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Uccn1003 -may09_-_lect09_-_access_control_list_acl_

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Uccn1003 -may09_-_lect09_-_access_control_list_acl_

  1. 1. UCCN 1003 (May 2009) Data Communications & Networks (Lecture 09) Access Control List
  2. 2. 1st Question • What is one of the major reasons to do IP subnet? • Answer: – To limit the broadcast domain. – To provide some security in the network. • How (in security)? – Access control list – Packet filtering at the router level – Can block packets based on IP and port numbers.
  3. 3. What is ACL? • ACL = Access List. – essentially a list of conditions that categorize packets. • It is a form of packet filtering in Cisco router. • In practical, there are two steps in using ACL: – Creating the access list – Placing the access list • Easy to learn, hard to master • ACL is used in: – exercising control over network traffic. – filtering unwanted packets when implementing security policies.
  4. 4. “Applying” ACLs • There are two steps for applying ACL: • 1st step: – Create the Access Control List • 2nd step: – Place the Access Control List at the Interface • There 3 types of ACL: – Standard Access List – Extended Access List – Named Access List
  5. 5. “Skills” in ACL • In this lecture, you have to learn: – How to create a standard ACLs • Cisco command of creating standard ACLs – Where to place a standard ACLs • Cisco command of placing standard ACLs – How to create an extended ACLs • Cisco command of creating extended ACLs – Where to place an extended ACLs • Cisco command of placing extended ACLs – The differences between standard and extended ACLs – Further rules and “tricks” for proper placement of ACLs – Creation and application of named ACLs • Named ACLs are derived from standard and extended ACLs – How to use ACLs to implement security policy and network traffic control.
  6. 6. Creating Standard ACLs • Command Syntax: R1(config)#access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} {conditions} • Example: R1(config)#access-list 10 deny host R1(config)#access-list 5 permit any R1(config)#access-list 17 deny } } Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 • There are 4 parts in the syntax of standard ACL.
  7. 7. General Rule of Standard ACL Syntax • Part 1: – You MUST HAVE the command name “access-list” • Part 2: – Access list number – Use any one number from 1 to 99 for standard ACL • Part 3: – Can only be either permit or deny • Part 4: – The “conditions”, view this part as: • A host • A LAN / IP subnets • Any Host – Is a source IP or source IP subnets
  8. 8. Syntax of Standard ACLs Explained Part 3: • Example: Can either be permit or deny (remark is allowed too) R1(config)#access-list 10 deny host Part 1: Part 4: You must have A host Create ACL this to create a A LAN / IP subnets in global standard ACL Any Host configuration mode Part 2: Access list number. Use 1-99 for standard ACL.
  9. 9. More on Syntax of Part 4 Router(config)#access-list 10 permit ? ? = “Part 4” => 3 types of source host - A single host address any - Any source host hostname or a.b.c.d - Address to match 1st type: 1 IP address or 1 source host IP Router(config)#access-list 10 permit host 2nd type: any source IP address Router(config)#access-list 10 permit any 3rd type: source IP subnet Router(config)#access-list 10 permit Note: Wildcard mask =
  10. 10. Introduction to Wildcard Mask • As you’ve observed, a portion of “part 4” in defining the IP subnet in ACL contain: – A wildcard mask: – Instead of a subnet mask: • For example: An IP subnet of to – With subnet mask (in setting static IP route): • R1(config)#ip route – With wildcard mask (in setting access list): • R1(config)#access-list 9 permit • The first step to know wildcard mask is: – Wildcard mask IS NOT subnet mask. – Wildcard mask DOES NOT HAVE any relation with subnet mask. – Wildcard mask use a different set of rules compared to subnet mask.
