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MBA MM_Unit 3.ppt

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Product and brand managment
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MBA MM_Unit 3.ppt

  1. 1. Unit 3 Product management
  2. 2. Attractiveness of Market Offering Attractiveness of the Market Offering Value-Based Prices Services Mix Product Features and Quality
  3. 3. Product Levels: The Customer Value Hierarchy Core Product Basic Product Expected Product Augmented Product Potential Product
  4. 4. Product Classification On the Basis of Durability and Tangibility  Non-durable Goods  Durable Goods  Services
  5. 5. On the Basis of Users Consumer Goods Convenience Goods  Staples  Impulse Goods  Emergency Goods Shopping Goods Specialty Goods Unsought Goods
  6. 6.  Industrial Goods Materials and Parts  Farm Products (Wheat, Cotton, Fruits)  Natural Products (Crude Oil, Iron Ore) Capital Items (Building Material) Supplies and Business Services (Lubes, Paper, Pens)
  7. 7. Product Mix  Product Mix is the set of all Products and Items a particular seller offers for sale. Product Line: Different categories of products in product mix form product lines. A product line consists of different brands in one product category.
  8. 8. Product Mix L e n g t h
  9. 9.  Width of product mix: refers to the number of different product lines that a company carries  Length of product mix: refers to the total number of items in the mix  Depth of product mix: refers to the number of variants in each brand  Consistency of product mix: Product mix is consistent if various product lines are closely related in end use, production requirements, distribution channels or some other way.
  10. 10. Having more products in Product Mix is beneficial for marketers:  Up-selling and Cross-selling  High market share  High turnover and low Cost of operations  Risk reduction  Products for different customer segments
  11. 11. Lengthening Product Line  Line Stretching: A company lengthens its product line beyond its current range Down-Market Stretch Up-Market Stretch Two-Way Stretch
  12. 12.  Line Filling: Adding more items within the present range  Line Modernization: Adding more advanced/modern variant and discontinuing the older one  Line Pruning: Eliminating variants from product line
  13. 13. Co-Branding  Two or more well-known brands/products are marketed together in some fashion Ingredient Branding: A special type of co- branding. A brand/product is used as component or part in another product.
  14. 14. Packaging  All the activities of designing and producing the container for a product. Usages are… Identification of brand Convey Information Storage Protection Facilitate Transportation
  15. 15.  New Product Development include- Products which are new-to-the-world and create an entirely new market Minor improvements or revisions in existing products
  16. 16. Why NPD • Marketers need to develop new products to maintain their positions or to grow  Drivers of NPD Change in customers’ preference New technologies PLC Competition Gap at a price level or for a customer segment
  17. 17. Challenges in NPD  Shortage of ideas  Cost of development  Capital shortage  Social and Government constraints  Shorter required development time  Fragmented markets and needs
  18. 18. Steps in NPD process  Idea Generation  Idea Screening  Concept Development and Testing  Marketing Strategy Development  Business Analysis  Product Development  Market Testing  Commercialization
  19. 19.  Idea Generation: Brain storming and looking for latent needs  Idea Screening: Two possible errors- Go error for a poor idea and - Drop error for a good idea Overall Probability Probability Probability Probability = of technical X of commer- X of econom- of success completion cialization ic success
  20. 20.  Concept Development and Testing Gap level Perceived value Purchase intention Purchase frequency and occasions Conjoint analysis  Package design  Brand name  Price  Services
  21. 21.  Marketing Strategy Development  Business Analysis: Estimate total sales Estimate costs and profit
  22. 22.  Product Development Physical prototypes Customer tests
  23. 23.  Market testing Test Market: A few representative cities are chosen and sales force tries to sell the product in real market conditions.  The characteristics of representative cities are similar to the whole market  The ad and promotion campaign is also similar to the proposed full market campaign
  24. 24.  Commercialization: Marketing (Production, Sales, Distribution and Promotion) of the product on large scale to cater a large area of market. For commercialization marketer may have to invest heavily in plant, machinery, logistics, distribution and promotion
  25. 25. Adoption of Innovation
  26. 26. Adoption of Innovation  An innovation is an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by individuals or organizations  Attributes of innovation Relative advantage Compatibility Complexity Trialability Observability
  27. 27.  Adoption is a mental process through which an individual passes from hearing about an innovation to final adoption  Diffusion is a social process while adoption is individual and mental process  Diffusion and adoption are closely interrelated processes  Adoption follows AIDA model
  28. 28.  Innovators: Risk takers and eager to try new ideas. Interests lead them out of peer group. Financially resourceful and technically sound. Play important role in diffusion. Purchase products in introduction stage  Early adopters: Greatest degree of opinion leadership in social system. Help products to enter in growth stage.
  29. 29.  Early majority: Purchase new products in growth and maturity stage. Avoid taking risk but also tend not to be the last  Late majority: Purchase products in Maturity and decline stages. Wait for price cut and other promotional offers. Purchase to avoid network pressure  Laggards: Purchase products in decline stage. Possess almost no opinion leadership. Near isolated in social network. Point of reference for them is the Past.
