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Human trafficking specifically focusing on sex trafficking in Australia. A research base presentation conducted in November 2010 to highlight the issues and raise limitations. Provide useful resources, reference and how to's.
Ask for ideas to think about through presentation and propose at the end Provide handouts of information Thank you to everyone for being here today and for the opportunity to allow me to present on a topic that is a passion of mine, which is to raise awareness and help combat sex trafficking, exploitation and violence towards women and children.
Human trafficking is considered today as Modern Day Slavery. It in fact has existed for many years. The phenomenon is not contemporary, as women and children have historically been trafficked and enslaved for the purpose of prostitution, particularly during the war such as World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War. Human trafficking is distinct from people smuggling in that it is a crime against the person rather then the state. While smuggled migrants often arrive on boats using false passports, the majority of trafficked people tend to enter Australia legally as tourist, student or on working visas and then end up in situations of exploitation, debt bondage and forced labour. Despite this, trafficking and smuggling are often dealt with together and victims are placed in detention centres and deported immediately. It is necessary to identify and address the causes of human trafficking rather then simply trying to address the issue through law enforcement and prosecution. The root causes of trafficking lie at the extreme end on a continuum of worker exploitation and violence against women. Contributing factors to trafficking and slavery worldwide include increasing poverty, the impact of globalisation on developing countries, decreasing workers rights, the demand for exploitable labour in wealthy countries, lack of legal migration opportunities, natural disasters, government corruption and lack of effective response to human rights violations. Project Respect argues that the demand of trafficked women in Australia is fuelled by a lack of women in Australia prepared to do prostitution and racialised ‘customer’ ideas that Asian women are more compliant and will accept higher levels of violence. The existence of trafficking can also be viewed in part as a response to Australia’s policy favouring skilled migration in effect preventing unskilled and poorly educated workers from less developed countries to migrate legally to Australia. Because most trafficked people are seeking to migrate these policies have made people more susceptible to deception and trafficking.
Traffick in person in Australia remains not well understood and poorly researched. Reports of the # of trafficked persons on Australia vary greatly depending on the source of information. The lack of reliable date or comprehensive accounts of the true extent and nature of this illicit business is a major obstacle for policy making and law reform.
http://www.gvnet.com/humantrafficking/Thailand.htm Asia is one of the 3 largest areas of origin for trafficked persons and Australia is listed as a destination hub for trafficked women for purposes of sexual exploitation. Majority of victims of human trafficking are from Southeast Asian nations. Thailand is consistently identified as the principal source country for trafficked women. The women often come from rural parts of northern Thailand. Indonesia and Malaysia are second and third main countries of origin. Sydney remains the most significant entry point. WA estimates of women trafficked into sexual servitude vary widely. A Project Respect study suggests up to 1,000 women are under the ‘contract’ at any time. In contrast the NSW Police has reported that thousands of Chinese and Thai women are currently being sold to brothel owners and forced to work off the debt by having sex with up to 800 men. Estimates of the debts owed by women trafficked into Australia’ sex industry range from $50,000 to $80,000 AUD. Trafficked persons may be difficult to identify during immigration clearance because they may be unaware that they are being trafficked or are often coached by their traffickers in responses they should provide to officials.
Often they may not see themselves as victims at the time but rather may see the benefits in their situation as one where they can improve their family’s lives, to repay the large debt owed to the brothel owner, to be allowed the opportunity to live in Australia and to economically improve their lives. Often the women would send money home to support their family. Some women may have worked in the sex industry before yet, may be deceived about the nature of the debt or terms and conditions of work awaiting them in Australia. Once the arrive their passports are removed from them by the brothel owners. A considerable # of victims arrive in Australia with the knowledge that they will be working in the sex industry, with others believing they will work in the retail or hospitality industry as a waitress or a nanny. Often they are held in captivity, subject to physical and sexual violence, intimidation and forced to engage in unsafe sexual practices. These women are victims of trafficking even if the have consented to work in the sex industry. Often they are tricked or deceived thinking they are working legally in Australia. To date there are no reports of women that have been kidnapped or brought forcibly to Australia. In the case of Tang, the victims had all worked in Thailand’s sex industry and had consented to work in the sex industry in Australia. Each owed the defendant $45,000AUD for arranging travel and work, worked six days per week, earned nothing in cash, and their ‘cut’ of the earnings of 45% was used entirely to pay back their debt. Often the victims will stay or may return to their traffickers due to lack of employment opportunities, lack of support system and English skills and fear of capture by authorities and deported.
