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UNIT II BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE 6
Evolution of Buddhism
Buddhist thought, art and culture
Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism
Int...
Origins of Jainism
Mahāvīra, also known as Vardhamāna,
was the twenty-fourth and
last tirthankara- omniscient teacher who
...
• For the next twelve and a half years, he practiced intense
meditation and severe penance, after which he
became omniscie...
Jainism: The Religion
• The Jain community is composed of
monks, nuns, laymen and
laywomen.
• There are two distinct relig...
Jainism: Key Beliefs
• Ahimsa - The central Jain belief is an agreement to avoid physical
violence and conduct that can be...
Jainism: Key Beliefs
• Moksha - Results in the elimination of
the effects of karma in one’s life
(achieved through meditat...
Symbol of Jainism
• The outline of this picture represents the universe in
the Jain description. It is supposed to resembl...
• It was all started by Buddha, who was a prince in Lumbini, 2500
years ago.
• He was very unhappy in his royal life, so h...
Gauthama Buddha from BodhGaya went to Sarnath ( 5 weeks after enlightenment)
Crossed the ganges.
In Sarnath his deciples w...
The first was that life is suffering
You can’t live without death, frustration, etc.
The second is that suffering is cause...
The Eight-Fold Path
Right
Livelihood
Right
Mindfulness
Right
Effort
Right
Conduct
Right
Speech
Right
Meditation
Right
Know...
"Buddha" means "the awakened one"--that is, someone who
has woken up from the dream of being a separate ego in a
material ...
• Dharma is understood as the practice (paripatti) of the truth. To
take refuge in the Dharma is to take refuge in Buddha....
• Five Rules to abstain from: killing, stealing, sexual
misconduct lying, taking intoxicants such as alcoholic
drinks
• Me...
Comparison between the two schools (chart)
Theravada (Hinayana) Mahayana
Teaching of the elders Spirit of the elders
Small...
Jainism Buddhism
Based on The teachings of
thirthankaras like
Mahavir
The teachings of
Gautama Buddha
Branches/sects Digam...
INTERACTION OF HELLENIC AND INDIAN IDEAS IN NORTH INDIA
The 2nd century BC was a period of great expansion of internationa...
Artistic influences
•Numerous works of Greco-Buddhist art display the intermixing of
Greek and Buddhist influences, around...
A Hellenized Buddhist pantheon
Several other Buddhist deities may have been influenced by Greek gods. For
example, Heracle...
Capital of one of the Pillars of Ashoka (c. 250 BC), for which Hellenistic
artistic influence is often suggested (Boardman...
Cities
•A large Greek city built by Demetrius and rebuilt by
Menander has been excavated at the archaeological
site of Sir...
BHUDDIST ARCHIECTURE-STUPA
• Buddhism(Pali/Sanskrit: B
auddha Dharma) —
• religion and philosophy
encompassing a variety o...
TEACHING AND BUDDHIST
ARCHITECTURE
• The Buddha's threefold training is similar to the threefold
grouping of the Noble Eig...
Buddhist Architecture
• Principal place of early Buddhist worship is the stupa.
Mound shaped shrine with no interior.
• A ...
• The Buddhist architecture has its root deeply implanted
in the Indian soil- the birthplace of the Buddha's
teachings.
• ...
• The major features of
this style are
Stupas
stambhas/pillars
chaitayas
viharas
• these have been mere
spectators of diff...
Sanchi Stupa
Sanchi Stupa
STUPA
• A stupa is a mound-like
structure containing
buddhist relics, typically
the remains of Buddha,
used by Buddhists a...
SANCHI STUPA
• there are mainly
three main stupas
on the top of the
sanchi hill which
rise about 100m
above the plain.
• O...
THE GREAT STUPA, SANCHI
•The 'Great Stupa' at Sanchi is
the oldest stone structure in India
and was originally commissione...
•DOME- is a solid brick-work
32.32m in diameter and 12.8m
high.
•The dome has a slight ‘crushed’
profile at top and was
su...
Axonometric drawing
•There are four
gateways known as
‘TORANAS’ at
the cardinal points
to the compass and
are slightly
staggered from the
rail...
Diff b/w a temple and stupa
The symbolism of the form of the stupas is a vast and complex subject, as is the
meaning behind every item placed within a...
TORANA
•Toranas, the entrance to the
ambulatory were accepted as the
traditional type of ceremonial potals
and excel the a...
•The authentic examples of these pillars are those which king Ashoka set up
to bear inscriptions conveying to his subjects...
RAILING OR VEDICA
•The vedica or railing consists
of upright octagonal plan 45cm
in diameter spaced at 60 to
90cm from eac...
