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This was an oral presentation I had to do for my Anatomy & Physiology I class. I chose the disease because my father has it. I gathered information on what the disease is, its prevalence (gender, ethnicity, age), causes, symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, and its effects.
LUNG ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYThe function of the lungs is to Oxygenate our blood byremoving Carbon Dioxide and replacing it with Oxygen.
What is EmphysemaEmphysema (em-fi-SE-ma) is a type of Chronic ObstructivePulmonary Disease. COPD for short. COPD is generally a combination of Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis both with varying degrees. It is a progressive disease of the lungs. The alveoli (air sacs) are irreversibly damaged causing breathing to become difficult. There is no curehttp://www.muschealth.com/video/Default.aspx?videoId=10192&cId=38&type=rel
What Are The CausesMOST COMMON Smoking (#1 cause) Prolonged exposure to second hand smoke Chemical fumes Dust Air pollution
IN RARE CASES Deficiency of the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin A protein made by the liver that protects the lungs. That is inherited MM: normal level MS: 80% of normal MZ: 60% of normal SZ: 40% of normal ZZ: 10% of normal level
WHO IS AT RISK Emphysema effects both men and women. Usually does not appear until the sixties. But the disease can appear as early as forty depending on certain factors. Any ethnic group can develop emphysema. One exception is the inherited form that mainly effects European Caucasians.
SYMPTOMS OF EMPHYSEMA Coughing with or without phlegm(sometimes referred to as “smokers cough”) Dyspnea (shortness of breath) Trouble catching one’s breath Fatigue Wheezing Barrel- like distended chest Lethargy or difficulty concentrating Difficulty sleeping
Treatment STOP smoking (if you smoke) Bronchodilators (inhalers) Ex. Atrovent, Spiriva, Serevent, Foradil, and Albuterol Anti-inflammatory medication Ex. Singulair and Roflimulast Antibiotics Oxygen therapy Pulmonary rehabilitation Conserve energy, improve stamina, and reduce breathlessness SurgeryOther things include Avoid being around smoke and other irritants Avoiding the cold
SOME FACTS ON COPD Close to 13 million American adults have been diagnosed with COPD. Many others have the disease and not know it. 51% say it limits their ability to work (lost productivity). The cost of COPD on the nation was approximately 49.9 billion dollars in 2010 (American Lung Association, February 2011). Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease is the third cause of death in the United States in 2011 with 143,382 deaths
Worldwide Mortality Rate 0.80% 0.70% 0.70% 0.60% 1.40% 0.60% 0.70% 1.40% 1.50% United States 1.50% Japan 1.80% Brazil 1.90% Mexico 2% Germany Netherlands 2.90% South Africa 36.60% 2.90% Hungary Romania Canada4.80% Thailand Australia Austria 5.80% Spain Kyrgyzstan Argentina Sweden 10.40% Colombia Poland 16.40% Venezuela
A NOTE ON THE POSITIVE SIDEResearch is strong and on going in the fight of Emphysema. How to measure airspace enlargement accurately How to define aging of the lung There are studies showing promise that changing ones diet to include olive oil, fish, and grapes, peanuts, and berries (sources of resveratrol) may limit the lung damage caused by smoking.
REFERENCESAlpha-1 Canadian Registry Website:http://www.alpha1canadianregistry.com/alpha1/info/faq.htmlAnatomy of the Lung Picture. Retrieved from 3d Science Pics Website:http://3dsciencepics.com/wp-content/uploads/lung_anatomy2.jpgAetna, INC.(November 21, 2011) Emphysema Retrieved fromhttp://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/9339/10600.html (August 2011) Trends in COPD (Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema): Morbidity andMortality Retrieved from American Lung Association Website: www.lung.org/finding-cures/our.../trend.../copd-trend-report.pdfEmphysema Animation Video Retrieved from Website:http://www.muschealth.com/video/default.aspx?videoId=10192Emphysema by country", World Health Organisation Statistical Information System.Retrieved fromhttp://www.NationMaster.com/graph/mor_emp-mortality-emphysemaEmphysema Lung Picture (December 10, 2010). Emphysema Causes and Treatment.Retrieved from Website: http://ic.steadyhealth.com/emphysema_causes_and_treatment.htmlHoyert, Donna L PhD, Xu, Jiaquan M.D. (October 10, 2012) Deaths: Preliminary Data for2011 Retrieved from Department of Health and Human Services Website:www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_06.pdfPereira, E. B., Viana, C., Taunay, T. E., Sales, P. U., Lima, J. O., & Holanda, M. A. (2011).Improvement of Cognitive Function After a Three-Month Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programfor COPD Patients. Lung, 189(4), 279-285. doi:10.1007/s00408-011-9303-6Spirometry (7/9/2012) Reviewed by: David Zieve, MD, MHA, MedicalDirector, A.D.A.M., Inc., and Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, Assistant Professor ofMedicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, University ofPennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute, & Voelkel, Norbert F. (2008) Molecular Pathogenesis ofEmphysema. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 118 (2) 394 – 402. doi: 10. 1172/JCI31811