  30. 30. Product Life Cycle  Products have a Limited Life  At Different Stages of Life Cycle the Challenges, Opportunities and Problems are Different  Profits Rise and Fall at Different Stages  Products Require Different Strategies at Different Stages
  31. 31. Product Life Cycles  Introduction: Low sales, Generally no profits  Growth: Improvement in Sales & Profits  Maturity: Slowdown in growth, Profit may decline  Decline: Decline in Sales & Profits
  32. 32. Style, Fashion and Fad
  33. 33. Alternate Patterns
  34. 34. Strategies: Introduction Stage  Establish Distribution Network  Target Innovators  Inform Potential Customers  Induce Trials  First Mover Advantage or  Play Safe by Launching Later with Better Technology
  35. 35. Strategies: Growth Stage  Change in Price  Increase Promotion  Add Variants  Enter New Markets  Strengthen Distribution Network  Persuasive Advertising
  36. 36. Strategies: Maturity Stage  Add Benefits  Reminding & Reinforcement Advertising  Reduce Price  Sales Promotion  Personal Selling  Improve Services  Diversify
  37. 37. Strategies: Decline Stage  Cut Promotion Budget  Reduce Prices  Sell off Business
  38. 38. Brand  Name, Term, Sign, Symbol or Design or a Combination of them Intended to Identify the Goods and Services of a Seller to Differentiate them from Competitors.
  39. 39. Benefits of Branding:  For Marketer  Premium Price  Awareness  Increased Market Share  Customer Retention & Loyalty  Legal Protection  Brand Expansion (Product & Geographical)  Licensing Opportunity (Short Term)
  40. 40. Benefits:  For Customer  Risk Reduction  Identification of Source  More Satisfaction
  41. 41. Disadvantages  Higher price  Impact of poor performance on other products  High cost of brand establishment  Need time to develop brand  Less flexibility  Fake products may tarnish company’s reputation
  42. 42. Brand Revitalization The Process of Creating New Sources of Brand Equity or Refreshing Old Sources of a Fading Brand. Reasons for Fading:  Change in Customers’ Taste & Preference  Emergence of New Competitors  New Technology  Other Developments in Marketing Environment
  43. 43. Brand Elements  Attributes which Differentiate Brand.  Name, Logo, Packaging, Spokesperson, Trade-character, Jingle, Slogan etc. Brand Elements give the flexibility to change its positioning by changing B.E.
  44. 44. Core Brand Associations Abstract Associations (Attributes & Benefits) that Characterize the 5 to 10 Most Important Aspects or Dimensions of a Brand
  45. 45. Brand Extension  The process in which marketers launch new product with an existing established brand name  Marketers launch new products with existing brand name in current market or in a new market
  46. 46. Advantages of Brand Extension  Facilitate New Product Acceptance  Improve Brand Image  Reduce Risk Perceived by Customer  Increase the Probability of Trial  Increase Promotion Efficiency  Avoid Cost of Developing a New Brand  Bring New/Variety Seeking Customers  Revitalize the Brand
  47. 47. Disadvantages of Brand Extension  Can Encounter Retailer’s Resistance  Can Fail and Hurt Brand Image  Cannibalization of Existing Brands  Company can Rely More on a Single Brand
  48. 48. Following Points Should be Taken into Consideration while Extending the Brand  Perceived Similarity  Perceived Risk  Reputation  Innovativeness
  49. 49. Competitive Frame of Reference Define the Brands or Set of Brands With Which the Brand Would Compete i.e. Category Membership  POP  POD
  50. 50. Brand Awareness: Depth  High Brand Awareness  Brand Recall  Brand Recognition  No Awareness Brand Awareness: Breadth Purchase and Consumption Situations (Frequency & Quantity) that Customers’ are Aware of
  51. 51. Brand Personality The Human Characteristics or Traits that Consumers can Attribute to a Brand SINCERITY -(Down-to-earth, Honest, Cheerful)- Peter England EXCITEMENT -(Daring, Spirited, Imaginative, Up to date)- HH Passion COMPETENCE -(Reliable, Intelligent, Successful, Knowledgeable)- BOB, Raymond, Sprite SOPHISTICATION -(Upper class, Charming)- Mercedes RUGGEDNESS -(Outdoorsy, Tough)- HH Hunk, Levis
  52. 52. Brand Portfolio The Brand Portfolio is the Set of All Brands and Brand Lines that a Particular Firm Offers for Sale to Buyers in a Particular Category While each of these brands maintains its own operational structure, they benefit from shared resources and cross- promotional opportunities with other brands in the portfolio
  53. 53. Brand Equity Customers’ Subjective and Intangible Assessment of the Brand, Above and Beyond its Objectively Perceived Value. Key Drivers are:  Customer Brand Awareness  Customer Brand Attitudes (Perceived Quality, Loyalty  Customer Perception of Brand Ethics (Associations)
  54. 54. Brand Sponsorship  A marketer pays to the organizers of an event to display/ announce its brand name, logo etc. during the event an other related communications  This marketer is called sponsor  Sponsor may pay in cash or kind
  55. 55.  Sponsorship persuades indirectly by linking the sponsor’s message to an event or an organization although the sponsor's contract may include advertising at the event  Brand and event/organization should be related and reputed
  56. 56. Advantages  Awareness  Positive customer attitude  Exclusive merchandising rights  Brand associations  Build relationship  Enhance employee motivation
  57. 57. Hierarchical Communication Model
  58. 58. Brand Name Selection  Consider target segment  Other similar brand names  Uniqueness  Easy to recall  Should reflect product benefits  Consider meaning