Mais conteúdo relacionado

1-FE 657- Research Methods I.ppt

  1. FE 657- Research Methodology and Seminar in Financial Economics Part I Understanding the Elements of Research Methodology
  2. Main Contents of the lecture 1. Introduction – What is research? 2. What is knowledge and how is it generated 3. The Scientific Method of Research 4. Types of Reasoning 5. Research Methods vs. Research Methodology 6. Classification of Research 7. Research Ethics  Harm to participants  Lack of informed consent  Invasion of privacy  Deception  Protecting research subjects 2
  3. Introduction -The Meaning of Research  While research is important in both business and academia, there is no consensus in the literature on how it should be defined.  The main reason for this is that different people can interpret research differently.  However, from the many definitions there appears to be conformity that research:  is a process of enquiry and investigation;  is systematic and methodical; and  increases knowledge.
  4. Introduction -The Meaning of Research  The ‘process of enquiry and investigation’ suggests that research is all about having a predetermined set of questions, and then aim to answer these questions through the gathering of information and analysis.  “Systematic and methodical” implies that your research must be well organized and go through a series of stages.  i.e. research is done in an organized manner.  A research project has a well-known structure: a beginning, a middle, and an end. 4
  5. Introduction -The Meaning of Research  “Research increases knowledge” means that:  Not only your own knowledge about the subject improves as a result of your research, but so too will that of your audience.  Hence, research can be defined as a ‘step-by-step process that involves the collecting, recording, analyzing and interpreting of information’ 5
  6. Introduction -The Meaning of Research  Research is about advancing the frontiers of knowledge.  Research = creation of knowledge  It is a systematic and methodological process of enquiry to solve problems and increase knowledge.  Social interrelationship, opinions, customs, habits, conditions of life can be the focus of a social research.  To do research, it is necessary to know what the correct tools are, and how to use them. 6
  7. Introduction -The Meaning of Research  And the techniques and range of tools you use to do research are called Research methods.  Research methods provide the needed information that guide policy makers to make informed decisions by reducing uncertainty.  With the right sort of methods you should be able to convince other people that your conclusions have some validity
  8. Introduction – Objectives of Research  The role of research has increased in modern times b/c research  provides the basis for nearly all government policies.  helps in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.  reduces uncertainty for policy makers, planners, business managers, and other stakeholders by providing information that improves the decision- making process 8
  9. Introduction – Objectives of Research  In general, research studies may be broadly grouped as to:  gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it - exploratory research studies  portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group- descriptive research studies  determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else -diagnostic research studies  test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables- hypothesis-testing research studies 9
  10. Introduction – What You Can do With Research  Research can be used to:  Categorize - involves forming a typology of objects, events or concepts and can be useful in explaining which ‘things’ belong together and how.  Describe - attempts to examine situations in order to establish what is the norm- the what question.  Explain - aims to move beyond ‘just getting the facts’ in order to make sense of the myriad other elements involved – the why question. 10
  11. Introduction – What You Can do With Research  Evaluate - involves making judgments about the quality of objects or events.  Compare - Two or more contrasting cases can be examined to highlight differences and similarities between them, leading to a better understanding of phenomena.  Correlate - relationships between two phenomena are investigated to see whether they move in the same direction. 11
  12. Introduction – What You Can do With Research  Predictions- if there has been a strong relationship between characteristics or events in the past, then similar circumstances should exist in the future, leading to predictable outcomes.  Control- Once you understand an event or situation, you may be able to find ways to control it.  If the cause and effect relationships are identified you are able to exert control over the vital ingredients. 12
  13. Introduction – Motivation in Research  The motivation to do research may be due to the desire:  to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits  to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research  to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work  to be of service to society  to get respectability, etc. 13
  14. Factors Affecting Social Research  Although research is important, it is not a panacea for all the problems that an organization faces.  Therefore, an organization should decide upon the option of conducting research after considering various factors.  time constraints,  availability of resources,  availability of data, and  nature of information that the organization is expecting and the costs involved. 14