  11. 11. Applying Wildcard Mask Router(config)#access-list 10 permit • Step #1: Convert the wildcard mask to binary form: – 00000000.00000000.00000000.11111111 • Step #2: Change the ‘1’ to ‘x’ – 00000000.00000000.00000000.xxxxxxxx • Step #3: Change the IP address to binary: – => – 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000000 • Step #4: Match the IP and wildcard mask – 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000000 – 00000000.00000000.00000000.xxxxxxxx • Algorithm: if wildcard bit = ‘0’, retain IP bits, if wildcard bit = ‘x’, replace. • Results: – 11000000.10101000.00000001.xxxxxxxx • In the place of ‘x’, it can be either ‘0’ or ‘1’.
  12. 12. Difference Between Subnet mask and Wildcard mask • Unlike subnet mask, wildcard mask: – Does not restrict to left all ‘0’ and right all ‘1’ – That means, there can be 232 wildcard mask • versus only 32 valid subnet mask – Hence, this is allow: • 01001000.10001111.11111111.00000001 – Does not perform “bitwise and” process with IP address – “Kind of” a reverse arrangement of subnet mask in terms of ‘1’ bit.
  13. 13. How Wildcard Mask Works? R1(config)#access-list 2 deny • Question: – In the above statement, what IPs does the ACL deny? • Answer
  14. 14. # Quick Quiz# R1(config)#access-list 2 permit • Question: – Given above statement, does the following IP be “permitted” by the access list? – A) – B) – C)
  15. 15. # Quick Quiz# R1(config)#access-list 2 permit • Question: – Given above statement, (accidentally mistaken subnet mask as wildcard mask) does the following IP be “permitted” by the access list? – A) – B) – C)
  16. 16. The ANY and HOST Option R1(config)#access-list 4 permit Can be written as: R1(config)#access-list 4 permit any R1(config)#access-list 3 permit Can be written as: R1(config)#access-list 2 permit host • There are two special keywords that are used in ACLs, the any and host options. • Simply put, the any option substitutes for the IP address and for the wildcard mask. • This option will match any address that it is compared against. • The host option substitutes for the mask. • This mask requires that all bits of the ACL address and the packet address match. This option will match just one address.
  17. 17. More Rules for Standard ACLs • The “part 4” of Standard ACL works on the source IP address. • 1 ACL list represent by 1 ACL number. • You can assign as many “conditions” into a list (e.g. next slide) • Every Standard ACL list has a hidden “deny all” statement at the last of the list. • Use this command to see the access list – Router#show access-list – Router#show access-list 5 • Use this command to erase a access list – Router(config)#no access-list 15
  18. 18. Multi-condition Standard ACL Router#config t Router(config)#no access-list 5 Router(config)#access-list 5 deny host Router(config)#access-list 5 deny host Router(config)#access-list 5 deny host Router(config)#access-list 5 permit any Router(config)#access-list 7 deny host Router(config)#access-list 7 deny host Router(config)#access-list 7 permit any Router(config)#exit Router#show access-list Standard IP access list 5 deny host deny host deny host permit any Standard IP access list 7 deny host deny host permit any
  19. 19. Placing Standard ACLs - 1 • Syntax: R1(config)#interface {interface-name} R1(config-if)#{protocol} access-group access- list-number {in | out} Fa0/0 in Fa0/1 out Fa0/0 out Fa0/1 in • Example: R1(config)#int fa0/0 R1(config-if)#ip access-group 10 in R1(config-if)#ip access-group 12 out • The ip access-group command links an existing ACL to an interface
  20. 20. Placing Standard ACLs - 2 • You can place – same Access List at different interface Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 10 in Router(config)#int fa0/1 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 10 in – only 2 Access List at same interface for both in and out Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 10 in Router(config-if)#ip access-group 97 out – ACL of different layer 3 protocols at same interface (in and out) Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 10 in Router(config-if)#ip access-group 97 out Router(config-if)#ipx…..
