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  1. CORE COURSE I EDUCATION IN THE EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY OBJECTIVES: At the end of the course, the student-teachers will be able to 1. Understand the concept of philosophy and education. 2. Understand the relationship between philosophy and education. 3. Understand the educational thoughts of great thinkers. 4. Understand the relationship between sociology and education. 5. Understand the role of different agencies in education. 6. Understand the issues and challenges in Indian society and educational solutions. 7. Understand the constitutional provisions for education. 8. Understand the role of various statutory bodies of education. 9. Understand the importance of value education. 10. Understand the importance of health and physical education
  2. INDIAN SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY IN EDUCATION Dr. S. Prakash Principal Thiagarajar College of Preceptors Madurai
  3. UNIT I : Indian Schools of Philosophy and Education (a) Education: Concept, Meaning, Definition, Purpose and Nature – Levels of Education: Pre-primary, Primary, Secondary and Higher Education. (b) Philosophy: Concept, Meaning, and Definition. Focal areas of philosophy: Metaphysics, Epistemology and Axiology. (c) Relationship between Philosophy and Education. (d) Indian Schools of Philosophy and Education: Educational implications of Vedanta, Buddhism and Jainism. UNIT II : Western Schools of Philosophy and Education Western Schools of Philosophy and Education: Educational implications of Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism, Realism, Eclecticism and Constructivism. UNIT III : Indian and Western Educational Thinkers Swami Vivekananda – Mahatma Gandhi - Rabindranath Tagore – Sri Aurobindo - Krishnamurthy - Rousseau- Froebel -John Dewey – Montessori - Russell.
  4. UNIT IV : Sociology and Education Sociology: Concept and Meaning - Relationship between Sociology and Education – Cultural heritage of India: Traditional, Modern and Post-modern - Cultural lag and cultural fusion – Social change: Concept and Meaning - Factors of social change - Education for social change and modernization of Indian society - Formation of casteless society. UNIT V : Agencies of Education Educational functions of Family, Peer group, Community, School and Mass Media- Lifelong Education: Mass education – Open and Distance Learning.
  5. UNIT VI : Issues and Challenges in Indian Society and Education (a) Socio-economic Issues and Education: Population Explosion- Poverty- Illiteracy- Class, Caste and Gender Discrimination- Child labor- Drug abuse- Sexual harassment- Human trafficking – Ragging- Eve-teasing- Corruption- Communal conflict and Terrorism. (b) Educational Issues: Equalization of Educational opportunity- Drop- out and grade repetition- Education of the children with special needs- Teacher-student relationship-Unemployment and Under employment- Brain drain- Effects of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization on Education - Cyber Security. UNIT VII : Education in the Indian Constitution Education in Concurrent List - Directive Principles: Article- 45 - Universal Elementary Education - Right to Education - Constitutional Amendments: 73rd and 86th Amendments -Right to Education Act (2009) - (Rules and order issued by Government of Tamilnadu) SSA-RMSA - Equitable education- Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) - Kothari Commission (1964-66) - NPE (1986) - Acharya Ramamurthy Committee (1990) - POA (1992) - Justice J.S. Varma Committee - Right To Information (RTI) Act.
  6. UNIT VIII : Indian Statutory Bodies and other Organizations in School Education (a) Statutory Bodies: MHRD - CABE - NUEPA - NCERT - NCTE -RCI - UGC -NAAC. (b) Organizations: Directorates of School Education - SCERTs - DTERTs - DIETs - SIEMAT- BRCs - CRCs. (c) Central and State Boards of Education. (d) RUSA, NIOS. UNIT IX : Value Education (a) Values: Concept and Meaning of Values – Types of Values: Personal, Democracy, Socialism, Secularism and Non-violence - Emotional balance and life skills. (b) Value Education in schools – Teacher's personal values and code of conduct for teachers - Approach towards improving the psychological status of the students. (c) Education for National, International and World Peace. UNIT X : Health Education (a) Health needs of children: Nutrition - Communicable diseases – HIV/AIDS - Basic health and Hygiene, Prevention of Anemia among Adolescence. (b) Health instruction, Health services, and Health supervision in Schools: Personal Hygiene- Sanitation - Safety and First Aid - Yoga and Physical fitness - Modified school Health programme.