  15. How is knowledge generated  Research is about generating knowledge - an awareness of something or an understanding of a matter.  Knowledge of our social world comes from a range of different sources:  through reasoning  through intuition, or  through the use of appropriate methods.  But, not all roads to knowledge are equally useful/reliable. 15
  16. How is knowledge generated  The methods of obtaining knowledge can be categorized as: scientific and non-scientific methods.  Non-Scientific Method: gaining knowledge through senses, experience, intuition, and revelation.  1. Senses and Experiences (Experiential knowing). Some gain knowledge through physical senses - seeing, sound, touch, taste, and smell - and experience.  When one gets too close to a fire and gets burned, he or she gains the knowledge that it is dangerous to be too close to the fire. 16
  17. How is knowledge generated  2. Intuition (Tenacity): knowledge is obtained if one strongly believes what one perceives is real and true.  Intuition is the strong feeling (belief) that what one perceives to be the case.  Believing something because, based on your view of the world and your assumptions, you don’t want to give up your belief.  But it is subjective, because:  If two people hold mutually contradictory beliefs, both cannot be true. 17
  18. How is knowledge generated  3. Revelation (Authoritative knowledge): An alternative to an individual’s belief in what is true, could come from what authorities say is true.  Revelation is the presentation of the truth from a supernatural source.  We may feel convinced that something is true because an authority (the Bible, Koran, a leader or teacher) tells us it is true.  Authorities would force beliefs under threat of some kind of penalty. 18
  19. How is knowledge generated  But, experts with different perspectives will hold different beliefs. How is one to know which expert/authority is right?  So, knowledge acquired through nonscientific methods cannot be subjected to objective testing.  Scientific Method: The most valid approach is through science, which is objective and self-correcting  This method of gaining knowledge is considered to be the most reliable method of gaining knowledge.  knowledge obtained by scientific method can be subject to testing (verification). 19
  20. The Scientific Method of Research  The scientific method consists of a systematic observation, classification and interpretation of data  appropriate methods are used.  Scientific knowledge relies on observations which are objective, data-driven, public, and potentially replicable.  The process is also incremental, with a series of small steps rather than a giant leap. 20
  21. The Scientific Method of Research  Science insists on following systematic, methodical “rules“ for gathering empirical evidence.  Because, evidence that is obtained in an unsystematic way is regarded as problematic;  i.e. it is seen as less trust worthy or unreliable.  The actual practice of science also shows that there are alternative methods of gathering information and of analyzing the data. 21
  22. The Scientific Method of Research  Of course, what constitutes a ‘science’ and the nature of its methods are open to dispute.  But, in general science is interested to discover “ laws“ or regularities of both the physical and social worlds.  The law of gravity  demand and supply  Some sciences, deal with the physical and material world- natural science. 22
  23. The Scientific Method of Research  The subject matter of the natural sciences is the physical world, and is independent of the researcher and the way it is understood.  For example, a tree has a physical structure of its own, regardless of the scientist who is studying the way it grows.  But, other sciences involve the study of people – their beliefs, behavior, interactions, attitudes, institutions, and so forth- social sciences.  They are sometimes also called soft sciences. 23
  24. The Scientific Method of Research  The subject matter in social science (human life) is fluid, formidable to observe, and hard to measure precisely with laboratory instruments.  But, it does not mean it lacks rigor. 24
  25. Steps in the Scientific Method of Research  The main steps in the scientific method include: 1. Choose a question to investigate 2. Identify a hypothesis related to the question 3. Make testable predictions in the hypothesis 4. Design an experiment to answer hypothesis question 5. Collect data (experiment) 6. Determine results and assess their validity 7. Determine if results support or refute your hypothesis 25
  26. Characteristics of the Scientific Method  A set of overriding principles govern the scientific investigation.  It is based on empirical evidence  The scientific method is based on empirical evidence and utilizes relevant concepts  It is concerned with the realities that are observable through the use of verifiable experience or observation.  Some of the realities could be directly observed, like the number of students present in the class or the number of people employed in a factory. 26
  27. Characteristics of the Scientific Method  But, there are also realities which cannot be observed directly.  Realities that cannot be put to “sensory experience” directly or indirectly  existence of heaven,  the Day of Judgment,  life hereafter,  God’s rewards for good deeds, etc.  do not fall within the domain of scientific method. 27
