from point A to point B. One of the biggest barriers is resistance to change as an integral part of each change process. So , if top management want to change their office from manual to automation with latest technology, than obviously, there will some barriers. So there are two types of resistances may create . 1. Overt (open) and Immediate or active change resistance 2. Implicit (not directly) and Deferred(postpone) or passive resistance. Overt(open) and Immediate or active If we have ever been in a meeting where someone has expressed his or her opposition to a proposed change, then we have seen overt resistance. In this case, everyone, including the change agent, knows that this person is resisting the change. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. For instance, a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by  voicing complaints,  engaging in a work slowdown,  threatening to go on strike, or so on.
  11. 11. 11 As top management wants to change office from manual to automation with latest technology, than all employee have to be adopted with new technology. For this reason , many employee , may have to left their job. Those employee, who have the fear of this change , may make Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions to resist the change. Than , there will some Overt(open) and Immediate or active resistance may create. Implicit (not directly) and Deferred(postpone) or passive resistance If we have ever been in a meeting where someone has not expressed his or her opposition to a proposed change. But afterwards, he or she tells that he or she is going to do everything in his or her power to resist the changes, even though that person didn't say anything in the meeting, then we have seen implicit resistance. The change agent does not know that she will not go along with the program. The greater challenge is managing resistance that is implicit or deferred. Implicit resistance efforts are like-  loss of loyalty to the organization,  loss of motivation to work,  increased errors or mistakes,  Increased absenteeism and hence are more difficult to recognize. Similarly, deferred actions cloud the link between the source of the resistance and the reaction to it. Many employee , may have to left their job , As top management wants to change office from manual to automation with latest technology, than all employee have to be adopted with new technology. Those employee, who have the fear of this change , Fear of the unknown , Loss of control, Loss of face, Loss of competency, Need for security , Poor timing , Force of habit , Lack of support , Lack of confidence may make Implicit (not directly) and Deferred(postpone) or passive resistance. Like- Anger attack Silence withdrawal
  12. 12. 12 Deny it Endless question Ignore it and so on As HR manager my roles will be in overcoming this resistances Some tactics can be used by me as HR manager in dealing with this kinds resistance to change which will be created for the change of the organization’s system. Education and Communication (Show those effected the logic behind the change) Resistance can be reduced through communicating with employees to help them see the logic of a change. This tactic basically assumes that the source of resistance lies in misinformation or poor communication: If employees receive the full facts and get any misunderstandings cleared up, resistance will subside. Communication can be achieved through one-on-one discussions, memos, group presentations, or reports. It does, provided that the source of resistance is inadequate communication and that management-employee relations are characterized by mutual trust and credibility. Building Support and Commitment (Counseling, therapy, or new-skills training) It can be offered a range of supportive efforts to reduce resistance. When employees fear and anxiety are high, employee counseling and therapy, new-skills training, or a short paid leave of absence may facilitate adjustment. The drawback of this tactic is that, as with the others, it is time consuming. In addition, it is expensive, and its implementation offers no assurance of success. Negotiation (exchange something of value for a lessening of the resistance) Another way is to exchange something of value for a lessening of the resistance. For instance, if the resistance is centered in a few powerful individuals, a specific reward package can be negotiated that will meet their individual needs. Negotiation as a tactic may be necessary when resistance comes from a powerful source. Yet one cannot ignore its potentially high costs. In addition, there is the risk that, once a change agent negotiates with one party to avoid resistance,
  13. 13. 13 he or she is open to the possibility of being blackmailed by other individuals in positions of power. Coercion (Direct threats and force) The application of direct threats or force on the resisters. An examples of coercion are threats of transfer, loss of promotions, negative performance evaluations, and a poor letter of recommendation. The advantages and drawbacks of coercion are approximately the same as those mentioned for manipulation and cooptation. Other tactics are –  Participation -Participation in the decision process lessens resistance - Involve people in decision making -Seek out and use ideas and opinions  Implementing Change Fairly -Be consistent and procedurally fair  Manipulation and Cooptation -“Spinning” the message to gain cooperation  Selecting people who accept change -Hire people who enjoy change in the first place -Leverage the help of those who commit early -Create a change infrastructure
  14. 14. 14 Ans to the question no -2 (c) Active and passive resistance Today, almost all organizations (private or public, small, medium or large in size etc.) need to change. However, organizational change efforts are not always successful for various reasons. Active and passive resistance to organizational change is one of these. Active resistance- Active resistance is the use of violence to fight against perceived injustices. A it is out in the open, active resistance is more constructive and easier to manage than its underground counterpart. Example - – Deliberate opposition – Hostility – Agitating others – Failing to report problems – Problem denial – Chronic quarrels – “This won’t work
  15. 15. 15 Passive resistance- Passive resistance is a way of protesting in which an authority , such as the government, is challenged nonviolently. When resistance is hidden, it can go unnoticed and undermine efforts to transform an organization .Example- – Withholding info – Procrastination/ Delays – No confrontation, but still no productivity – Not attacking solution, but not supporting either – Over-complicating the new way – “We’ve always done it this way Which one is constructive between active and passive resistance According to my view point, Active resistance constructive resistance. Because it is out in the open, active resistance is more constructive and easier to manage than its underground counterpart. Active resistance is also known as defensive resistance. As Active resistance occurs where people are taking specific and deliberate action to resist the change, that’s why organization understand the opinion about the proposed change. So they can take more fruitful initiative to minimize the affect because of the proposed change.