  7. UNIT I : Indian Schools of Philosophy and Education Education: Concept, Meaning, Definition The word “Education” is the word derived from Latin root as under “Educatum”  To train, Act of teaching or training “Educere”  To lead out, To draw out “Educare”  To bring up, To raise, To educate Meaning Education is a purposeful conscious or unconscious, deliberate or spontaneous, psychological, sociological, scientific and philosophical process which brings about the all round development of the individual to its fullest extend in the best of his social interests in such a way that he enjoys maximum happiness and prosperity.
  8. Education as the all round Natural, Harmonious and Progressive development of an individual by drawing out the best in him. Spiritual Development Recreational Development Vocational Development Social Development Religious Development Physical Development Moral Development Language Development Intellectual Development Emotional Development Aesthetic Development Cultural Development
  9. Education: Definition According to GH. Thomson, The influence of the environment on the individual with a view to producing a permanent change in his habits of behavior of thought and attitude. According to Vivekananda, Education is the manifestation of perfection already reached in man. According to Socrates, Education means the bringing out the ideas of universal validity which are in the mind of every man.
  10. Concept of Education Aspects of Education Old Concept of Education New Concept of Education Meaning Instruction Development Aims Knowledge Development of total personality Curriculum Subject centered Activity centered Methods Rote Memorization Learning by doing, project method Discipline Rigid Self-discipline Examination Essay type tests Objective type tests, Evaluation Agencies Formal (School) Formal and informal both Teacher Instructor Friend, Philosopher and guide Child Passive recipient Active, Dynamic School Teaching shops Miniature of the society.
  11. Nature of Education Education is the continuous process Education is the bipolar process Educators Education Modification of behavior of the individuals Education is the tripolar process Teacher Student Content
  12. Nature of Education It is life long process. It is both theoretical and practical. It is science as well as art. It is never ending venture. Education is the modification of behavior. Education is the adjustment with the environment. It is dynamic
  13. Levels of Education There are four levels of education, namely Sl. No. Levels of Education Age Class Importance 1 Pre-primary Education 3 to 5 --- Physical & Emotional, Mental development, Acquiring knowledge 2 Primary Education 5 to 11 1 to 5 Cognitive abilities 3R’s => Read, Write, Arithmetic Environmental, Social science 3 Secondary Education 11 to 16 6 to 10 Preparing for higher education, Citizenship training, fine arts, work experience, Creative thinking, Personality, Leadership training Higher Secondary Education 16 to 18 11 to 12 Academic stream & Vocational stream. 4 Higher Education 18 onwards College & University Getting new knowledge, Research, Right kind of leadership, Equality, Social justice, Values & attitudes.
  14. Philosophy: Concept, Meaning and Definition Meaning The word philosophy is derived from two Greek words “Philos” and “Sophia”.  “Philos” Means love. “Sophia” Means Wisdom. Thus philosophy means love of wisdom. In this way search of wisdom of wisdom or truth is called philosophy, and the man who engages himself in this search is called a philosopher. Scientific meaning Deep thinking and meditation which concerns itself to the God, the soul and the nature. This concentration and deep thinking is for revealing the hidden and immortal realities of existence namely, What is the nature of life? When human being has come? What will be his final destination? How does external nature affect human life? Is there any life after human life? What is hell and heaven? All these are the subjects and topics of philosophical thinking and ultimate realization. Only capable and great persons can indulge in them.
  15. Definition of philosophy According to R. W. Sellars “Philosophy is a persistent attempt to give insight into the nature of the world and of ourselves by means of systematic reflection.” According to Bertrand Russell “Philosophy like other studies aims primarily at knowledge.” According to John Armstrong “Philosophy is the successful love of thinking.” According to Levison “Philosophy is mental activity.” According to Socrates “ Philosophy is the daily activity.” According to Brubacher “ Philosophy is the science of sciences”
  16. Focal areas of philosophy Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology வேதாந்த இயல் அறிோராய்ச்சி இயல் மதிப்பியல் Problems of Reality It a branch of philosophy which deals with this problem. Questions usually discussed are What is the nature of the universe we live in? what is reality? Who is creator of the world? Does god exist? Does anything exist beyond this world? Such questions have been raised in the Upanishads. Mahatma and Buddha called the universe as Maya Problems of knowledge This area of philosophy is known as Epistemology. Questions discussed are How do we get knowledge? How does a man know what is real? Different philosophers have provided different answers, Knowledge from God’s grace, insight, analysis, experience. Problems of value It a branch of philosophy which deals with this problem is “Axiology”. The problem of values include questions: What are the principles of life? How do they support the view of reality? It has two types 1. Ethics Discuss about the justice, peacefulness, wisdom, duty conscious 2. Aesthetics Discuss about the beauty, what is beauty? what is the origin of beauty? How it was impact?