  28. Characteristics of the Scientific Method  it is based on logical reasoning (Critical thinking)  The scientific method practices logical reasoning which allows determination of the truth through steps different from emotional and hopeful thinking  Science is fundamentally a rational activity, and the scientific explanation must make sense.  Religion may rest on revelations, custom, or traditions, gambling on faith, but science must rest on logical reasons. 28
  29. Characteristics of the Scientific Method  It possesses skeptical attitude  any proposition is open to analysis and critique  This is the constant questioning of your beliefs and conclusions.  It requires the possession of skeptical attitudes.  A skeptic holds beliefs tentatively, and is open to new evidence and rational argument 29
  30. Characteristics of the Scientific Method  It is Verifiable: Observations made through SM are to be verified by using the senses to confirm or refute the previous findings.  The more the results are replicated or repeated, the more we will gain confidence in the scientific nature of our research. 30
  31. Characteristics of the Scientific Method  It is Cumulative: Prior to the start of any study researchers try to scan through the literature.  Instead of reinventing the wheel researchers take stock of the existing body of knowledge and try to build on it -knowledge keeps on growing.  A linkage between the present and the previous body of knowledge has to be established, and that is how the knowledge accumulates.  Every new idea does not have to start from a scratch; 31
  32. Characteristics of the Scientific Method  It is Deterministic: Science is based on the assumption that all events have antecedent causes that are subject to identification and logical understanding.  For the scientist, nothing “just happens” – it happens for a reason.  events occur according to regular laws and causes.  The scientific researchers try to explain the emerging phenomenon by identifying its causes.  The researcher tries to narrow down the number of reasons in such a way that some action could be taken. 32
  33. Characteristics of the Scientific Method  It possess ethical and ideological neutrality: The conclusions drawn through interpretation of the results of data analysis should be objective;  i.e., they should be based on the facts of the findings derived from actual data, and not on our own subjective or emotional values.  Researchers are human beings, having individual ideologies, religious affiliations, cultural differences which can influence the research findings.  Therefore, follow the principle of objectivity, uphold neutrality, and present the results in an unbiased manner. 33
  34. Characteristics of the Scientific Method  It lends to statistical generalization: The scope of the research findings in one organizational setting applicable to other settings.  The more generalizable the research, the greater its usefulness and value.  Science Is Public: Scientists only recognize research as valid or useful when they can scrutinize it.  Generally, we accept research as valid if it has undergone a peer review process. 34
  35. Ways of Reasoning  The modern method of science is broadly of two broad methods of reasoning: Induction and Deduction.  However, it is often not possible practically to apply either extreme in a pure fashion.  The shortcomings of each can be mitigated by using a combination that is formulated as the hypothetico-deductive method.  The scientific method uses the features of each approach in a pragmatic way. 35
  36. Ways of Reasoning  Induction and deduction represent the two contrasting approaches to acquiring knowledge and understanding the world.  Plato argued for deductive thinking (starting with theory to make sense of what we observe)  While Aristotle argued for inductive thinking (starting with observations in order to build theories). 36
  37. Ways of Reasoning  Deductive reasoning (the rationalist’s approach)  An argument based on deduction begins with general statements and, through logical argument, comes to a specific conclusion.  Sometimes this is called a "top-down" approach.  It consists of a major general premise (statement), followed by a minor, more specific premise, and a conclusion which follows logically.
  38. Ways of Reasoning  The research in this case is guided by the theory.  begin with a theory – to specific hypotheses – into observations.  test the hypotheses with specific data- a confirmation (or not) of our original theories.  Theories are speculative answers to perceived problems, and are tested by observation and experiment.  While it is possible to confirm a theory through observations, it can also be falsified and totally rejected - inconsistent observations. 38
  39. Ways of Reasoning  A simple example of deductive logic:  All live mammals breathe (General statement – first premise);  This cow is a live mammal (Inference – second premise);  Therefore, this cow breathes (Conclusion).  Economic theory rests largely on deductive logic.  Examples: utility maximization in the consumer behavior; profit maximization in the producer behavior.  when one theory is rejected, another is proposed and tested, and thus the fittest theory survives. 39
  40. Ways of Reasoning Deductive Reasoning
  41. Ways of Reasoning  Inductive Reasoning (the empiricist’s approach)  Inductive reasoning starts from specific observations and then develops a general conclusion from them. o It is the commonest popular form of scientific activity – We use it daily.  In induction one starts from observed data and develops a generalization which explains the relationships between the objects observed - this a "bottom up" approach.  The inductive logic of reasoning is followed in most empirical economic research.