Dhamek Stupa,Sarnath(500BCE)
Dhamekh Stupa has a particular significance at Sarnath as it signifies the
place where buddha...
MAURYAN PILLARS
INTERACTION OF HELLENIC AND INDIAN IDEAS IN NORTH INDIA
Like Egyptian pharaohs they built everlasting monu...
MAURYAN PILLARS
Originally there were 30 in number of which only 10 exist
·         2 lion capitals in Bihar
·         ere...
MAURYAN PILLARS
Fluting is of foreign origin from the Persian and Greek pillars
Palace of Artaxerxes at Susa built in 404-...
LION CAPITAL -
SARNATH
·         The monks and the monastery have long since disappeared, but Sarnath remains an
important...
BUDDHIST STUPA - 250 BC
·         Evolution of the Stupa
The first Buddhist 'shrines' were mere piles of
stone or rubble c...
SANCHI STUPA - 150 BC
After the end of the Mauryan dynasty in
185 BC we had the Sungas taking over
and ruling till 70 BC i...
SANCHI STUPA
•The whole structure is finished by means of dry
masonry of hammer dressed stones laid in even
courses
•The A...
SANCHI STUPA
•Vedika-
•made entirely of stone
•1100” high with an entrance in each of the cardinal points
•The emblem of p...
SANCHI STUPA
SANCHI STUPA·       
  Ornamentation:
•Highly carved
•It was a copy of the wooden railing
•A bit out of proportion
•Inspir...
SANCHI STUPA
Torana:
The entrances to religious buildings were always imposing structures with ornamental
treatment
The To...
OTHER STUPAS
Barhut::
•68’0” dia.with a reconstructed railing
•Half the size of the great Sanchi Stupa
•Railing was 7’0” h...
BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE
Architectural production under Asoka’s rule
Rock cut Caves at Barabar
Rock cut architecture in the W...
ROCK CUT CAVES AT BARABAR - 3rd
c. BC
During the mauryan period in the 1st century AD, under
the patronage of Ashoka, a fe...
LOMAS RISHI AT BARABAR - 3rd
c. BC
•The Lomas Rishi and the Sudama are cut adjacent to one another on the hill
•The interi...
LOMAS RISHI AT BARABAR - 3rd
c. BC
Exteriors :
•The façade is an accurate reproduction of the gable end of a wooden struct...
PALACES – KUMRAHAR PATNA - 3rd
c. BC
•Excavation at Kumrahar-South of patna reveal the existence of palaces
•From these ex...
HINAYANA / EARLY PHASE -2nd
c BC – 2nd
c. AD
Evolution of the Chaityas and the Viharas
Two types of structures started mak...
HINAYANA / EARLY PHASE -2nd
c BC – 2nd
c. AD
Evolution of the Chaityas and the Viharas
Salient features of the Chaitya:
•S...
HINAYANA / EARLY PHASE -2nd
c BC – 2nd
c. AD
Evolution of the Chaityas and the ViharasEarlier the huts of the monks were g...
HINAYANA BUDDHIST VIHARAS
ROCK CUT – ORISSA
MAHAYANA Monasteries- GANDHARA
Viharas at Ajanta, Ellora, Nasik,Kondane
Rock C...
HINAYANA VIHARAS
The Hinayana Viharas are not of architectural significance as
the Chaityas
Salient features of the Vihara...
HINAYANA VIHARAS – 200 BC – 200 AD
Ajanta cave nos. 8,12,13, Kondane
The first series at Ajanta consisted of 5 excavations...
HINAYANA VIHARAS – 200 BC – 200
AD
Ellora & Ajanta
HINAYANA VIHARAS – 200 BC – 200 AD
Viharas at Nasik 100 AD
The Vihara at Nasik consists of 3 egs. known for the treatment ...
HINAYANA VIHARAS – 200 BC – 200
AD
Viharas at Nasik 100 AD
Nahapana cave 8
•The 1st
to be executed
•The façade of the cave...
ROCK CUT E GHATS ORISSA – 200 BC – 200 AD
Gumphas at Udaigiri 160 BC
Contemporary to the Monasteries in the W ghats,
we ha...
ROCK CUT E GHATS ORISSA – 200 BC –
200 AD
Rani Gumpha at Udaigiri 160 BC
Tha facades are normally pillared verandahs with ...
ROCK CUT E GHATS ORISSA – 200 BC – 200 AD
Rani Gumpha at Udaigiri 160 BC
Broad terrace- supported by columns forming the
v...
ROCK CUT E GHATS ORISSA – 200 BC –
200 AD
Rani Gumpha at Udaigiri 160 BC
MAHAYANA VIHARAS – 250 BC – 450 AD
Gandhara
During the birth of Christianity the Buddhist
communities were involved in
Stu...