  16. 16. 16 This can be very difficult to address the opinion of the people in case of passive resistance, as resisters have not particularly done anything wrong. So organization here , fails to adjust the change with the people. It may be overt, with such as public statements and acts of resistance, and it may be covert, such as mobilizing others to create an underground resistance movement. Overt active resistance, although potentially damaging, is at least visible and you have the option of using formal disciplinary actions (although more positive methods should normally be used first). That’s why active resistance is more constructive. Ans to the question no -3 (a) Relationship between leadership styles and change process Leadership styles Leadership styles are on a continuum, ranging from autocratic at one end, to laissez-faire at the other, with a variety of styles in between. At first glance, we may think that some leadership styles are better than others. The truth is that each leadership style has its place in a leader's toolkit. The wise leader knows to flex from one style to another as the situation demands.  Coercive style  Authoritative style  Affiliative style  Democratic  Pacesetting  Coaching
  17. 17. 17 Change process- It is the process which changes the state or which results in change. Change process as “Unfreezing, Changing & Refreezing”. Change process as problem solving & problem finding According to Kurt Lewin’s Model , the change process is UnfreezeChange  Refreeze . Several studies have confirmed that seventy percent of change initiatives fail and the failure has been largely attributed to leaders’ ineffectiveness in anchoring change programme. Change initiatives fails for inappropriate leadership styles . relationship between leadership style and change process-  Change success has been found to be dependent on the leadership style of a leader.  Through appropriate leadership style, change leaders would be able to  ‘influence and ultimately change the behaviors of employees, teams and the organization at large’  Leaders have to act as role drivers as well as role models in any successful change programme  four leadership styles related to change process: -Laisses-faire, - transactional, - transformational and -change-oriented. Laisses-faire Laisses-faire is a French term which means “allow to act”. Thus Laisses-faire leadership style is a ‘hands-off’ management approach. It is exhibited when leaders totally leave managerial activities to their subordinates. In relation to change process, laisses-faire leaders try to avoid change and when change finally occurs they eschew their responsibilities.
  18. 18. 18 Transactional leadership Transactional leadership style is also known as managerial leadership. The major focus of the style is on planning, supervision and group performance. Leaders who exhibit this style focus more on tasks, attempt to meet material and psychological needs of the employees in exchange for desired services or behaviour .Such leaders are concerned about day to day transaction in the organization Transformational leadership Transformational leadership style is characterized with four factors known as four ‘I’s:  idealized influence,  inspirational motivation,  intellectual simulation and  individualized consideration . The style focuses on meeting organizational needs, satisfies individual higher needs and evokes relationship oriented behaviour Generally it means empowering followers by instilling confidence in them. So in order to be able to organizational change in the organization, leaders have to be gradual in their process, ensure that prior preparations are well taken care of and appropriate leadership style is exhibited.