  42. Ways of Reasoning  Three conditions need to be satisfied for generalizations to be considered legitimate by inductivists: 1. There must be a large number of observation statements. 2. The observations must be repeated under a large range of circumstances and conditions 3. No observation statement must contradict the derived generalization  A simple example will demonstrate the line of reasoning:  All the giraffes that I have seen (Repeated observations)have very long necks.  Therefore, all giraffes have long necks (Conclusion) . 42
  43. Ways of Reasoning  The scientific revolution in the 17th century was based on this approach, led by such scientists as Galileo and Newton  The fall of an apple on Newton’s head from the tree led to the theory of gravity  Mendel’s discovery of genetics and Darwin’s theory of evolution - developed through inductive reasoning.
  44. Ways of Reasoning Inductive Reasoning
  45. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning  But, choosing between one position and the other is somewhat unrealistic in practice.  The hypothetico-deductive method combines inductive and deductive reasoning.  inductively developing hypotheses (testable theories) from observations, charting their implications by deduction, and testing them to refine or reject them in light of the results.  The combination of experience with deductive and inductive reasoning is the foundation of modern scientific research. 45
  46. In other words, most social scientific research involves both inductive and deductive reasoning as the scientist shifts endlessly back and forth between theory and empirical observations – research cycle.
  47. Research methodology and Research methods  It is necessary to distinguish the difference between the two terms as students often use them interchangeably, although there is a distinct difference.  Methodology can be defined as ‘the approach and strategy used to conduct research’.  Research methodology is the science and philosophy behind all research.  It may be understood as the science of studying how research is done scientifically. 47
  48. Research methodology and Research methods  Research methodology refers to the overall approaches & perspectives to the research process as a whole and is concerned with the following main issues:  Why you collected certain data What data you collected Where you collected it How you collected it How you analyzed it, etc. 48
  49. Research methodology and Research methods  The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods.  Because it includes:  The theoretical perspective  The tools and techniques of data collection  The methods of data analysis.  On the other hand, methods refer to the different ways by which data can be collected and analyzed.  So, research methods do constitute a part of the research methodology. 49
  50. Research methodology and Research methods  A research method refers only to the various specific tools or ways data can be collected and analyzed, e.g. a questionnaire; interview checklist; data analysis software etc.)  Research methods comprises of two things  Research techniques – methods or techniques of data collection– survey methods, or other methods  Research tools- instruments for collection of the data – questionnaire schedule, historical record, etc. Examples of methods (regression analysis, optimization models, surveys, ….. ) 50
  51. In the form of Recollection  So far we have discussed  The meaning of research  Objective, purpose of research  different sources of knowledge  The scientific method of inquiry  Steps  General characteristics  Ways of reasoning  The research methodology and research methods 51
  52. Evaluation of Social Research  How can you tell whether a piece of research is any good?  When doing research, we should be able to assess the quality of the research projects.  An evaluation of a research involves assessing  Validity  Reliability  Replicability  Generalizability 52
  53. Evaluation of Social Research  Validity of research is about the degree to which the research findings are true.  Different types of validity issues could be considered:  Measurement validity: The degree to which measures (e.g. questions on a questionnaire) successfully indicate concepts.  Internal validity: The extent to which statements are supported by the study.  External validity: The extent to which findings can be generalized to external (other) settings.  Ecological validity: The extent to which the findings are applicable to people’s everyday, natural social settings. 53
  54. Evaluation of Social Research  Reliability is about the degree to which the results of the research are reputable.  Some reliability factors include:  Stability: The degree to which a measure is stable over time.  Internal reliability: The degree to which the indicators that make up the scale or index are consistent.  Inter-observer consistency: The degree to which there is consistency in the decisions of several ‘observers’ in their recording of observations. 54
  55. Evaluation of Social Research  Replicability is about whether the research can be repeated and whether similar results are obtained.  This is a check on the objectivity and lack of bias of the research findings.  It requires a detailed account of the concepts used in the research, the measurements applied and methods employed. 55
  56. Evaluation of Social Research  Generalizability refers to the results of the research and how far they are applicable to locations and situations beyond the scope of the study.  There is little point in doing research if it cannot be applied in a wider context.  On the other hand, especially in qualitative research, there may well be limits to the generalizability of the findings.  If so, the limitations should be pointed out. 56
  57. Classifications of Research  Research comes in many shapes and sizes.  There are different criteria for classifying research activities.  Hence, the classification may be in terms of:  The research (data collection)techniques used in it,  the time dimension,  research environment  data used.  The intended uses of research; 57