MAHAYANA VIHARAS – 250 BC – 450 AD, Gandhara
Chronology:
Hellenistic art and culture found its way to central Asia due to ...
MAHAYANA VIHARAS – 250 BC – 450
AD
Takht I Bahai - Gandhara
Salient Features:
•axial plan
•Rectangle of 200 ' long
•stupa ...
MAHAYANA VIHARAS –
Takht I Bahai - Gandhara
•Roof-Cupola alternating with trifoil vault
•Cupola beehive hut
•Trifoil -conv...
MAHAYANA VIHARAS –
Takht I Bahai - Gandhara
At Sirka (Taxila in modern Pakistan), capital of the Bachtrians and
successive invaders of India, the grid plan is Helleni...
Rock-cut architecture is the creation of structures, buildings, and sculptures,
by excavating solid rock where it naturall...
The most laborious and impressive rock-cut architecture is the
excavation of tall free-standing monolithic structures enti...
In the early years of Buddhism, following the practices of contemporary
religions such as Hinduism and Jainism (and other ...
These earliest rock-cut caves include the Gandhara Caves, Bhaja
Caves the Karla Caves and some of the Ajanta Caves
The Bud...
As their mercantile and royal endowment grew, cave interiors became more
elaborate with interior walls decorated with pain...
mitive beds in early viharas at Kanheri Caves
Rock cut stair leading to Kanheri
RAINWATER
HARVESTING -
DRAINAGE
Rock Cut Monasteries in Nasik
carved between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD, representing
the Hinayana buddhist...
They contain interesting sculptures. One of the vihara caves
is older and finer in sculptural detail and is thought to be ...
Pandava Caves, Nasik
Pandeulena Caves– PRAYER HA
Partially destroyed Mahavira sculpture
Statue of Buddha
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Buddhist Architecture

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE II- UNIT 2

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Buddhist Architecture

  1. 1. UNIT II BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE 6 Evolution of Buddhism Buddhist thought, art and culture Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism Interaction of Hellenic & Indian Ideas in Northern India Evolution of building typologies- The Stupa, Vihara and the Chaitya hall Symbolism of the STUPA Architectural production during Ashoka's - Ashokan Pillar Rock cut caves at Barabar - Mauryan in Bihar-Sarnath - UP Sanchi Stupa Rock cut Architecture - Ajanta and Ellora and Vihara at Nasik Karli- Maharashtra Rani gumpha - Udaigiri Takti Bahai- Gandhara
  2. 2. Origins of Jainism Mahāvīra, also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth and last tirthankara- omniscient teacher who preaches the dharma (righteous path) Mahāvīra was the last tirthankara of avasarpani(present descending phase Mahavira was born into a royal family in what is now Bihar, India. At the age of 30, he left his home in pursuit of spiritual awakening.
  3. 3. • For the next twelve and a half years, he practiced intense meditation and severe penance, after which he became omniscient. • He traveled all over South Asia for the next thirty years to teach Jain philosophy. • Mahavira died at the age of 72 and attained nirvana (final release) or moksha (liberation from the cycle of birth and death).
  4. 4. Jainism: The Religion • The Jain community is composed of monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen. • There are two distinct religious groups: the Digambaras (the sky- clad) and the Svetambaras (the white clad). • This division probably occurred around 300 B.C. over two issues: the nature of Mahavira and monastic nudity. • Though they both believe in the same doctrines that are important to Jainism, their practices are different.
  5. 5. Jainism: Key Beliefs • Ahimsa - The central Jain belief is an agreement to avoid physical violence and conduct that can be mentally and emotionally damaging to oneself or others. It also involves commitment to all life forms on earth and not engaging in practices which may bring harm. • Karma – the belief that for every action, there is a consequence. • Reincarnation – One’s soul that is reborn into different bodies over the course of many lives. • Proper Conduct - Jains are encouraged to make a vow to conduct themselves according to the following five principles: 1) Non-violence (ahimsa) 2) Truthfulness 3) Non- Stealing 4) Celibacy 5) Non-possession
  6. 6. Jainism: Key Beliefs • Moksha - Results in the elimination of the effects of karma in one’s life (achieved through meditation) • Atomism - Jains believe that every living thing on the planet possesses a soul or “Jiva”. They also believe that people are bound to act more compassionately if they acknowledge that everything is composed of a spirit or soul. • No absolutes - No perspective of any person is wrong, despite the fact that different perspectives have different effects on the specific situation.