  17. Relationship between Philosophy and Education. Education is a branch of philosophy. The various divisions and branches of philosophy, explains about the various dimensions of education this is called as educational philosophy. According to Ross, Philosophy and education are the two sides of the same coin, presenting different view of the same thing, and that the one implies that other. According to Spencer, “True education is practicable only by a true philosophy.” Philosophy determines the various aspects of education.  Philosophy determines the destination towards which education has to go. Education is the dynamic side of philosophy.
  18. A study of philosophy is very helpful in understanding the following practices and trends in education. In other words we can say that following is the contribution of philosophy to education. 1.Philosophy and Educational Aims 2.Philosophy and Curriculum 3.Philosophy and Methods of Education 4. Philosophy and Discipline 5.Philosophy and the Teacher Philosophy and Educational Aims Determination of aims of education by philosophy Education sets itself into operation to realize some aims. It is why education is a purposeful activity. It should be remembered that the aims of education are related to the aims of life and the aims of life are the creations of the philosophy of a certain time. Hence the aims of education determined according to the aims and philosophy of life. This cycle goes on and on as time passes on. Thus we come to the conclusion that education tries to achieve aims of life as goals of education and these aims of life are determined by the philosophy of life prevalent at the time. Philosophy and Curriculum The curriculum desired behavioral changes are sought to be achieved to attain the goal of life determined by a particular philosophy. Thus as philosophy determines the aims of education, so also it determines the curriculum. In another words, the philosophy of a country at a particular time determines the curriculum in which such subjects, activities and experiences are included which are supposed to meet the emerging demands of the society at that time.
  19. Philosophy and Methods of Education Philosophy is also closely related to the methods of teaching. It is why changing philosophies change the methods of teaching accordingly. In reality method of teaching is slowly trained by the philosophy of the nation. In a sense philosophy is a way of thinking and a way of working. As such, these two factors determine the nature, style and actual operation of methods of teaching. Philosophy and Discipline Philosophy determines the nature and form of discipline. Whether school discipline should be strict and rigid or flexible and free is also a philosophical problem. It may be noted that the social, economic and philosophical thinking of a particular country always determine the nature of discipline. Philosophy and the Teacher Philosophy has a great influence on the teacher both in the area of thinking and behaving. Really speaking, a teacher is not a teacher alone. He is a philosopher of his own and he influences children accordingly. As such, his philosophy of life should be such which develops the individuality of children to the needs of children and he demands of society and then plan his methods of teaching.
  20. Indian Schools of Philosophy and Education Vedic Education (1500 BC to 300BC) Meaning of the word “Veda” Veda is derived from the root of a Sanskrit word “Vid” which means, To know To be To consider To feel T tell Thus the Vedas are concerned with, knowing God, Soul, Mind and Nature. To obtain salvation from the cycle of births and deaths. To consider various relationships like, God and man, man and nature etc.,
  21. Vedic education is the mirror of all the edul. System of culture of India lies in the Vedas. There are four Vedas in number: • Rig Veda • Sam Veda • Yajur Veda • Athar Veda.
  22. Chief characteristics of the Vedic Philosophy The concept of one God and one world. God is one and only one. He is the supreme spirit. There are three beings in this universe – God, soul and matter. Ultimate aim of life is to obtain salvation (moksha) in union with God. The theory of rebirth is a necessary consequence of the law of karma. This universe is formed by God. The universe is real. It is not an illusion or dream.  Education is based on Vedic mantras.
