O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Carregando em…3
×

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 16 Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Diapositivos para si (20)

Semelhante a Clauses (20)

Anúncio

Mais recentes (20)

Anúncio

Clauses

  1. 1. CLAUSES LOPAMUDRA MOHAPATRA, PGT(ENGLISH) DAV PUBLIC SCHOOL,CCL, GANDHI NAGAR, RANCHI
  2. 2. What is a phrase? A phrase is a group of words that makes some sense (not complete sense). It does not have a finite verb. Some examples: Through the jungle In a beautiful style To win a prize Birds in sky---words B i r d s s k y- letters
  3. 3. THERE ARE FOUR KINDS OF SENTENCES WHEN WE TALK ABOUT CLAUSES. 1.Simple sentence 2. Complex sentence 3. Compound sentence 4. Compound -complex sentence A SIMPLE SENTENCE CONSISTS OF AN INDEPENDENT CLAUSE. She has done a wonderful job. She- subject has done-verb a job- object has done a wonderful job- Predicate SOME MORE EXAMPLES: The child smiled happily. The cat is sitting on the mat. They have completed the project.
  4. 4. A COMPOUND SENTENCE HAS ONE OR MORE INDEPENDENT CLAUSES. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 1.The sun rises in the east. 2. The sun sets in the west. Night came on and rain fell heavily and we all got wet. 1, Night came on. 2. Rain fell heavily. 3. We all got wet. Each part contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own and forms part of a large sentence. The clauses are independent of one another and are of equal rank. They are Co-ordinate clauses. They are even called Main or Principal clauses. They are joined by a co-ordinating conjunction ’and’ can stand alone when the conjunction is removed and parts are shown separately.
  5. 5. A COMPLEX SENTENCE CONTAINS ATLEAST ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE AND ONE OR MORE DEPENDENT CLAUSES. 1.Shalini divorced her husband as she became a victim of domestic violence (complex sentence with one independent clause and one dependent clause) Shalini divorced her husband- ( Independent clause or Principal clause/Main clause) An independent clause makes sense and is a complete thought. (As) she became a victim of domestic violence- (Dependent clause /Subordinate clause) A dependent clause / subordinate clause needs more information to make sense.
  6. 6. 2. When I looked at the man, I realised that he was the culprit. I realised – Main clause (that) he was the culprit – subordinate clause (when) I looked at the man- subordinate clause A dependent clause / subordinate clause needs more information to make sense. Sunshine only
  7. 7. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE CONTAINS TWO OR MORE INDEPENDENT CLAUSES AND ONE OR MORE DEPENDENT CLAUSES. She was a singer and she took the decision that she would cut a solo album which would make her famous. She was a singer- Co-ordinate clause (and) she took the decision- Co-ordinate clause (that) she would cut a solo album- Subordinate clause (which)would make her famous- Subordinate clause
  8. 8. CLAUSES ARE JOINED BY CONJUNCTIONS. THEY MAY BE 1.Co-ordinating conjunctions And, as well as, or, otherwise, else, but, still, yet, nevertheless etc. Examples:1. They left home early and reached the station in time. 2. Sonu as well as Monu wants the toy car. 3. Work hard, or you will not succeed. 4. Listen to your elders otherwise you will land up in trouble.
  9. 9. 2.Subordinating conjunctions 1.Before , till, since, after, when, as- talk about time 2.Because, as, since- show cause/reason 3.Than, whereas - do comparison 4.That, so that- state purpose 5.That - show result 6.If, unless- make condition 7.Although, even if- make concession Examples: 1. She has written many books since she left college. 2. Since he had not studied hard, he failed the exam. 3. We should not spend more than we earn. 4. He toiled day and night so that he could send his son abroad for further studies. 5. We verified that you cancelled your flight last night. 6. Unless they tell the truth, you cannot solve the mystery. 7. Although the child reached school late, the Principal allowed him to take the test.
  10. 10. 3. Co-relative conjunctions Either…or, neither…nor, both…and, so…that, as…so, not only … but also, no sooner than, as…as Examples: 1. Either the gate keeper or the milk man is to blame. 2. She is as cool as a cucumber. 3. As you sow, so shall you reap. I would like to buy both a house and a car. Both parts can stand alone as sentences/clauses. The gate keeper is to blame. The milk man is to blame.
  11. 11. TYPES OF CLAUSES(DEPENDENT CLAUSES) IN A COMPLEX SENTENCE Noun clause Adverb clause Adjective clause A Noun clause does the work of a noun in a complex sentence. It usually gives answer to the question ‘what’. Examples: How he won the first prize is a mystery to all.(subject) I cannot tell when she will return.(object) This is where she lived.(Incomplete predication) You have heard the proverb that silence is golden.(Apposition) I fear (that) he will not succeed.(zero ‘that’ clause)
  12. 12. An Adverb clause does the function of an adverb. Examples: 1. Sumit makes friends wherever he goes.(place) 2. If it rains, we shall go out to enjoy ourselves.(condition) 3. She worked hard so that she could go abroad.(purpose) 4. He visited the house while I was away.(time)
  13. 13. An Adjective clause , like an adjective modifies the noun. The only difference is that an Adjective Clause always follows the noun which it modifies. Adjective clauses are introduced by the relative pronouns- who(m), whose, which or that. Examples: 1. The woman who writes poetry is our immediate neighbour. 2. I cannot find the book that you wanted to borrow.
  14. 14. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Restrictive(defining) Non-restrictive(non- defining) 1. The snake which/that drank water from the water trough looked quite harmless.(restrictive relative clause as it refers to that particular snake) 2. Snakes , which belong to the reptile family, are dreaded creatures. (non-restrictive relative clause)
  15. 15. Source: Google/internet Images

×