  58. Classifications of Research Descriptive versus Analytical Research  The purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.  The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables.  The researcher can only report what has happened or what is happening.  Example; the frequency of shopping by people, the preference of people, the number of employed workers in a factory, etc. 58
  59. Classifications of Research  Analytical studies go beyond simple description and attempt to model empirically the social phenomena under investigation.  In analytical research the researcher has to use facts or information and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.  It asks “why” or “how” and tries to find the answer to a problem. 59
  60. Classifications of Research Applied versus Basic Research:  Research may be undertaken either to understand the fundamental nature of a social reality (basic research) or to apply knowledge to address specific practical issues (applied research).  Applied research aims at finding solution for an immediate pressing problem facing a society or an industrial unit or business organization.  Theory is less central in applied research. 60
  61. Classifications of Research  Basic research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory.  It is primarily concerned with the understanding of the fundamental nature of social reality.  It is the source of most scientific ideas and ways of thinking about the world.  It is mostly exploratory in nature. 61
  62. Classifications of Research Quantitative vs Qualitative Research  Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantitative figure or quantity or amount.  applicable to phenomenon that can be expressed in terms of quantity.  Most often we collect data and see whether a hypothesis is consistent with the data  Methodology is simpler than qualitative research  But it often takes longer time and is expensive. 62
  63. Classifications of Research  Qualitative Research  Qualitative research is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions, and behavior.  It generates results, which are not subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis.  Generally group interviews, projective techniques and in depth interviews are used.  Qualitative research is particularly important in the behavioral sciences. 63
  64. Classifications of Research  BUT, social research is often pluralistic:  researchers often combine quantitative and qualitative research methods within the same study.  Mixed-method research strategies are particularly effective in policy-oriented research and the contribution that qualitative research can make to policy evaluation is increasingly being recognized. 64
  65. Classifications of Research Other types of researches  Research  Can be one time or longitudinal research,  can be field setting or laboratory based or simulation research,  Can be inferential, experimental or simulation studies,  can also be clinical or diagnostic research, etc. 65
  66. Time Dimension in Research  Time is an important element of any research design.  Quantitative research may be divided into two groups in terms of the time dimension  A single point in time (cross sectional)  Multiple points research (longitudinal research)  Cross –sectional research takes a snapshot approach to social world.  This is the simplest and less costly research approach.  Limitation – cannot capture social processes or changes. 66
  67. Time Dimension in Research  Longitudinal research examines features of people or other units more than one time.  It is usually more complex and costly than cross sectional research but is also more powerful especially with respect to social changes.  Time series research – this is longitudinal study on a group of people or other units across multiple periods (e.g. time series data on exports of coffee). 67
  68. Time Dimension in Research  The panel study – consists of a sample of study units (people, firms, etc.) randomly selected, who are questioned on two or more occasions.  The researcher observes exactly the same people group or organization across time periods, each time using the snapshot approach.  In panel study the focus is on individuals or households.  Example: interviewing the same people in 1991, 1993, 1995, etc, and observing the change- a panel data set. 68
  69. Time Dimension in Research  A cohort Analysis – is similar to the panel study, but rather than observing the exact same people, a category of people who share similar life experience in a specified period is studied.  Hence the focus is on group of individuals not on specific individuals or households.  Example: students from a particular year of matriculation or people on strike at a certain time. 69
  70. Addressing ethical issues  The value of research depends on its ethical veracity.  Ethics are the rules of conduct in research.  How can we believe the results of a research project if we doubt the honesty of the researchers and the integrity of the research methods used?  Ethics is not just considered from the point of view of the researcher, but also from the viewpoint of those with a vested interest in the research- individuals, organizations and governments. 70
  71. Addressing ethical issues  Researchers, subjects, funding bodies and society may have conflicting incentives/interests.  As a result of its focus on people, ethical issues are centrally important in research.  In other words, ethical responsibility is required to do the work honestly and with integrity.  Researchers must ensure the accuracy, appropriateness, of data and research results. 71
  72. Addressing ethical issues  Two examples that necessitated the use of research ethics:  The way German scientists had used captive human subjects in gruesome experiments during WW II.  In the 1950s and 1960s, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study involved the withholding of known effective treatment for syphilis from African-American participants who were infected.  Hence, nowadays when working with human participants, it is often necessary to obtain some kind of ethical approval –  from ethical boards. 72
  73. 73 Research stakeholders To treat participants in your research with respect and due consideration is a basic tenet of civilized behaviour.