  23. Objectives of vedic education 1). Physical and intellectual development:- People in vedic India believed that strong mind could only be in a strong body. So, a strong body was considered to be absolutely necessary in warldly as well as religious matter. Education was imported in the open & parnayan & Surya namskar were it's regular features. A student has to remain Bramhochari upto the age of twenty five. All through this period he had to lead to a very regular hard & disciplined life. This physical development was followed by intellectual development. A person who did not possess knowledge was considered to be blind intellectually knowledge of four Vedas. ( Rig Veda, Sam Veda, Yajur Veda, & Atharva Veda). 2). Religious & spiritually:-Besides physical & intellectual development, education, must develop moral & spiritual faculties. Religion has play a dominant role in the life of Indians. Education must make the students religious minded. They must also have a sense of piety. A spiritual atmosphere prevouled in the centre of education because of the presence of selfless, humble, religious minded, but talented teachers. During this period many hypothesis concerning spiritually took birth knowledge come to be seen as the instrument of salvation. Fire, sacrifices, fasting, taking of vocus became a part of life. 3). Emphasis upon knowledge & experiences:- The Gurkul's laid emphasis upon knowledge obtaining of experiences. During this period, the practice of distributing degrees did not exist. Students exhibited the knowledge obtained through discourses and discussions conducted in a concourse of scholars. 4). Sublimation of instinct:- Man is the virtual slave of the instincts embedded in his psyche, & when he is obsessed by his senses, he often adopts the wrong path. The objective of education was to sublimate these instinctive tendencies, to turn the mind away from material knowledge, & centre it upon the spiritual world, thus establishing control over materialistic & basic tendencies.
  24. 5). Preservation and spread of culture:- Vedic education also aimed at preserving & transmitting the best traditions of thought and actions, manners & vocations of the past. 6). Promotion of social efficiency happiness:- It also mind at promotion of social efficiency &happiness. Proper training was given to the rising generation in different branches of knowledge, professions & industries. Every individual was trained for the vocation, he was expected to follow so that he might became a socially efficient & useful person. 7). Development of character & personality:- Development of character & personality was another aim of Vedic Indian education. It was achieved through an appropriate environment, lessens on right conduct & teachings based on the life, character & ideals of great persons. Education aimed at developing the virtues of self - control, self - confidence, self - discipline, obidence, love, sympathy, co - operation, logical Judgment, fulfillment of social responsibilities & earning a livelihood. 8). Immediate and ultimate answer:- The immediate aim of education was to prepare the different castes of people for their actual needs of life. The ultimate of education in Vedic India was not knowledge as preparation for life in this world or life beyond, but for complete realization of self for liberation of the soul from letters of life, both present & future. The ultimate aim of human society of that age was the achievement of the absolute (brahama) education naturally was bound to be geared to that end. Achieving salvation was the ultimate aim of human life & this is the consequences of the real education.
  25. Educational organization Gurukula In Vedic age, the areas were sent to “Gurukulas” or the home of the Acharyas for education, just after the Upanaya ritual they were called Guru Kula wasee. Now they led a life of charity and transparency serving the acharya and gaining knowledge. Only “Brahmacharis” were allowed in “Gurukulas” the Gurukulas were free from the government control and influence. Their teaching language is Sanskrit. “Guru” and “Shishyas” Relation In Vedic age, the relation between the Guru and the Shishyas was just like that of father and son. Guru, very affectionately looked after his taught. He never let them suffer in any way and always tried for their all round development and the students also tried to satisfy the teacher and so far as possible did not give any ground for annoyance to him. Suitable age for Education In Vedic period education started in early life. They thought it essential to begin the education in early age, for the full development of inner and outer talents of the students. Women education Women education also received proper attention in Vedic age with the result that soon women became Rishikas. Were also taught practical and useful handicrafts and household duties.
  26. Role of teacher during Vedic period:- During the Vedic period, the Gurukula method prevailed in which the students lived in the house of the Guru. The process of education passed through three stages of comprehension, Meditation, & memory. The Gurukuls were the centres of education in which education was imparted only by individuals of characters & ability. The students remained with his Guru for 12 years. Teachers laid stress on the integral development of the individuals personality. • Every student was required while residing in the gurukul to serve his teachers compulsorily. Teacher was a very respectable person who had qualities of head, & hand. Any violation of Guru's instruction was regarded as a sin & subject to severe punishment. • The student has to bear the responsibility of feeding both himself & his teacher The duties of the teacher including teaching, making arrangements for the boarding & lodging of the students. • Man has started that the prime teachers prime task & moral duty was to discharge his obligations towards his students. He must not only treat the students as his own child, he must also impart of him true & complete knowledge without concealing any knowledge from him.