Police investigations revealed that trafficking in persons to Australia is carried out by small but highly sophisticated organised crime networks that frequently involve family and business connections between Australians and the overseas contacts.
Trafficked women are usually bound to the traffickers by a verbal agreement frequently referred to as ‘debt bondage’. This contract obliges women to work for the brothel-owner until the debt is for the journey to Australia and their accommodation have been paid off. All victims have made claims of inflated debt. On average it takes the women up to 18 months to pay off the debt by working 6-7 days a week more then 10 hours a day and service up to 500-800 jobs a day. This accounts for the rapid turnover of victims.
Documentary about two girls from Thailand that has raised a lot of awareness about the issues of human trafficking. A highly publicized incident in 2003 raised due to the death of Poungthong Simaplee in the Villawood Detention centre after 3 days due to heroin withdrawal when she was 27. She weight a mere 39 kilograms and had dropped to 31 kilograms at the time of her death and no noticed was give nor treated. Highlighting the limitations of detention centre. She had told her parents that she had gone to Australia to work and that she would return when she had made enough money. Her parents stand by the fact that they did not sell her to sex trafficking however when picked up by officials she told them she had been sold to sex traffickers at the age of 12. In 2007 Ning a former victim of trafficking successfully brought a claim before the NSW Victims Compensation Tribunal. Ning was only 13 at the time she was trafficked in 1995 from Thailand to a brothel in Sydney. She left with the consent of her father on expectations she would work as a nanny and her father was reassured she would be taken care of. Instead she was put to work in as a prostitute in a Brothel in Surrey Hills. She was required to complete at least 650 sex acts in order to service the A$35,000 debt she had incurred by travelling to Australia. She was forced to sleep with over 100 men during the ten days she spent in the brothel before being apprehended by immigration and deported. During this time she was threatened with physical violence if she did not comply and was not permitted to leave the ‘safe house’. She was immediately detained, deported back to Thailand where she had no family or support. As a result she became isolated and depressed, went out with her friends and used drugs to forget. Today she is married and a mother, of the drugs but can not eat due to the depletion of calcium rotting her teeth due to the pregnancy. The AFP lack jurisdiction at the time to prosecute due to no federal offences existing at the time, to enable a investigation into her case but due to media coverage it later lead to the conviction of three Thai nationals who were sentenced for up to 19 years in jail http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/connectasia/stories/201006/s2934586.htm http://www.documentaryaustralia.com.au/da/issues/details.php?recordID=13 http://www.law.uq.edu.au/ht-child-trafficking
http://www.abc.net.au/austory/specials/shadesofgrey/default.htm http://www.abc.net.au/austory/content/2007/s2600421.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vu3bIOqPizQ http://www.somaly.org/news http://www.projectfutures.com/ http://www.unicef.org/protection/index_action.html http://www.ungift.org/knowledgehub/ Hub has a resource centre to search for in detail for jounral and documents viewable online http://www.worldvision.com.au/issues/Human_Trafficking___Slavery/WhatIsThisAbout/Human_trafficking__A_horrendous_crime_with_no.aspx http://australianchristianlobby.org.au/2010/10/prostitution-and-trafficking-in-wa-%E2%80%93-an-evening-to-inspire-change/
You can help to stop trafficking by supporting their industry and economy by providing them with jobs and a means of income to work for themselves and free of child labour. Look for Fair trade products such as Oxfam stores. http://free2work.org/home http://www.stoptraffickfashion.com/ http://stoptraffick.myshopify.com/pages/vendor-collections http://www.casefoundation.org/blog/dressed-give-take-stand-against-human-trafficking-and-go-shopping
The recent Australian feature film the Jammed based on court transcripts and detailing the lives of three victims of sex trafficking in Melbourne was turned down by Government funding bodies and rejected by every film distributor in the country. This sadly reflects the lack of political will to grapple with the migration and migration issue versus the need for public apathy to gain knowledge, awareness about the existence and extent and nature of trafficking in Australia. http://www.blinkx.com/watch-video/the-virgin-trade/xtkr058ZxF1LLeQiNLjvlg http://www.caase.org/pdf/recommended-films.pdf http://children.foreignpolicyblogs.com/human-trafficking-and-slavery-related-movies-and-documentaries/ http://www.thejammed.com/the_Jammed_Flash.htm