  74. Addressing ethical issues  Honesty in your work  It is easy to cheat, but the penalties resulting from discovery are stiff and humiliating.  So, honesty is essential to engender a level of trust and credibility for the development of knowledge.  Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data.  Do not deceive colleagues, research sponsors, or the public. 74
  75. Addressing ethical issues  Researcher-researcher relation (Intellectual ownership)  Unless otherwise stated, what you write and the ideas will be regarded as your own work.  Directly copying someone else’s work into your report, thesis etc. and letting it be assumed that it is your own – plagiarism.  Plagiarism is the worst offence in academics  Plagiarism is the unauthorized use of someone else's thoughts or wording either by  incorrect documentation, failing to cite your sources altogether, or  simply by relying too heavily on external resources. 75
  76. Addressing ethical issues  Plagiarism includes copied data/information, falsification, fabrication or omission of significant results.  It also includes informal published material such as the "buying" of a paper from another student.  Plagiarizing undermines your academic integrity and betrays your own responsibilities.  Because it is intellectual theft, plagiarism is considered as an academic crime with punishment  Can easily be detected through peer reviews 76
  77. Addressing ethical issues  Some examples of plagiarism include  The verbatim copying of another person’s work without acknowledging it.  The close paraphrasing of another person’s work by simply changing a few words or altering the order of presentation without acknowledging it.  The unacknowledged quotation of phrases from another person’s work and/or the presentation of another person’s idea(s) as one’s own. 77
  78. Addressing ethical issues  Citation and acknowledgement  In no field of research can one rely entirely on own ideas, concepts and theories alone.  Standard practices have been developed to permit the originators of the work and ideas to be acknowledged within your own text  This is called citation.  You should acknowledge the assistance of others and any collaboration with others. 78
  79. Addressing ethical issues  Responsibility and accountability of the researcher  You do have responsibilities to fellow researchers, respondents, the public and the academic community.  Accurate descriptions are required of  what you have done,  how you have done it,  the information you obtained,  the techniques you used,  the analysis you carried out, and  the results of experiments , etc. 79
  80. Addressing ethical issues  Falsifying results—to make them fit your conclusion.  Trimming—removing data that does not fit in with your analysis.  Biased or inappropriate analysis.  Fabrication and falsification of research results are serious forms of misconduct.  Researcher should avoid either a false statement or an omission that distorts the truth - Objectivity.  In order to preserve accurate documentation, every researcher has an obligation to maintain a clear and complete record of data acquired. 80
  81. Addressing ethical issues  It is unethical to conduct research that is badly planned or poorly executed.  Fraud must be avoided in research and this can come in several forms:  Being selective in sampling.  Not reporting survey response/participation rates.  Deliberately biasing the data collection instruments—for example, asking leading questions in surveys.  Making up data—because you can’t be bothered doing the data collection. 81
  82. Addressing ethical issues  Data and Interpretations  There is often a temptation to be too selective in the use of data and in presenting the results of the analysis.  Irresponsible policy advise  Waste of research fund, etc.  Silently rejecting or ignoring evidence which happens to be contrary to one’s beliefs constitutes a breach of integrity.  What could be of vital importance in developing a theory could be lost.  Scientific objectivity should be maintained. 82
  83. Addressing ethical issues  It is considered a breach of research integrity to fail to report data that contradict or merely fail to support the conclusions.  Negative (unexpected) results must also be reported.  Records should include sufficient detail to permit examination for the purpose of  replicating the research,  responding to questions that may result from unintentional error or misinterpretation,  establishing authenticity of the records, and  confirming the validity of the conclusions. 83
  84. Addressing ethical issues  Funding bodies and researchers  Pressure and sponsorship from sources which might influence the impartiality of the research outcomes should be avoided.  Fund allocations directing research  ‘money buying research results’? 84
  85. Addressing ethical issues Researcher and research subjects Some ethical principles governing data collection include: harm to respondents, informed consent, respect for privacy and safeguarding the confidentiality of data.  In collecting data researchers need to be guided by principles of respect for persons and obtaining informed consent.  There are two standards that are applied in order to help protect the privacy of research participants. 85
  86. Addressing ethical issues  Confidentiality – participants are assured that identifying information will not be made available to anyone who is not directly involved in the study.  If you promise anonymity to questionnaire respondents, then that means that no one, including you, will know who has completed the questionnaire. 86