  7. 7. Symbol of Jainism • The outline of this picture represents the universe in the Jain description. It is supposed to resemble a person standing on his feet with his feet apart, and the arms are rested on the hips. • The swastika represents the soul in which it can be reborn and reincarnated into during the time it is in the universe. • There are three dots above the swastika. They represent Right Faith, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct. The three dots are the three jewels of Jain philosophy in which they believe liberation can be found. • The half moon is where the liberated soul is being kept, and the dot inside of it is the liberated pure soul. • The hand below the swastika is a gesture of blessing and protection. • Inside the hand, there is a wheel of 24 spokes, and this represents Jinas. In the middle of the wheel, a word is inscribed which says: “ahimsa”
  8. 8. • It was all started by Buddha, who was a prince in Lumbini, 2500 years ago. • He was very unhappy in his royal life, so he set off on a 6 year journey, exploring other religions. • After his long journey and much meditation he was finally “enlightened”. • He found the middle path, the key to human happiness. For the rest of his life he wandered Asia, preaching his new religion. • Attained enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India. • Spent rest of his life, teaching others to realize what he himself had discovered. BUDDHISM – GAUTHAMA BUDDHA ( 563 – 483 BCE)
  9. 9. Gauthama Buddha from BodhGaya went to Sarnath ( 5 weeks after enlightenment) Crossed the ganges. In Sarnath his deciples were the Five monk. The earliest school of Budhhism was formed in SARNATH . Which are remarkable in their construction.
  10. 10. The first was that life is suffering You can’t live without death, frustration, etc. The second is that suffering is caused by craving and aversion Getting what you want doesn’t guarantee happiness, it deprives you of it The third is that suffering can be overcome, and true happiness attained If we stop craving useless things, and live each day at a time (not living in the future) we will be happy and free. The fourth is that the Noble eight fold path leads to the end of all suffering THE FOUR NOBLE PATHS
  11. 11. The Eight-Fold Path Right Livelihood Right Mindfulness Right Effort Right Conduct Right Speech Right Meditation Right Knowledge Right Resolve Right Mindfulness
  12. 12. "Buddha" means "the awakened one"--that is, someone who has woken up from the dream of being a separate ego in a material universe. Gautama Siddhartha, whom we affectionately, [mistakenly], call the Buddha, taught for forty-five years. In all those years, and in the hundreds of thousands of teaching words that he uttered, his message was simply this: "You are all Buddhas. There is nothing you need to achieve. Just open your eyes.“ Buddha had a vision in which he saw the human race as a bed of lotus flowers
  13. 13. • Dharma is understood as the practice (paripatti) of the truth. To take refuge in the Dharma is to take refuge in Buddha. • Karma is intentional action, physical, verbal or mental. Good karma brings happiness, bad brings suffering. • Avijja and Tanha is ignorance or not knowing the true nature of things and craving are the two root causes of Karma. • Cycle of Rebirth – We are born and reborn in six realms of exhistence based on one’s previous Karma. • Nirvana (Enlightenment) – To go beyond the cycle and achieving blissful state is Nirvana. BELEIFS OF BUDDHISM
  14. 14. • Five Rules to abstain from: killing, stealing, sexual misconduct lying, taking intoxicants such as alcoholic drinks • Meditation: Various types of meditation in various traditions • Chanting: Hymns of homage to Buddha, refuge in Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha etc.