Governments primarily sought to combat trafficking as a transnational criminal issue, adopting punishment of traffickers as a primary means of deterrence. Unfortunately government programs thus far have failed to achieve any substantial results in preventing and addressing the phenomenon of trafficking in Australia. Since the anti-trafficking offences were introduced in August 2005, by the end of 2006 no one had yet been convicted of these crimes under the Criminal Code, and only a handful of prosecutions have taken place. In 2004-2005 the AFP identified only 41 suspected victims of trafficking and there has been a failure to identify any trafficked children since 1995. These # fall far short of the # of women and children estimated to being trafficked and currently living in sexual slavery in Australia. As of 2009 there has been only 1 successful conviction under Australia’s trafficking offences. This is due in part to the fact that the relevant offences were only introduced into the federal Criminal Code in 2005. In addition a number of trafficking and trafficking related cases have been prosecuted under sexual slavery and servitude offences came into operation in 1999. The success of prosecutions under the sexual slavery and human trafficking offences are mixed as a considerable number of cases have been dismissed due to lack of evidence. Between 1999 and 21 April 2009 there have only been 4 cases of sexual servitude or trafficking that have resulted in convictions. Considering that sexual assault remains notoriously underreported, shame, isolation, fear of retaliation, and post traumatic stress disorder are among the factors that act as disincentives for women to pursue these investigations. It may not be a priority for them to see the person go to jail. Sadly law enforcement objectives take primacy over the rehabilitation and human rights of survivors. According to the book Sex Trafficking : international context and response by Marie Segrave the scholarships suggest that anti-trafficking initiatives should locate sex work as their central concern, and that tackling the demand for sex work is an essential tool in combating trafficking. Using the example of contemporary Sweden, it is argued by theorists that decriminalisation of sex workers and criminalisation of clients results in a decrease in demand for paid sex and a decline in sex trafficking. The state of Victoria in Australia where prostitution is legalized is identified as a location where the legislation of prostitution resulted in an increase in a ‘massive expansion of Victoria’s sex industry and an increase in sex trafficking so there is a strong correlation between Legalized prostitution and sex trafficking and argues that the increase occurs in countries where there is an ‘acceptance of prostitution and sex work’.
Overseas research has shown that ‘the provision of support for victims significantly increases victims willingness to act as a witness against the traffickers by up to 50%. Currently victims don’t feel safe to participate or advocate in response to trafficking more focus should be turn to empowering victims voices in this way. The current visa system fails to recognise that the provision of non-conditional victim support is needed rather then simply the promise of support where they cooperate with authorities. Australian Government has been criticized for assisting only trafficked persons who agree to provide evidence that will assist in investigations and prosecutions rather than supporting all trafficked persons irrespective of their willingness or ability to collaborate with the autorities to bring about prosecutions. If they are unable to assist they are immediately deported with no support, rehabilitation or reintegration back into their home country. This often can lead them to be re-slaved in another country or re-enter sex trafficking again. It has been strongly suggested that future advances be addressed within the human rights framework and placing the victims at the centre of any response to trafficking as advocated by the UN. At present Australia’s focus remains on immigration ,economic issues and border security policies. To date as of 2009 The Government of Australia increased its efforts to provide protection and care to victims of trafficking over the last year. Changes to the Support for Victims of People Trafficking Program and the People Trafficking Visa Framework, which went into effect on July 1, 2009, ensure that victims of trafficking can access support services regardless of whether they assist police with an investigation or prosecution. These amendments also abolished temporary witness protection visas, added a 20-day transition period for victims voluntarily leaving the support program, and sped up the process for granting permanent witness protection visas to foreign victims and their immediate family members. Since 2004, approximately 10 percent of the victims who received services under the Program were victims of labor trafficking outside of the sex trade. The government encouraged victims to participate in trafficking investigations. No victims were incarcerated, fined, or penalized for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked. In October 2009, a local council in Melbourne introduced an “Anti Slavery and Sexual Servitude Local Law” requiring brothels to display signs in English, Thai, Korean, Chinese and Russian providing information on the crime of slavery and sexual servitude, and on how to seek help for those involved in sex slavery The Australian government foreign assistance agency, AUSAI D, funded the Asia Regional Traffic in Persons project (ARTI P), which promotes a coordinated approach to trafficking in persons by criminal justice systems throughout the region. Partner ARTI P countries include Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Burma, Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines.
Victims have turned to contacting Police, calling 000, contacting local embassies, clients assist or come to the attention of immigration officials or health personnel.