  21. 21. The “Logic” of Standard ACL
  22. 22. ACL and Routing Processes in a Router ip access-group list_number in ip access-group list_number out
  23. 23. Checking and Unbind the “Placement” of ACLs • Use the following commands to verify the placement of ACLs on the interfaces of router. – Router#show ip interface – Router#show running-config • Remember to “unbind” an ACL at the interface level by typing the following commands R1(config)#int fa0/0 R1(config-if)#no ip access-group list_number in
  24. 24. Show running-config R1#show run version 12.2 hostname R1 interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address ip access-group 23 in duplex auto speed auto ! • Show running-config command display the binding or placement of access list on a particular interface. • It is also a good practice to test the access lists with sample traffic to ensure that the access list logic is correct.
  25. 25. Show IP Interface R1#show ip interface FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up (connected) Internet address is Broadcast address is Address determined by setup command MTU is 1500 bytes Helper address is not set Directed broadcast forwarding is disabled Multicast reserved groups joined: Outgoing access list is not set Inbound access list is 1 Proxy ARP is enabled Security level is default Split horizon is enabled … • The show ip interface command displays IP interface information and indicates whether any ACLs are set.
  26. 26. While you delete Access List • When you delete a particular ACLs, – Only the content of the ACL is empty – The binding ACLs is still at the interface – Meaning the Interface still has the ACL – Problem occurs if you “unintentionally” re-use the deleted ACL… Example: R1(config)#no access-list 2 R1(config)#exit R1#show run version 12.2 hostname R1 interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address ip access-group 2 in !
  27. 27. # Quick Quiz# running-config hostname Router Question: ! interface FastEthernet0/0 List all the IP addresses ip address that can be assigned to ! PC1, so that PC1 can ping interface FastEthernet0/1 PC0. ip address ip access-group 10 out ! access-list 10 permit !
  28. 28. Answer to the last slide • Accept IP address of 192.168.12.“0x000x0x”, x is wildcard, thus give result to: – – – – – – –
  29. 29. Placing ACL at VTY • Here is an example of allowing only host to telnet into a router: Lab_A(config)#access-list 50 permit Lab_A(config)#line vty 0 4 Lab_A(config-line)#access-class 50 in • Because of the implied deny any at the end of the list, the access list stops any host from telnetting into the router except the host, regardless of which individual IP address on the router is used as a target. • For VTY line, use access-class to bind the ACL – instead of ip access-group for other type of interfaces.
  30. 30. # Quick Quiz# Question: What is the following ACL actually doing?
  31. 31. Case Study: Apply Standard ACL in Security Policy • In the right figure you have a router with four LAN connections and one WAN connection to the Internet. • You need to write an ACL that will stop 3 LANs from accessing the Internet, except • Each of the LANs shows a single host’s IP address, and from that you need to determine the subnet and use wildcards to configure the ACL. • How will you do this?
  32. 32. Answer to the last slide Router(config)#access-list 1 deny Router(config)#access-list 1 deny Router(config)#access-list 1 deny Router(config)#access-list 1 permit any Router(config)#interface s0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 1 out Important note: For ACL that only has “deny” statement REMEMBER to put in this statement last Router(config)#access-list 1 permit any to negate the implicate “deny all” statement at the last of the ACL
  33. 33. Now: Syntax for Extended ACL
  34. 34. Creating IP Extended List R1(config)#access-list 114 permit tcp any eq telnet R1(config)#access-list 114 permit tcp any eq ftp R1(config)#access-list 114 permit tcp any eq ftp-data Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 8 Part 7 • In Extended Access List – We have both source IP and destination IP – We have layer-4 protocols and layer-5 protocols – We have a different access-list number range – Instead of “4 parts” in standard ACL, we have 8 parts in extended ACL
  35. 35. Extended ACL – Part 1 & 2 • Part 1: The command “access-list” is still the same. • Part 2: The access-list number range for extended ACL is 100 to 199, and 2000 to 2699 – You must match the ACL number according to the following guideline!!