  15. 15. Comparison between the two schools (chart) Theravada (Hinayana) Mahayana Teaching of the elders Spirit of the elders Small vehicle Large (great) vehicle Man as an individual Man involved with others Man on his own in the universe Man is not alone (grace is real) Key virtue: wisdom (bodhi) Key virtue: compassion (karuna) Religion is primarily for monks Religion is for laypersons as well Ideal: the Arhat (lonely saint) Ideal: the Bodhisattva Nirvana- oneself Nirvana + heavens, hells-for all Buddha is a saint or sage Buddha is a savior Avoids metaphysics (speculation) Elaborates metaphysics Avoids ritual Includes ritual Conservative Liberal Pali texts – kamma and dharma Many later texts (Sanskrit)karma,dharma Old wisdom school New wisdom school Escape Samsara, and reach Nirvana Samsara is Nirvana (identity) Ceylon, Burma, etc. (Southern Bism) China, Korea, Japan (N Bism)
  16. 16. Jainism Buddhism Based on The teachings of thirthankaras like Mahavir The teachings of Gautama Buddha Branches/sects Digambara, Svetambara, Terapantha Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana, and so on Notion on soul Believes that soul is a living entity which sticks to different types of non-living matter. They do not believe in the ideas of eternal self or soul (Atman) and eternity. Soul is treated as an ever changing entity. Notion on Karma It is a real substance that is attached with each jiva or body. Not effected from the person’s actions. Is a process, (an impression of karma determines the future). Karma is the direct effect of one’s own action Founder Vardhamâna Gautama Buddha Knowledge Knowledge for liberation Knowledge of purpose of life
  17. 17. INTERACTION OF HELLENIC AND INDIAN IDEAS IN NORTH INDIA The 2nd century BC was a period of great expansion of international trade, and these monasteries, remote as they may seem to us, were built on the trade routes of their time. The valleys they crown once saw the frequent passage of the caravans of the great merchant houses bringing luxury goods – ebony, teak and sandalwood, elephant tusks and translucent Indian textiles, pepper and cinnamon – to the coast where they would be shipped by Egyptian Jews and Greek middle men to the Red Sea and hence, via Alexandria, to Antioch and Rome. •Like Egyptian pharaohs they built everlasting monuments in honor of the gods •Ashoka showed THE ENDURANCE OF THE GOOD LAW •Thus arose the pillar for a beginning which was 50' high which carried the Buddhist emblem •Other monolithic productions were •Railings •Stupa finials- umbrellas •Lion thrones •Colossal figures •Hypostyle halls at the royal palaces of Pataliputra •Most important aspect of these stone structures was the smooth enamel finish •This was the infancy of stone architecture and yet it reached its peak immediately after wood •Stone art developed even without a background and traces of Greek, Persian and Egyptian •Influence in the method of usage of stone could be seen. •The Graeco-Persian culture influence in Indian art could be seen from above examples
  18. 18. Artistic influences •Numerous works of Greco-Buddhist art display the intermixing of Greek and Buddhist influences, around such creation centers as Gandhara. •The subject matter of Gandharan art was definitely Buddhist, while most motifs were of Western Asiatic or Hellenistic origin. •The anthropomorphic representation of the Buddha Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century AD. •Many of the stylistic elements in the representations of the Buddha point to Greek influence: the Greco-Roman toga-like wavy robe covering both shoulders •A large quantity of sculptures combining Buddhist and purely Hellenistic styles and iconography were excavated at the Gandharan site of Hadda. •During the following centuries, this anthropomorphic representation of the Buddha defined the canon of Buddhist art, but progressively evolved to incorporate more Indian and Asian elements.
  19. 19. A Hellenized Buddhist pantheon Several other Buddhist deities may have been influenced by Greek gods. For example, Heracles with a lion-skin (who also happens to be the protector deity of Demetrius I) Garland-bearing cherubs, vine scrolls, and such semi-human creatures as the centaur and triton, are part of the repertory of Hellenistic art introduced by Greco-Roman artists in the service of the Kushan court. Religious interactions The length of the Greek presence in Central Asia and northern India provided opportunities for interaction, not only on the artistic, but also on the religious plane. Philosophical influences •The close association between Greeks and Buddhism probably led to exchanges on the philosophical plane as well. •Many of the early Mahayana theories of reality and knowledge can be related to Greek philosophical schools of thought. •Mahayana Buddhism has been described as the “form of Buddhism which (regardless of how Hinduized its later forms became) seems to have originated in the Greco-Buddhist communities of India,
  20. 20. Capital of one of the Pillars of Ashoka (c. 250 BC), for which Hellenistic artistic influence is often suggested (Boardman). •Chandragupta's grandson Asoka converted to the Buddhist faith and became a great proselytizer in the line of the traditional Pali canon of Theravada Buddhism, insisting on non-violence to humans and animals (ahimsa), and general precepts regulating the life of lay people. The Indo-Greek kingdom and Buddhism (180-–1 BC) •Buddhism flourished under the Indo-Greek kings, and it has been suggested that their invasion of India was intended to protect the Buddhist faith from the religious persecutions of the new Indian dynasty of the Sungas (185–73 BC) which had overthrown the Mauryans. Coinage •Some of the coins of Menander I and Menander II incorporate the Buddhist symbol of the eight-spoked wheel, associated with the Greek symbols of victory, either the palm of victory, or the victory wreath handed over by the goddess Nike. A coin of Menander I (r.160-135 BC) with an eight-spoked wheel and a palm.
  21. 21. Cities •A large Greek city built by Demetrius and rebuilt by Menander has been excavated at the archaeological site of Sirkap near Taxila, where Buddhist stupas were standing side-by-side with Hindu and Greek temples, indicating religious tolerance and syncretism. Scriptures •Evidence of direct religious interaction between Greek and Buddhist thought during the period include the Milinda Panha, a Buddhist discourse in the platonic style, held between King Menander and the Buddhist monk Nagasena. The Kushan empire (1st–3rd century AD) •The Kushans, one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi confederation settled in Bactria since around 125 BC, invaded the northern parts of Pakistan and India from around 1 AD. •Gold coin of Kushan emperor Kanishka I (c.100-–126 AD) with a Hellenistic representation of the Buddha, and the word "Boddo" in Greek script.