December 27, 2010 – January 7, 2011 Week One: Investigation (Level I): Understanding and Eradicating Human Trafficking in Your Community Week Two: Healthcare: Tools for Recognizing and Referring Victims of Human Trafficking May 30 – June 10, 2011 Week Two: Law Enforcement Churches, could be a network of resources and relationships that could offer different opportunities for those trapped in prostitution and trafficking Youth With A Mission, which is a Christian missions organization
Happy to email presentation to anyone who would like to read the articles and watch the videos
Human trafficking awareness
HUMAN TRAFFICKING Get out the power from this pain Voice of Victims Advancing Women Globally 2010 Unsilence the victims of sex trafficking
What is Human Trafficking <ul><li>Modern Day Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Human trafficking – taken by force, against their will, coerced, deceived </li></ul><ul><li>People Smuggling – leave at will </li></ul><ul><li>Children born into poverty and desperate for a better life leaves them susceptible to: </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Forced prostitution, torture and slavery </li></ul>
Sex Trafficking <ul><li>Worst kind of human violation </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd worst organized crime in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Billion dollar industry – estimate of $US7-12 Billion industry for traffickers (UN estimates) </li></ul><ul><li>Second most lucrative industry after the drug trade </li></ul><ul><li>US department estimate between 800,000 and 900,000 persons are trafficked per annum </li></ul><ul><li>80% are women and 50% are children </li></ul><ul><li>70% victims are trafficked for sexual exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Age as young as 5 </li></ul>
Global Impact <ul><li>Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery - Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Countries </li></ul><ul><li>Asia is regarded as a major hub for trafficking women for sexual slavery </li></ul><ul><li>From South Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Cambodia, Loa, Vietnam, Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>To Australia – Sydney and Melbourne, USA, Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Saflearning – Hope for Sexually exploited and trafficked Women </li></ul>
Definition <ul><li>Most authoritative definition of trafficking in persons is located in the United nations Protocol to prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in persons , especially women and children </li></ul><ul><li>(‘ Trafficked Protocol’) set out in article 3 </li></ul><ul><li>It requires 3 elements be fulfilled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts involved; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Means used; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of the actor . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consent is irrelevant </li></ul>
Sex Trafficking Fact Sheet <ul><li>SEX TRAFFICKING FACT SHEET </li></ul><ul><li>Victims of sex trafficking can be women or men, girls or boys, but the majority are women and girls. </li></ul><ul><li>There are a number of common patterns for luring victims into situations of sex trafficking, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A promise of a good job in another country; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A false marriage proposal turned into a bondage situation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being sold into the sex trade by parents, husbands, boyfriends; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being kidnapped by traffickers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sex traffickers frequently subject their victims to debt-bondage and psychological coercion </li></ul>
Type of Sex Trafficking <ul><li>Victims of trafficking are forced into various forms of commercial sexual exploitation including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prostitution, pornography, stripping, live-sex shows, mail-order brides, military prostitution and sex tourism. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Victims trafficked into prostitution and pornography are usually involved in the most exploitive forms of commercial sex operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex trafficking operations can be found in highly-visible venues such as street prostitution, as well as more underground systems such as closed brothels that operate out of residential homes. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex trafficking also takes place in a variety of public and private locations such as massage parlors, spas, strip clubs and other fronts for prostitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Victims may start off dancing or stripping in clubs and then be coerced into situations of prostitution and pornography. </li></ul>
Conditioning Victims <ul><li>Sex traffickers use a variety of methods to “condition” their victims including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starvation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confinement; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beatings; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical abuse; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rape, gang rape to be made to feel helpless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats of violence to the victims and the victims’ families; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced to use drugs and the threat of shaming the victims by revealing their activities to their family and their families’ friends. </li></ul></ul>
Results <ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Victims ostracized when they return </li></ul><ul><li>Ashamed </li></ul><ul><li>Contract sexual transmitted disease AIDS/ HIV </li></ul><ul><li>Drug addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Normalized situation </li></ul><ul><li>Post traumatic stress sydrome </li></ul><ul><li>Action News - Trafficked to Thailand, forced to work </li></ul>