  36. 36. Extended ACL – Part 3 & 4 • Part 3: – deny or permit • Part 4: – Layer 3 protocol – Layer 4 protocol
  37. 37. Extended ACL – Part 5 and 6 • Part 5: – Source address • Host, any, IP subnet • Same as standard ACL • Part 6: – “Normally” Destination address
  38. 38. Extended ACL – Part 7 • Part 7 – Normally conditional phrase • gt = greater than • eq = equal • lt = less than • neq = not equal
  39. 39. Checking Your Extended ACL • Show access-list commands displays the contents of all ACLs on the router.
  40. 40. Extended ACL – Part 8 • Part 8: – Port numbers – Port number equivalent network service • telnet (port 22)
  41. 41. Extended List Placement R1(config-if)#ip access-group 110 in R1(config-if)#ip access-group 110 out R1#show ip interface R1#show run • Same rules applied as standard ACL. – For placement or assigning – For unbinding – For checking placement
  42. 42. Case Study: Apply Extended ACL in Security Policy • We need to stop Telnet access to the networks attached to the Ethernet 1 and Ethernet 2 • How do you solve this?
  43. 43. Answer to the last slide Router(config)#access-list 110 deny tcp any eq 23 Router(config)#access-list 110 deny tcp any eq 23 Router(config)#access-list 110 permit ip any any Router(config)#interface Ethernet 1 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 110 out Router(config-if)#interface Ethernet 2 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 110 out Comment: Can we have another placement of ACL?
  44. 44. Conditional Flow of Extended ACLs • Extended ACLs check the source and destination packet addresses as well as being able to check for protocols and port numbers. • This gives greater flexibility to describe what the ACL will check. Packets can be permitted or denied access based on where the packet originated and its destination as well as protocol type and port addresses. • An extended ACL can allow e-mail traffic from Fa0/0 to specific S0/0 destinations, while denying file transfers and web browsing. When packets are discarded, some protocols send an echo packet to the sender, stating that the destination was unreachable.
  45. 45. Creating Named ACLs - 1 • A named ACL is created with the ip access-list command. • The advantages that a named access list provides are: – Intuitively identify an ACL using an alphanumeric name. – Eliminate the limit of 798 simple and 799 extended ACLs • Named ACLs provide the ability to modify ACLs without deleting and then reconfiguring them. • It is important to note that a named access list will allow the deletion of statements but will only allow for statements to be inserted at the end of a list. Even with named ACLs it is a good idea to use a text editor to create them. • Consider the following before implementing named ACLs. – Named ACLs are not compatible with Cisco IOS releases prior to Release 11.2. – The same name may not be used for multiple ACLs. For example, it is not permissible to specify both a standard and extended ACL named George.
  46. 46. Creating Named ACLs (Standard) • IP named ACLs were introduced in Cisco IOS Software Release 11.2, allowing standard and extended ACLs to be given names instead of numbers. continue
  47. 47. Placing Name ACLs • Same as standard ACL and extended ACL • Using ip access-group command
  48. 48. Creating Named ACLs – Extended -1
  49. 49. Creating Named ACLs – Extended -2
  50. 50. Inserting a line in Named ACL - 1
  51. 51. Inserting a line in Named ACL - 2
  52. 52. Note on Standard and Extended ACL • What we have learnt so far are all IP-based. • Cisco ACL does accept other “layer-3” protocols such as – Appletalk – IPX – DECNet • For this subject and CCNA, we just need to worry for standard and extended
  53. 53. Summary: IP Standard and Extended List • IP Standard access lists – These use only the source IP address in an IP packet as the condition test. – All decisions are made based on source IP address. This means that standard access lists basically permit or deny an entire suite of protocols. – They don’t distinguish between any of the many types of IP traffic such as WWW, Telnet, UDP, etc. • IP Extended access lists – Extended access lists can evaluate many of the other fields in the layer 3 and layer 4 headers of an IP packet. – They can evaluate source and destination IP addresses, the protocol field in the Network layer header, and port number at the Transport layer header. – This gives extended access lists the ability to make much more granular decisions when controlling traffic.
