➢Gender is a social construct. An individual’s gender is
their social identity resulting from their culture’s
conceptions of masculinity and femininity.
➢Individual develop their own gender identity, influenced
in part by the process of gender socialization.
‘Gender Socialization is a process whereby humans in
the course of social interaction as well as
exposure and reactions to diverse information are
moulded and continuallyshaped to culturally
appropriate images of femaleness and maleness’.
The process of gender socialization begins early in life. Children develop an
understanding of gender categories at a young age. Studies have shown that
children can discern male voices from female voices at six months old, and
can differentiate between men and women in photographs at nine months
old. Between 11 and 14 months,children develop the ability to associate sight
and sound, matching male and female voices with photographs of men and
women. By age three, children have formed their own ender identity.They
have also begun to learn their culture’s gender norms, includingwhich toys,
activities,behaviors, and attitudes are associated with each gender.
Children were observes and imitate the behaviors of same gender model than
opposite gender model. So gender categorization is a significant part of a
child’s social development.
The process of gender socialization continues as adolescents enter
the workforce. Research has found that adolescents encounter
stereotypes of gendered performance in the workforce in their first
jobs. First jobs are significantly segregated by sex. Girls work fewer
hours and earn less per hour than boys. Hourly wages are higher in
job types dominated by boys while girls are more frequently assigned
housework and childcare duties. The impact of these first
experiences in the professional world will shape adolescents
perspectives on how men and women behave differently in the
▪ Parents are typically a child’s first source of information
about gender. Starting at birth, parents communicate
different expectations to their children depending on
▪ For example, a son may engage in more roughhousing
with his father, while a mother takes her daughter
▪ The child may learn from their parents that certain
activities or toys correspond with a particular gender (
think of a family that gives their son a truck and their
daughter a doll ).
▪ Teachers and school administrators model
gender roles and sometimes demonstrate
gender stereotypes by responding to male
and female students in different ways.
▪ For example, separating students by gender
for activities or disciplining students
differently depending on their gender may
reinforce children’s developing beliefs and
▪ Peer interactions also contribute to gender
socialization. Children tend to play with same-
gender peers. Through these interactions, they
learn what their peers expect of them as boys or
▪ These lessons may be direct, such as when a peer
tells the child that a certain behavior is or not
“appropriate” for their gender.
▪ They can also be indirect, as the child observes
same- and other-genderedpeers’ behavior over
▪ Media, including movies, TV, and books, teaches
children about what it means to be a boy or a girl.
Media conveys information about the role of gender in
people’s lives and can reinforce gender stereotypes.
▪ Mass media in gender socialization includes Linguistic sexism, The
print media, Television.
▪ Language is a medium of socialization. A child learns the language of
his or her culture and shapes his/her behavior in accordancewith that
▪ The research studies indicates that men and women speak different
▪ Women’s conversation have a cooperative character, where as men’s
conversation’s are move competitive, less social and more
▪ The print media plays a significant role in gender
socialization. Whereas most magazines concentrateon
finance, business, sports, technology,hobbies and sex,
women’s as well as man’s magazines.
▪ Television is the most popular form of electronic media
and it is the most important agent of gender
▪ Every culture or communityhas different guidelines about what
is appropriate for males and females and family members may
socialize children in gendered ways. In most Indian families,
norms for boys and girls are differ.
▪ Norms for girls seem to get more stringent after they attain
puberty. Norms regarding their playing, dressing manner,
interactions (especially with man).
▪ Certain Traditions Also May Contribute To
For Example, AmongMembers Of Zemei Naga
Tribe Of North East India, Men Are Forbidden
To Touch The Meat Of An Animal Killed By An
Woman, As It Considered TouchingThe Meat
Would Be Below Their Dignity Because Bravery
Is A Quality Of Men And Docility Is Quality Of
Some more agents are there:
how to live
ends how to
➢ Gender socialization is a lifelong process.The beliefs about gender that we
acquire in childhood can affect us throughout our lives. The impact of this
socialization can be big (shaping what we believe we are capable of
accomplishing and thus potentially determining our life's course), small
(influencing the color we choose for our bedroomwalls), or somewhere in
➢ As adults, our beliefs about gender may grow more nuanced and flexible,
but gender socialization can still affect our behavior,whether in school, the
workplace,or our relationships.