2. “ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE,
WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”
3. Perception is a process which individuals
organize and interpret their sensory
impressions in order to give meaning to their
4. Perception is the process of receiving
information about and making sense of the
world around us. It involves deciding which
information to notice, how to categorize this
information and how to interpret it within the
framework of existing knowledge.
5. Perceptions differ from person to person.
Each individual perceives the same situation
Group perceptions can influence one’s perception.
Individuals organise and interpret things based on
their past experiences and the important values
they consider important.
Employees tend to behave and act on certain
things on the basis of their perception.
6. FACTORS INFLUENCING
A number of factors operate to shape and
sometimes distort perception. These factors
2) the object or target being perceived
2) the situation.
7. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION
Factors in the perceiver
Factors in the Target
Factors in the situation
• Work Setting
• Social Setting
8. Person Perception: Making Judgments
Attribution theory- It has been proposed to develop
explanations of the ways in which we judge people
differently, depending on what meaning we attribute
to a given behavior.
We observe an individuals behavior and attempt to
determine whether it was internally or externally
9. Internal versus external attributions of causes of
Internal causes are under the individual’s control.
External causes are within the person’s environment.
10. Causation judged through:
Response/behaviors in different situations.
There exists a very low distinctiveness if the person reacts
likewise in all or most of the situations.
However, if a person reacts differently in different situations, it
is said that the uniqueness is high .
Response is the same as others to same situation.
This responds to the fact, how people with related stimulus
behave in similar situations.
If most people behave alike, i.e. their reactions are shared by
many, the agreement is high. But, if no one or only a few
people share the reactions, the consensus is low.
Responds in the same way over time.
It is the regularity in a person’s actions
12. ATTRIBUTION THEORY
observation Interpretation Attribution of cause
H –high L- Low
13. Divya has done poorly in third semester of MBA
course and went and talked to professor.
Divya does poorly in all other subjects (low
Has done poorly in earlier tests (High consistency)
No other student has done poorly (low consensus)
Internal attributions (lack of motivation, bad study
14. Situation 2
Divya does well in other subjects (high
Has performed well in earlier tests of same
Other students have also done bad in same
External causes (professor was strict, wrong
15. APPLICATIONS IN OB
19. PROCESS OF PERCEPTION
• The process a
person uses to
of the stimuli
that have been
sensed and to
retain others for
• The process of
stimuli into a
• The stage of the
process at which