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objectives 2RK - Copy.ppt

  1. OBJECTIVES Definition: The result sought by the learner at the end of the educational programme, i.e. what the students should be able to do at the end of the learning period, that they could not do before hand JJ Guilbert
  2. Objectives These are the behaviors to be displayed by a learner, AIMS: These are for the teacher Objectives are for the learner to achieve through the support and guidance of the teacher
  3. Educational Domains Cognitive / Knowledge Connative / Psychomotor Affective / Attitude
  4. Categories of Cognitive Domain Bloom (1956) Knowledge- The remembering of previously learned material, lowest level of learning Comprehension- ability to grasp Application- ability to use learned material Analysis- Ability to breakdown Synthesis-ability to put together Evaluation-Ability to judge
  5. Cognitive objectives and words Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Define, State, List, name, write, recall, recognise,label ,underline, select reproduce measure Identify,justify,select,indicate,judge Explain,formulate,,classify, Predict,assess,choose,find,perform demonstrate,show,construct,use Analyse,identify,conclude,compare, conrast,criticise differentiate
  6. Cognitive objectives and words contd… Synthesis Evaluation Combine,restate, summarise,precise,argue, discuss,organise,derive, Select, relate, generalize Judge,Evaluate,determine, Support,Recognise,Identify, Choose,,select
  7. Conative or psychomotor skills This deals with the routine actions carried out by the student .The student is able to perform, a practical act automatically and with a high degree of precision and efficiency, having effective control over the practical skill
  8. Levels of conative domain Imitation: student exposed to an observable action makes an attempt to copy it step by step guided by an impulse to imitate, he needs a model Control: student is able to demonstrate a skill according to instructions ,differentiate between one set of skills ,starts to adapt handling instruments
  9. Levels of conative domain contd…. Automatism : A high degree of proficiency is attained in using the skills ,which now requires only a minimum energy
  10. Levels of attitude/affective Domain Receptivity or attention: Senstivity to the existence of a certain phenomenon,willingness to receive, Response: Sufficient interest in the phenomenon noticed to do something about it Internalization : Perception of a phenomenon affecting values, enables one to experience other feelings
  11. Data for formulation (sources) Health needs, demands of society Profession, students,progress in science Services to the patient, community Level of professional competence to be attained Student’s background, level of education Future demands on nursing, expected responsibilities
  12. Types of Objectives 1. General objectives 2. Intermediate objectives 2a - Institutional objectives 3. Specific or instructional objectives
  13. Types of Objectives contd…. 1. General objectives: Correspond to the functioning of the types of health personnel trained in an establishment. course objectives must be in harmony with the curriculum
  14. Types of Objectives contd…. 2. Intermediate objectives: Arrived at by breaking down professional functions into activities e.g. planning, and carrying out blood sample session 2a. Institutional objectives: The graduate is prepared to function in a variety of settings
  15. Types of Objectives contd 3. Specific or Instructional Objectives These are description of performance the instruction is expected to produce: Defining objectives help to identify the terminal out comes of instruction in terms of observable performance of learners, to be presented in behavioral terms.
  16. Qualities of Objectives Relevant- cover every point relevant to the aim Unequivocal- words open to wider meaning should not be used Logical- real, Internally consistent Observable-observing progress to tell its achievement Measurable- valid evaluation mechanism
  17. Characteristics of Specific objectives Should be written in behavioral terms Should reflect the condition Should reflect the standard Reasonable in number of behavioral changes expected Consistent with unit theme Should be specific Should be descripitve
  18. Classification of objectives Teacher centered: To develop teaching skills or e,to use AV aids effectively in teaching situation Student centered: To understand the subject in depth