  22. 22. BHUDDIST ARCHIECTURE-STUPA • Buddhism(Pali/Sanskrit: B auddha Dharma) — • religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha “the awakened one”. • Buddhism began as an offspring of Hinduism in the country of India. The founder was Siddhartha Gautama. • Siddhartha Gautama was born in approximately 560 B.C. in northern India
  23. 23. TEACHING AND BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE • The Buddha's threefold training is similar to the threefold grouping of the Noble Eightfold Path. • VIRTUE – Right Speech Right Action Right Livelihood MIND - Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration WISDOM - Right View Right Intention
  24. 24. Buddhist Architecture • Principal place of early Buddhist worship is the stupa. Mound shaped shrine with no interior. • A stupa is a reliquary and worshipers gain spiritual merit through being in close proximity to its contents. • Buddhists pray while walking around stupa in an easterly direction (direction of sun’s course). • Central mast at top of stupa with 3 umbrella shapes (Chatras). Symbolizes three jewels of Buddhism (Buddha, Law, and the community of monks).
  25. 25. • The Buddhist architecture has its root deeply implanted in the Indian soil- the birthplace of the Buddha's teachings. • The Buddhist architecture began with the development of various symbols, representing aspects of the Buddha's life (563 BCE - 483 BCE). • Indian emperor Ashoka, not only established Buddhism as the state religion of his large Magadh empire, but also opted for the architectural monuments to spread Buddhism in different places.
  26. 26. • The major features of this style are Stupas stambhas/pillars chaitayas viharas • these have been mere spectators of different eras quietly speaks about the phases of the Buddhist stages.
  27. 27. Sanchi Stupa
  28. 28. Sanchi Stupa
  29. 29. STUPA • A stupa is a mound-like structure containing buddhist relics, typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place of worship. • These stupas are the circular tumuli built of earth, covered with stone or brick, the plan, elevation, section and the total form of which were all derived from circle. Stupa become a cosmic symbol in response to a major human condition: death. With the enlightenment of the Buddha, stupa became a
  30. 30. SANCHI STUPA • there are mainly three main stupas on the top of the sanchi hill which rise about 100m above the plain. • Of the three stupa the biggest one is known as the great stupa.
  31. 31. THE GREAT STUPA, SANCHI •The 'Great Stupa' at Sanchi is the oldest stone structure in India and was originally commissioned by the emperor Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BCE. •Its nucleus was a simple hemispherical brick structure built over the relics of the Buddha. •It was crowned by the chatra, a parasol-like structure symbolizing high rank, which was intended to honour and shelter the relics. •It has four profusely carved ornamental gateways and a balustrade encircling the whole structure- torana
  32. 32. •DOME- is a solid brick-work 32.32m in diameter and 12.8m high. •The dome has a slight ‘crushed’ profile at top and was surmounted by HARMIKA with a central triple UMBRELLA. •The facing of the dome consists of dry masonry composed of hammer dressed stones laid in even courses. •The terrace 4.87m high from ground was added thus creating a separate and upper AMBULATORY passage 1.8m wide access to which was provided by a double staircase with high BALUSTRADE, on the south side Plan and elevation
  33. 33. Axonometric drawing
  34. 34. •There are four gateways known as ‘TORANAS’ at the cardinal points to the compass and are slightly staggered from the railing enclosing stupa. •The ambulatory or pradakshina path is fenced by railing 3.35m high all around the stupa. •Outside the railing there once stood the famous ashoka pillar, the fragments of which are noticed now to the right of
  35. 35. Diff b/w a temple and stupa
  36. 36. The symbolism of the form of the stupas is a vast and complex subject, as is the meaning behind every item placed within a stupa. The shape of the stupa represents the Buddha, crowned and sitting in meditation posture on a lion throne. The stupa also symbolizes the five elements and colors and their relationship to Enlightened Mind: Base – Square – Yellow – Earth - Equanimity Dome – Circle – White – Water - Indestructibility Spire – Triangle – Red – Fire – Compassion Parasol – Half Circle – Green – Wind – All- accomplishing Action Jewel – Dewdrop (no shape/no color/void) – Space – All- pervading Awareness The Moon/Sun shapes represent the union of COMPASSION and  WISDOM joining the all- accomplishing ACTION of  COMPASSION with the all-
  37. 37. TORANA •Toranas, the entrance to the ambulatory were accepted as the traditional type of ceremonial potals and excel the array of architectural embellishment. •Torana consists of two square uprite columns with capital of lion or elephant heads denoting strength. •These columns support three separate horizontal panels between each of which is a row of ornamental balusters. •These panels are supported by atlantean figures, a group of dwarfs, lions and elephant. •The total height of this erection is somewhat 10.36m with a width of 3m
  38. 38. •The authentic examples of these pillars are those which king Ashoka set up to bear inscriptions conveying to his subjects the leading doctrines of the new faith he had adopted, Buddhism. These are sturdy, finely proportional and properly balanced religious sign posts ASHOKA PILLARS •The pillar at sarnath more than 15m high has a group of four addoresed lions with flowing manes, surmounting the capital. •These lions originally supported a massive metal wheel with 24 spokes called ‘wheels of the law’. •The capital more than 2m high resembles the shape of a inverted bell or lotus bub with series of fluted petals. •Above the capital is the abacus which is circular, having broad edge carves with ornamental borders, containing four figure of animals alternate with the four small wheels
  39. 39. RAILING OR VEDICA •The vedica or railing consists of upright octagonal plan 45cm in diameter spaced at 60 to 90cm from each other and connected by three lens shaped horizontals called ‘suchi’ or needles 60cm deep being threaded through the holes of the upright. •The top horizontal bar is provided with coping to drain out rain water.