  27. Discipline A student had to do the service of the Guru and necessary job of keeping the “Gurukula” neat. He also prepared the necessities for the rituals. He had to go out for offerings. Living in Gurukulas the students slept on the ground, took simple food and obeyed the Guru in all respects. His main duty was to study and they very gently learnt and attended to the instructions of the Guru. Teaching Methods Discussion is the popular method during Vedantic period. Debates Manana Insight / Discovery.
  28. Curriculum According to recent researches, following disciplines were included in the curriculum in the graded forms in accordance with the stages of education. 1. Anthropology 2. Astronomy 3. Economics 4. Epistemology 5. Eschatology 6. Ethnology 7. Geology 8. Human eugenics 9. Mathematics 10. Military Science
  29. Process of Instruction There were three steps in instruction: 1. Sravana 2. Manana 3. Nididhyasana. Sravana is listening to words texts as they uttered by the teacher. Manana is the process of deliberation or reflection of the topic taught. Nididhyasana represents the highest stage.
  30. Advantages of Vedic Education Compulsory and free education for all. Learning by Gurukula system. Students are lived in simple and peaceful life. They didn’t wear any costly items. Teacher student relationship was father and son. Teachers are respected by the society. Equality in education. There is no partiality in the education system. Disadvantages of Vedic Education Women education was not emphasized. Teaching language is only Sanskrit. They give importance to Vedas only.  They didn’t give education to Sutras.
  31. Buddhist System of Education Introduction Buddhism is one of the most remarkable development of Indian thought. It is an offshoot of the later Vedic thought. It came into importance when during the course of time, several troubles grass up into Hinduism. Buddha is said to be the ninth incarnation of the cosmic Deity Vishnu. Gautam Buddha has laid great stress on human conduct and has avoided reference to metaphyscis which he rather considered to be superflouous. Early Buddhism in India Founded by Siddhartha Gautama (born about 563 B.C.) According to legend, Gautama was raised in a pampered lifestyle but then he encountered an old man, a sick man, a corpse, and a monk. Gautama was impressed by the monk and himself determined to take up an ascetic, wandering life to help him understand the phenomenon of suffering.
  32. Siddhartha Gautama • About 534 B. C., Gautama left his family to take up the existence of a holy man • Intense meditation and extreme asceticism did not enlighten him sufficiently • One day he resolved to sit under a large bo tree until he understood the problem of suffering • For 49 days he withstood various temptations and threats from demons and finally received enlightenment – Thus Gautama became the Buddha– “the enlightened one”
  33. Four Noble Truths All life involves suffering Desire is the cause of suffering Elimination of desire brings an end to suffering A disciplined life in accordance with the Noble Eightfold Path brings the elimination of desire
  34. Noble Eightfold Path • Right belief • Right resolve • Right speech • Right behavior • Right occupation • Right effort • Right contemplation • Right meditation
  35. Aims of education The goal of Buddha’s teaching-the goal of Buddhist education is to attain wisdom. The Buddhist wisdom was called ―Anuttara-Samyak-Sambhodi‖ meaning is "The perfect ultimate wisdom." The chief aim of Buddhist education was all round development of child’s personality. This included his physical , mental, moral and intellectual development. Education is to make a free man, a wise, intelligent, moral, non-violent & secular man. Preparation for life, there was a provision for imparting wordily and practical knowledge along with religious education so that when the students entered normal life they may be able to earn their livelihood. In the Buddhist era, religion was given top priority and education was imparted through it. The chief aim of education was propagation of religion and inculcation of religious feelings and education served as a mean to achieve salvation or nirvana. The Buddhist education system aimed at regaining our intrinsic nature. Buddhist education aims at a parallel transformation of human character and intelligence, holding both in balance and ensuring that both are brought to fulfillment.
  36. Qualities and Responsibilities of the teacher The teacher himself must spend at least ten years as a monk and necessarily must have the purity of character, purity of thoughts and generosity. Both the teacher and student were responsible to the monastery. But regarding education, clothes, food and residence of the student monk, the teacher was fully responsible. The teacher was also responsible for any treatment of the student whenever he fell ill. The duties of the teachers were imparting education to the students, writing Book, propagation of religion, discussion, and arrangement of debate for the clarification of serious subjects. The teachers were responsible for physical, mental, spiritual and moral development of the students. Teachers loved the students and helped them in every affair. The teachers were responsible for their food, accommodation and other necessaries of livelihood. They kept eyes on the all round development of the students.