  19. 19. 19 Ans to the question no -3 (b) Emotional intelligence impact on developing effective leadership in organizations for change Emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence is widely known to be a key component of effective leadership. The ability to be perceptively in tune with yourself and your emotions, as well as having sound situational awareness can be a powerful tool for leading a team. The act of knowing, understanding, and responding to emotions, overcoming stress in the moment, and being aware of how your words and actions affect others, is described as emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence for leadership can consist of these five attributes:  self-awareness,  self-management,  empathy,  Social awareness  Social skill Emotional intelligence is a critical factor in leadership performance. Also emotional intelligence impact in the leadership competencies development-  change leadership;  acumen;  results orientation;  alliances building;  the leadership of individuals
  20. 20. 20 Emotional intelligence in leadership Self awareness: Knowing one’s internal states, preferences, resources and intuitions If one is self-aware, he/she always know how he /she feels, and know how emotions and actions can affect the people around them. Being self-aware when he/she in a leadership position also means having a clear picture of own strengths and weaknesses, and it means behaving with humility. A leader can improve his self awareness by- Emotional awareness-Recognizing one’s emotions and their effects. Accurate self assessment- Knowing one’s strengths and limits Self confidence-a strong sense of one’s self worth and capabilities. Self Management: Managing one’s internal states, impulses, and resources. Self-management leaders work consistently toward their goals, and they have extremely high standards for the quality of their work. A leader can improve his self management by- Self control- Keeping disruptive emotions and impulses in check Trustworthiness- Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity. Adaptability- Flexibility in handling change. Conscientiousness- Taking responsibility for personal performance Achievement orientation -Striving to improve or meeting a standard of excellence. Initiative- Readiness to act on opportunities
  21. 21. 21 Social Awareness: Awareness of others’ feelings, needs, and concerns social-awareness is an essential trait of a great leader. By knowing society culture, values, needs, habits and emotions, and how they affect own actions and the actions of others, one will be better able to manage stress, make better decisions and ultimately lead others to do the same.one can improve social awareness by- Feel the feelings of society Seek feedback from people Know strength and weakness of society Practice mindfulness Keep an open mind Follow on values Empathy- sensing others’ feelings and perspectives, and taking an active interest in their concern. For leaders, having empathy is critical to managing a successful team or organization. Leaders with empathy have the ability to put themselves in someone else's situation. They help develop the people on their team, challenge others who are acting unfairly, give constructive feedback, and listen to those who need it. People with high emotional intelligence have a good understanding of their own emotional states, which allows them to more accurately gauge the emotions of others. For business leaders, this empathy places them in their employees’ shoes, thus leading to more thoughtful and deliberate decisions. If a person wants to earn the respect and loyalty of his team, then show them care by being empathic. Organizational awareness- reading a group’s emotional currents and power relationships. Service orientation- anticipating, recognizing, and meting customer needs.
  22. 22. 22 Social skills: Adeptness at inducing desirable responses in others. Leaders who do well in the social skills element of emotional intelligence are great communicators. They're just as open to hearing bad news as good news, and they're expert at getting their team to support them and be excited about a new mission or project. Leaders who have good social skills are also good at managing change and resolving conflicts diplomatically. They're rarely satisfied with leaving things as they are, but they don't sit back and make everyone else do the work: they set an example with their own behavior. Developing others- Sensing others’ development needs. Leadership- Inspiring and guiding individual and groups. Influence- Effective tactics for persuasion. Communication- Listening openly and sending convincing messages. Change catalyst- Initiating or managing change. Conflict management- Negotiating and resolving disagreements. Building bonds- Nurturing instrumental relationships. Teamwork and collaboration- Working with others toward shared goals. Creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals.
  23. 23. 23 Ans to the question no -4 (a) Change agent A change agent is the facilitator, educator, adviser of the change. He/she helps the sponsor and the implementers stay aligned with each other. The change agent acts as data gatherer, meeting facilitator and coach. He/she is a person from inside or outside the organization who helps an organization transform itself by focusing on such matters as organizational effectiveness, improvement, and development. Effective change agents demonstrate extraordinary versatility within a broad skill set. The following are some of the roles a change agent may play as he/she influences change in the organization.  Investigate  Encourage  Advocate  Facilitate  Mediate  Advise  Manage The different models of change agency Change agents often play significant roles in initiating, managing or implementing change in organizations. Yet these roles are invariably exaggerated or misrepresented by one‐dimensional models that ignore the full complexity and scope of change agent roles. The four models is the
  24. 24. 24 significance of the multifaceted and complex roles change agents perform in organizational change, while underlining the importance of conceiving change interventions within organizations as processes that need to be coordinated and effectively managed.  Leadership models  Management models  Consultancy models  Team models Leadership model In Leadership model Change agents are identified as leaders or senior executives at the top of the organization who envision , initiate or sponsor strategic changes of a far-reaching or transformational nature. Management models Change agents are conceived as middle level managers and functional specialists who adapt, carry forward or build support for strategic change within business units or key functions. Consultancy models Change agents are conceived as external or internal consultants who operate at a strategic, operational, task or process level within an organization, providing advice, expertise, project management, change program coordination, or process skills in facilitating change. Team models Change agents are conceived as teams that may operate at a strategic, operational, task or process level within an organization and may include managers, functional specialists and employees at all levels, as well as internal and external consultants.