  40. 40. Dhamek Stupa,Sarnath(500BCE) Dhamekh Stupa has a particular significance at Sarnath as it signifies the place where buddha delivered his first sermon. The present name Dhamekh proves that it certainly has some connection with Buddha's Dharma. According to the Archaeologists, the Dhameka might have been the Stupa built by Ashoka to mark the spot where Lord Buddha preached the Dharmachakrapravartana (set in motion the wheel of law) for the first time to
  41. 41. MAURYAN PILLARS INTERACTION OF HELLENIC AND INDIAN IDEAS IN NORTH INDIA Like Egyptian pharaohs they built everlasting monuments in honor of the gods Ashoka showed THE ENDURANCE OF THE GOOD LAW ·         Thus arose the pillar for a beginning which was 50' high which carried the Buddhist emblem ·         Other monolithic productions were • Railings • Stupa finials- umbrellas • Lion thrones • Colossal figures • Hypostyle halls at the royal palaces of Pataliputra ·         Most important aspect of these stone structures was the smooth enamel finish ·         This was the infancy of stone architecture and yet it reached its peak immediately after wood ·         Stone art developed even without a background and traces of Greek, Persian and Egyptian ·         Influence in the method of usage of stone could be seen. ·         The Graeco-Persian culture influence in Indian art could be seen from above examples Source of inspiration- ·         Pharoic-Hellenic-Iranian elements ·         Spread by Alexander's conquest of Persia together with the downfall of Achaemenid Empires ·         Downfall in 330 BC, which ensured the rise of the Macedonian empire by the extension of Greek colonies to east till the borders of the Mauryan Empire ·         This was the time when Ashoka wanted to build, so he used the workmen already proficient in
  42. 42. MAURYAN PILLARS Originally there were 30 in number of which only 10 exist ·         2 lion capitals in Bihar ·         erected at sites sanctified by Buddha and routes to holy sites ·         line of pillars at Champaran and Muzzaffarpur districts are classic examples ·         No pillar is isolate, there is always a stupa in the vicinity Each pillar consisted of ·         a plain ornamental shaft circular in section 30' - 40' high ·         No base, straight from the ground and tapering towards top ·         Top of the shaft was 2' in dia ·         On top is the campaniform capital ( Bell shaped) its abacus acting as a ·         A base for the Buddha symbol. ·         total height was 50 ' In due course of time it was worshipped, which existed even before- shown by the bas relief’s of barhut- 150 BC ·         columns were gods in early days and the forerunner of temples Aesthetic quality- concentrated on the superstructure ·         around 7' in height ·         made of a single piece of stone with the shaft in another piece ·         Both fitted by a copper bolt by tenon joint without cement ·         the bolt was barrel in shape 2' long ·         iron was not used because they probably knew the rusting property of iron ·         Capitals are 3' in dia-campaniform in shape ·         fluted petals falling down taking the shape of a bell ·         The one at Nandan garh was stunted-probably the 1st one on an experimental basis
  43. 43. MAURYAN PILLARS Fluting is of foreign origin from the Persian and Greek pillars Palace of Artaxerxes at Susa built in 404-358 BC containsfluting Ionic temples of Apollo at Diona at Ephesus- 560 BC Above the capital is a circular abacus with a broad edge carved with ornamental border of a special character On this the repetition of Buddhist emblems like goose-hamsa honey suckle palmette bead and fillet cable molding all derivatives of Hellenistic ideas, eventhough they ·         Above the abacus mostly animals adorned the pillar Symbolizing the fourquarters of the universe. Elephant guardian of the east Horse -south Bull- west Lion- North The Lion capital is a polished sandstone carving of four lions atop an abacus (the slab forming the top of a column). The lions are facing in four directions and on the abacus are eight images. Immediately below each lion is a dharmachakra, or wheel, with twenty-four spokes. This wheel has been incorporated into the national flag of India. Between the wheels are four animals – a lion, a horse, an elephant and a bull. Falling from the abacus is an upturned, bell-shaped lotus flower. The pillar at Sarnath was 50’ tall and carried a Schism Edict LION CAPITAL - SARNATH