  37. Concept of Student Students became free from greed, lust and ignorance. Buddhist Education was wide open and available to the people of all walks of life. The principal goal of the Buddhist Education is to change an unwise to wise, beast to priest. The student was expected to serve his teacher with all devotion. On rising in the morning the student will arrange everything for the daily routine of the teacher. He will cook his food and clean his clothes and utensils. Whatever he acquired through begging alms, he would place before teacher. The student had to prepare himself to receive education at any time whenever the teacher required him. He is not to interrupt his teacher in speaking, even if he makes a mistake. There were also rules for the expulsion of a pupil by his teacher. The cordial relationship between the teachers and the students grew up. Their relationship can be compared with the relationship of a father and a son. The teachers were the guardians and sincere for their mutual relationship, happiness, development and responsibilities. Teaching language is poly.
  38. Pabbaja ceremony Pabbaja was an accepted ceremony of the Buddhist monasteries. Pabbaja means going out . According to this ceremony the students after being admitted to a monastery had to renounce all his worldly and family relationship. An individual belonging to any caste could be admitted to a monastery and after being admitted he did not belong to any caste. ‘.After admission he had to change his old clothes and all old ways and the manners of living. For the Pabbajja ceremony the minimum age was eight years. For pabbaja ceremony the individual had to get his head fully shaved and put on yellow clothes. In this shape he was presented before the presiding Bhikshu. On presentation this individual would pray for admission to the monastery. On his prayer the head Bikshu would administer three basic advices: (1) I take refuse with Budha. (2) I take refuge with religion. (3) I take refuge with the order. The aspirant for admission used to pronounce these advices very distinctly. Then his admission was permitted. On being admitted the individual was called a Sharman.
  39. Rules for shramner 1. Not to kill any living being 2. Not to accept anything given to him. 3. Live free from the impurity of character. 5. Not to tell lie 6. Not to take food at improper time 7. Not to use luxurious things
  40. Upasampada ceremony After pabbaja the Buddhist monk had to undergo the Upasampada ceremony. This ceremony was different from pabbaja ceremony. . After the Pabbajja ceremony education continued for twelve years. When the student received twelve years education he had to undergo the Upasampada ceremony. That it is at the age of twenty years,Upasampada ceremony was performed. This ceremony was democratic in nature. The Sharman has to present himself in front before all other monks of the monastery. One could be admitted for this ceremony only when the majority of the monks voted in favour of the same. After this ceremony the Sharman was regarded as full- fledge member of the monastery. On this occasion all his worldly and family relationships ended.
  41. Curriculum Education was derived into two stages: • Primary Education. • Higher Education. • Primary Education:- It aimed at teaching, reading, writing, & arithmetic. There was great emphasis on an ideal life in accordance with Buddhist principles. The jetkas stories indicate that during the Buddhist period, primary education took the form of worldly haxcbsvdc education. • Higher education:- At the higher stage students study a variety of subjects such as literature, medicine, law, philosophy, religion, politics, astrology, & military science.
  42. Discipline There was a rigorous discipline which the students had to observe. Students where expected to live an ideal life in pursuit of Buddha's eight - fold path. He was to observe ten rules:- Not to kill any living being. Not to steal. Not to tell a lie. Not to eat at improper time. Not to take intoxicant. Not to speak ill of any body. Not to take interest in music, dance, play. Etc. Not to use things soft & comfortable bed, consmeties & luxurious things. Observe celibacy To be free from impurity of character.
  43. Buddhist Educational Institutions In the history of Education these universities played major role in the propagation of Buddhism. We still remember the glory of the universities like Nalanda, Vikramsila, Sompuri, Salban, Jagaddal, Pandit Vihar, Taxila. The supremacy of those universities were unparallel. Students from China, Myanmar, Thailand, Gandhara and all parts of ancient India came to have their education in those universities.