  25. 25. 25 Leadership models Management models Consultancy models Team models  Innovator  Corporate entrepreneur  Transformational leader  Strategic architect  Charismatic leader  Visionary  Sponsor  Change leader  Change champion  Adaptor  Empowerer  Developer  Change maker  Pathfinder  Change manager  Action researcher  Facilitator  Analyst  Process consultant  Catalyst  Counsellor  Expert  T-Group  Composite group  Organic group  Quality circle  Task group  Guiding coalition  Transition team  Pilot group Most effective model According to my view point, team model is the most effective than others. The idea of change agency as a team process, rather than an individual task is the most effective one. In team model , Change agents are conceived as teams that may operate at a strategic, operational, task or
  26. 26. 26 process level within an organization and may include managers, functional specialists and employees at all levels, as well as internal and external consultants. For any complex work , Team is more effective than individual , as team has more strong and combination knowledge ,skills, etc. This is a decentralized process, than the employee of the organization are usually being motivated . The change agent in team model are from internal source as well as external source of the organization . so here , decision making process is more effective than others.  When the chief executive and other senior managers can not perform this role internally, it can be taken on by outside consultants or ‘interim managers’ charged with coordinating a complete change program, using teams of internal and external consultant  The advantages of combining the inside knowledge and specialist expertise of internal and external consulting teams has been recognized as a way of improving the effectiveness of implementation  Change management interventions are often based on reducing central hierarchical control in organizations and this has resulted in a growing emphasis on self-managed teams as mechanisms to achieve greater horizontal coordination across organizational divisions, units and work processes  Team coordination at various levels is also important because change in one area of an organization can often have an important impact on other areas  Large-scale organizational changes are simply too complex and high-risk for any one individual to lead or direct them, even when there is a strong sense of vision and direction. These factors have underlined the importance of change teams at both a strategic and operational level within organizational change processes. Team-working as a form of ‘empowerment’ and devolution of line management decision-making is essential in implementing improvements in customer care, quality standards and productivity
  27. 27. 27 Ans to the question no -4 (b) If I want to be a consultant or change agent in future, the important proficiencies I need to develop Whereas change management used to primarily focus on operational and/or process improvements and cost-effectiveness, it is now something that managers are using to think about how things get done regardless of institutional hierarchy. Organizations are looking to change agents to execute new processes and help employees adjust to new ways of doing things. Change agents can be managers or employees, or external consultants hired to facilitate initiatives. Internal change agents have the advantage of being familiar with an organization’s history, operations, and people, while external change agents can provide a fresh perspective without the influence of a firm’s traditions and culture. Whether an organization appoints internal change agents, hires outside consultants or does a combination of both scenarios, “the success of any change effort depends heavily on the quality and workability of the relationship between the change agent and the key decision makers within the organization,” according to an article in the International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration. So ,if I want to be a change agent in future , the proficiencies which I must adopt are- Ownership and Responsibility. People respect courage and accountability. In order to lead effectively, I need to ultimately hold myself responsible for team’s performance.
  28. 28. 28 Flexibility. Being open to change requires an entrepreneurial attitude. This includes connecting with people of different generations and backgrounds to gain a deeper understanding of perspectives, experiences, and personalities. Diversified Knowledge. Successful leaders avoid getting stuck in the confines of their industry. By looking at what is going on in other sectors, and seeing what is working and applicable to their own industries, leaders can gain valuable insights and spot new opportunities for growth. Priority and Results Focus. In creating change, it’s often helpful to tie specific priorities to the overall business goals. These are must-win battles that determine success or failure and are focused on improving the company’s performance in the marketplace. Doing this will streamline decision making and create a clear picture of how the company is measuring up to expectations. Effective Listening Skills. Effective change agents are able to explore perspectives and take them into account when looking for solutions. This will help in getting buy-in to a change; people want to feel that others are listening to their ideas. Without above proficiency , I must demonstrate the necessary interpersonal, analytic, personal, and project management competencies . like,  Organizational behavior.  Individual psychology.  Group dynamics.  Management and organization theory.  Research methods/statistics.  Comparative cultural perspectives.  Functional knowledge of the business.
  29. 29. 29  Organization design.  Organization research.  System dynamics.  History of organization development.  Theories and models of change.  Managing the consulting process.  Analysis/diagnosis.  Designing/choosing appropriate and relevant interventions.  Facilitation and process consultation.  Developing client capability.  Evaluating organization change. Moreover, I need to understand the importance of: Overcoming organizational defenses. Using the self as an instrument. Creating the holding environment. Supervision and shadow consultancy. ========END========

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