  87. Addressing ethical issues  Anonymity - means that the participant will remain anonymous throughout the study -- even to the researchers themselves.  Anonymity means that no one will see (your completed questionnaire/interview transcript) except the researcher and all questionnaires and records will be deleted once the research is completed.’  The anonymity standard is a strong guarantee of privacy, but it is sometimes difficult to accomplish, especially in situations where participants have to be measured at multiple time points (e.g., a pre-post study). 87
  88. Addressing ethical issues 1. Harm to participants  Physical harm, humiliation, embarrassment, loss of trust, harm to participant’s development, loss of self-esteem, stress, etc.  Ethical standards require that researchers should not put participants in a situation where they might be at risk of being harmed as a result of their participation.  Harm can be defined as both physical and psychological.  Minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions with vulnerable populations. 88
  89. Addressing ethical issues 2. Lack of informed consent  The principle of voluntary participation requires that people should not be coerced into participating in research.  Voluntary participation requires informed consent.  This means that prospective research participants must be fully informed about the procedures and risks involved in research and must give their consent to participate. i.e. getting the informed consent of those you are going to interview, question, observe or take materials from. 89
  90. Addressing ethical issues  Informed consent implies that persons who are invited to participate in the research activities should be free to choose to take part or refuse.  Participants should be given as much information as needed to make decision on participation  They are free to decide after having been given the fullest information concerning the nature and purpose of the research. 90
  91. Addressing ethical issues 3. Invasion of privacy  This is linked to informed consent  Covert methods are violations of the privacy principle on the grounds that participants are not being given the opportunity to refuse invasions of their privacy  Participants may refuse to address specific questions even though they have agreed to participate Protecting research subjects  Legal protection  Professional associations and universities (ethics committees) 91
  92. Addressing ethical issues 5. Deception  Deception occurs when researchers present their research as something other than what it is.  Researchers usually want to limit participants understanding of what the research is about so that they act naturally to the experiment.  Collection of data illegally, under false pretences (from minors, etc.) is unethical.  Getting access and consent to do research is essential. 92
  93. Addressing ethical issues  Debriefing: is talking to participants following their role in the research.  It is often important to provide participants with any additional information they need to develop their understanding of the research after the data have been collected.  In some cases, participants may also be interested in a summary of the research findings. 93
  94. Addressing ethical issues  So, there needs to be a procedure that assures that researchers will consider relevant ethical issues in formulating research plans.  Formulating an Institutional Review Board (IRB)  A panel of persons will review proposals with respect to ethical implications and decide whether additional actions need to be taken to assure the safety and rights of participants.  Ethics committees play an important part in ensuring that no badly designed or harmful research is permitted. 94
  95. Addressing ethical issues  Ethics committees have a duty to consider all possible sources of harm.  They have to make sure that the researcher has thought through all the relevant issues prior to granting permission to proceed  By reviewing proposals for research, IRBs help to protect both  the organization, and  the researcher against potential legal implications of neglecting to address important ethical issues of participants. 95
  96. Addressing ethical issues  In summary: Some important shared values for the responsible conduct of business research include:  HONESTY — conveying information truthfully and honoring commitments,  ACCURACY — reporting findings precisely and taking care to avoid errors,  EFFICIENCY — using resources wisely and avoiding waste, and  OBJECTIVITY — letting the facts speak for themselves and avoiding improper bias.  Social Responsibility-strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research. 96
  97. Politics in research  Does politics manifest itself in social research?  If yes, in what ways? 97
  98. Politics in research  Politics becomes important in different contexts and ways.  researchers are sometimes put in the position where they take sides  Funding: funding organizations frequently have a vested interest in the outcomes of the research.  The very fact that some research is funded, while other research is not, suggests that political issues may be involved, in that such organizations will seek to invest in studies that will be useful to them and that will be supportive of their operations. 98
  99. Politics in research  Gaining access is also a political process.  Access is usually mediated by gatekeepers, who are concerned about the researcher’s motives:  what the organization can gain from the investigation,  what it will lose by participating in the research in terms of staff time and other costs, and  potential risks to its image 99
  100. Politics in research  When research is conducted in teams, politics may loom large,  since the different objectives of team members and their different (and sometimes divergent) perceptions of their contributions may form a quite separate political arena.  There may be pressure to restrict the publication of findings  The politics of method. 100