Stories <ul><li>Cambodian sex trafficking victim tells her story </li></ul><ul><li>Trafficked Documentary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poungthong Simaplee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ning </li></ul></ul>
News Article <ul><li>ABC News </li></ul><ul><li>Calls for new unit to combat sex trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>Australian charity rescues girls from trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>Grey Man rescues Asian sex slaves </li></ul>
Prostitution Law <ul><li>'Home' brothels banned under new laws – 26 November 2010 The West </li></ul>
Organisations <ul><li>Australian Story – Greymen </li></ul><ul><li>Greymen Channel 10 </li></ul><ul><li>www.greymen.org </li></ul><ul><li>SMF - Somaly Mam Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Project Futures </li></ul><ul><li>UNICEF </li></ul><ul><li>UN.GIFT Hub – Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking – CJS Response to Human Trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>Child Wise </li></ul><ul><li>World Vision </li></ul><ul><li>YWAMPerth </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Christian Lobby </li></ul>
Educational Videos <ul><li>Emma Thompson and Lindsay Lohan as advocates </li></ul><ul><li>Ted - Sunitha Krishnan fights sex slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Ted - Kevin Bales: How to combat modern slavery </li></ul><ul><li>New York Times - The Face of Slavery </li></ul>
Resources and References <ul><li>Training Manual - To Fight Trafficking In Children For Labour , Sexual And Other Forms Of Exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Trafficking Person Report 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>The Sold Project </li></ul><ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights Commissioner – Special Session on Children </li></ul><ul><li>One Just World </li></ul><ul><li>Not For Sale </li></ul><ul><li>Lives for Sale </li></ul><ul><li>UN Commission on the Status of Women </li></ul>
Books <ul><li>Sex Trafficking: international context and response by Marie Segrave </li></ul><ul><li>View book online at Amazon.co.uk </li></ul>
Books <ul><li>Not for Sale: The Return of the Global Slave Trade and How We Can Fight It </li></ul><ul><li>View book online at Amazon </li></ul>
Books <ul><li>By Somaly Mam </li></ul><ul><li>The Road of Lost Innocence: As a girl she was sold into sexual slavery, but now she rescues others. The true story of a Cambodian heroine </li></ul><ul><li>View book online at Amazon </li></ul>
World Vision <ul><li>Don’t Trade Lives Campaign </li></ul>
Stop Trafficking through online shopping <ul><li>Free2Work </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Trafficking Fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Vendor Collections </li></ul><ul><li>SA Foundation – Shop Online </li></ul>
Videos and Documentary <ul><li>Virgin Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Films </li></ul><ul><li>Human Trafficking and Slavery Related Movies and Documentaries </li></ul><ul><li>The Jammed 2007 </li></ul>
Solutions <ul><li>Criminalise the clients – reduce demand for prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>Empower the voice of victims </li></ul><ul><li>Non-conditional victim support </li></ul><ul><li>Victims be at centre of response to trafficking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trafficking victims are often considered to be illegal migrants and so are detained and deported with little regard to their human rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access Case Law </li></ul>
Australia’s Response <ul><li>Rated Tier 1 by the Traffick In Person report 2010 which means that the Government of Australia fully complies with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommends to expand current anti-trafficking awareness campaigns directed at clients of the sex trade </li></ul><ul><li>AusAid provides significant funding through the Asia Regional Traffic in Persons project </li></ul>
How you can help? <ul><li>Victims need sympathy </li></ul><ul><li>Break Culture of silence </li></ul><ul><li>Tell stories </li></ul><ul><li>Open heart and mind </li></ul><ul><li>They are apart of us and our world </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for support </li></ul><ul><li>Help End Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t trade lives </li></ul>
How to Report <ul><li>Smarttraveller.gov.au </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade </li></ul><ul><li>To report suspicious behaviour, please complete the Report Child Sex Tourism form on the AFP website or write to: </li></ul><ul><li>Child Protection Operations Team Australian Federal Police GPO Box 401 Canberra ACT 2601 Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Information can also be reported anonymously to Crime Stoppers by calling 1800 333 000. </li></ul>
Investigation Training <ul><li>Jenny Ellise – YWAMPerth </li></ul><ul><li>Training with the Not for Sale group in mid June 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Please provide your contact emails to be notified. </li></ul><ul><li>Not for Sale Campaign – Investigator Academy in USA </li></ul>
What We Should Do <ul><li>Human Trafficking - But what should I do? </li></ul><ul><li>United – Say No: End Violence Against Women </li></ul><ul><li>Sign Petition </li></ul>
Ideas & Suggestions <ul><li>Apprenticeship Program </li></ul><ul><li>Study/ Work Scholarships and Sponsorships for the under privileged </li></ul><ul><li>Work with Government agencies such as DIMIA, </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals and health centres </li></ul><ul><li>refuge and Church </li></ul><ul><li>Brothels, Ethnic Communities and women’s centre </li></ul><ul><li>Have a central contact centre for referrals and hotline in Perth </li></ul><ul><li>Hold training workshop programs each year </li></ul><ul><li>Bring Human trafficking art exhibitions to Perth and Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Work with Art Exhibition to raise funds </li></ul><ul><li>Develop global contacts overseas </li></ul>