  54. 54. Access-List Grouping in a Router • ACLs must be defined on a per-protocol, per direction, or per port basis. • To control traffic flow on an interface, an ACL must be defined for each protocol enabled on the interface. • ACLs control traffic in one direction at a time on an interface. • A separate ACL would need to be created for each direction, one for inbound and one for outbound traffic. • Finally every interface can have multiple protocols and directions defined. • If the router has two interfaces configured for IP, AppleTalk, and IPX, 12 separate ACLs would be needed. – One ACL for each protocol, times two for direction in and out, times two for the number of ports.
  55. 55. Rules of Access-List Number and Binding • You create a standard IP access list by using the access-list numbers 1–99 or 1300–1999 (expanded range). • Access-list types are generally differentiated using a number. • You CAN’T create a Appletalk access-list with numbers 300-399, since 300-399 belongs to DECnet access-list. • The protocols for which you can specify access lists depend on your IOS version. – The protocols supported in the previous slides are: IP, IPX, Appletalk, DECnet • Example of wrong matching of list number and protocol when placing ACLs at the interface (appletalk should match a range of 600-699) R1(config)#access-list 10 deny host R1(config)#int fa0/0 R1(config)#appletalk access-group 10 in Wrong Matching between protocol & access-list number !!!
  56. 56. ACL and Firewall • A firewall is an architectural structure that exists between the user and the outside world to protect the internal network from intruders.
  57. 57. Other Uses of ACLs • Blocking Routing Protocols Advertisement. • Limit network traffic and increase network performance. By restricting video traffic, for example, ACLs could greatly reduce the network load and consequently increase network performance. • Provide traffic flow control. ACLs can restrict the delivery of routing updates. If updates are not required because of network conditions, bandwidth is preserved. • Provide a basic level of security for network access. ACLs can allow one host to access a part of the network and prevent another host from accessing the same area. For example, Host A is allowed to access the Human Resources network and Host B is prevented from accessing it. • Decide which types of traffic are forwarded or blocked at the router interfaces. Permit e-mail traffic to be routed, but block all telnet traffic. • Allow an administrator to control what areas a client can access on a network. • Screen certain hosts to either allow or deny access to part of a network. Grant or deny user permission to access only certain types of files, such as FTP or HTTP. • If ACLs are not configured on the router, all packets passing through the router will be allowed onto all parts of the network.
  58. 58. Summary: Monitoring ACL
  59. 59. Summary: Application of ACL • ACL can – deny unwanted access to the network or LAN – permit certain user to access to the network – deny internal users of a LAN to access certain services. – permit internal user to access only certain services • Security tools, such as passwords, callback equipment, host software firewall, and physical security devices are helpful, however – they lack the flexibility of basic traffic filtering and the specific controls at the LAN level. – For example, a network administrator • may want to allow LAN users access to the Internet, • but not permit external users telnet access into the LAN. • Some form of firewall mechanism or packet filtering has to be carried at the router/LAN level.
  60. 60. Summary: ACL at Router Interface • ACLs are lists of conditions that are applied to traffic traveling across a router's interface. • These lists tell the router what types of packets to accept or deny at the Interface. • ACLs can be created for all routed network protocols, such as Internet Protocol (IP) and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). ACLs can be configured at the router to control access to a network or subnet.
  61. 61. Summary: Placing ACLs • The general rule is to put the extended ACLs as close as possible to the source of the traffic denied. • Standard ACLs do not specify destination addresses, so they should be placed as close to the destination as possible.
  62. 62. Summary: How ACL “Logic” Works • An ACL is a group of statements that define whether packets are accepted or rejected at inbound and outbound interfaces. • These decisions are made by matching a condition statement in an access list and then performing the accept or reject action defined in the statement. • The order in which ACL statements are placed is important. • The Cisco IOS software tests the packet against each condition statement in order from the top of the list to the bottom. • Once a match is found in the list, the accept or reject action is performed and no other ACL statements are checked. • If a condition statement that permits all traffic is located at the top of the list, no statements added below that will ever be checked.