  44. Methods of Instruction The methods of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teachers and repetition by pupil, followed by explanation by the teacher , questioning by the pupil, and discussion between the teacher and the pupil. Women Education Buddha was opposite to the education of women. He held that women had great responsibilities at home. So, women where not allowed to admission in Buddhist monasteries.
  45. MERITS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION Buddhist education was imparted in well organized centers, monasteries and Vihara which were fit places for the purpose. Buddhist education was free from communal narrowness. Bhikshus led a life of austerity and simplicity. Buddhist education laid much emphasis on the physical mental and spiritual development of the students. both the teachers and students led disciplined life. Buddhist education helped to gain international importance it also developed cultural exchange between India and other countries of the world. Restriction of Vedas and Rituals. Teaching language is poly as their mother tongue. Education for all.
  46. DEMERITS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION Buddhist education could not give the proper attention to the occupational, industrial and technical education. It gave severe blow to the social development because it derided family ties. Leaving their family life Buddha Bhikshus devoted their whole lives to sangh and Buddhism.
  47. Difference between Vedic Education and Buddhist Education Vedic Education Buddhist Education Learning through "Gurukulas" and Guru's Home only. Learning through "Monasteries" and Universities. Importance to Vedas only Importance to Medicine, Maths, Astrology, Drawing, Sculpture etc. Teaching language is Sanskrit Teaching language is Poly, as thier thier mother tongue They didn't give importance to women Education. There is partical between men and women. They didn't give education to Sutras. Education for all Free education Fee was collected for the education. Student's was lived in simple manner and they served their teachers in gurukulas Student's was lived in simple manner, but they studied in universities. Most of the teachers are Bramines Budda Pickunis are the techers Discussion, Debates and Manana, Methods were followed. Recitation by the teachers, Explanation by the teacher Education was given based on the ability of the students. Students can choose their own subjects.
  48. Jainism in Education Introduction Jainism is one of the oldest living religions of the world. It is independent and not a branch or off shoot of any religion. Jainism founded by Rishabdev, ie, Adinath. It's a collection of teachings of 24 "Tiruthankars". 24th Tiruthankar was Lord Mahavira. The word Jainism derived from the "Jina". Meaning "The one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery over himself".
  49. Branches of Jainism It has two divisions 1. Sevtambara 2. Digambara"  "Digambara" Means "Sky Clad".  Wear no claths  live alone or in small groups in the forest.  Admit only men.  "Sevtambara" means "White clad"  Wear white robes  Live in community  Admit both men and women.  Some wear face masks to product minute life forms from harm.
  50. Teachings of Mahavira • The three principles of Jainism, also known as "Triratnas" are • Right faith : Belife in the tachings and wisdom of Mahavira. • Right knowledge : acceptance of the theory that there is no God and that the world has been existing without a creator and that all objects possess a soul. • Right conduct : Right conducat refers to the Mahavira observance of great five vows are • Not to injure life. • Not to lie. • Not to steal. • Not to acquire property. • Not to lead immoral life.
  51. Jainism Tachers with their students
  52. Philosophy of Jainism • Jainism believes in Ahimsa- Non-violence or non- injury to beings. • Jainism accepts the existence of immortal souls which are numerous. • Jainism repudiates dogmatism. It rejects the idea if creator of the world. It believes reality to be many- sided. • Salvation or Moksha is state of freedom which is achieved by deep meditation, a pure life and three- fold path of right faith, roght knowledge and right conduct. • All Jains are expected to be strictly vegetarian.
  53. Aims of Education  Self-realisation as self is divine. Education must focus on his divinity and remove the material bond of soul.  Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of self.  Development of personality as an individual. Hence, more stress on individual aims.  Teaching should give necessary victory and penance to help the self.  stoppage of Karma would disassociate self from it and regain its power and glory. Teaching must help train one for it.  Believes in transmigration of soul , hence education may partly be the preparation for the next world.
  54. Curriculum • Curriculum should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas, the precious principles of life, that brings happiness, success and love here and now. • curriculum should inculcate non-violence as a virtue, practiced and not only aspired for, that would be socially desirable.
  55. Methods of Teaching • Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Teaching must develop these faculties. • Education must be action based and ideally oriented. • Should bring happiness to all. Discipline • Emphasis on self discipline and hard work. • Practical discipline is essential for release from the bondage. • Happiness and bliss through action. Man is a free moral agent, responsible for all his deliberate action.