  44. 44. LION CAPITAL - SARNATH ·         The monks and the monastery have long since disappeared, but Sarnath remains an important place for Buddhists, as it is the place where the Buddha gave his first sermon. ·         Modern scholars argue about the provenance of the pillar, with some claiming that its design may have been influenced by Alexander the Great. ·         Because lions are not generally part of Indian culture, it is suggested that there is a Hellenistic influence at work in the design. ·         There is a wheel on top of the animals ·         The animals were an inspiration from the Vedic period ·         the Rig-Veda places the lion in the 1st Place Horse- sun Bull-Indra God/Dyaus/Sky god Thus it is a continuation of the Vedic mythology. ·         It was boldly designed ·         Finely proportioned ·         Well balanced conception ·         Satisfying the purpose being Monumental It was not a part of any architectural composition ·         The wheel was of metal at Sarnath ·         The limbs and tense muscular anatomy depict Greek Hellenistic achievements ·         Lion head spouts of Greek ·         Detailing is remarkable LION PILLARS AT SANCHI
  45. 45. BUDDHIST STUPA - 250 BC ·         Evolution of the Stupa The first Buddhist 'shrines' were mere piles of stone or rubble containing relics of the Buddha. ·         Over time it became necessary to 'upgrade' these structures, in conformity with Buddhism's rising status. ·         For structural reasons it was necessary to have a wide base, tapering towards the top. ·         The form chosen for the Buddhist Stupa was that of a sphere - as much for the shape's metaphysical associations as for the fact that it was an antipode to the square/rectangular form of Hindu temples. ·         "The embryo of the most powerful architectural form of Buddhism, the famous Stupa, thus emerged for the first time under the architectural patronage of Ashoka". Characteristic features of a Stupa The Stupa was the most sacred symbol of the Buddha These were tumuli of brick with a great spiritual significance Normally consisted of: •Masonry hemisphere 70’ 0” dia.,35’0” high •Solid of large unburnt bricks each around 16”x10”x3” •In the center of this mound or Anda was a small space for a receptacle containing the relic of the Buddha •On the summit was an honorific umbrella – wooden parasol Chattrayashti •The brickwork of the stupa was finished of with a thick layer of plaster in which recesses were left at intervals for small lamps to be lit during festivals •The buddhist practice of circumambulation was in the form of a processional passage or Pradakshina Patha •It was enclosed in a wooden railing- Vedika leaving a space for promenading with an entrance at each of the cardinal points •Surmounted by a finial or the Harmika The harmika on top represented the Bodhi Tree under which the Buddha first gained enlightenment.
  46. 46. SANCHI STUPA - 150 BC After the end of the Mauryan dynasty in 185 BC we had the Sungas taking over and ruling till 70 BC in the N and W regions The Sungas were tolerant to the Buddhists During the Sungan period we had the main change being- improvement of the stupa into a more dignified architectural structure Replacement of the impermanent materials with permanent materials such as stone This is understood by analysing the alterations made to surviving egs., the chief one being Sanchi Details •Reconstructed around 150 BC •Enlarged to nearly twice the size retaining the original Brick tumulus of Asokan period •The Stupa was hence encased within an envelope – Achchaday •The structure was hence 120’0” dia. 54’0” high •A terrace- Medhi was added 16’0” from the ground providing a separate lower and upper ambulatory •Access to the medhi was on the S side by a double stairway- Sopana
  47. 47. SANCHI STUPA •The whole structure is finished by means of dry masonry of hammer dressed stones laid in even courses •The Anda is flattened on the top and is surmounted by a square railing enclosing a pedestal- Harmika which supported the shaft- Yashti and a triple umbrella- Chattri made of stone •This form of the finial is seen only in the earlier Stupas, which developed into a shape resembling an inverted stepped pyramid or cone in later egs. •The work during Asoka’s period of the wooden palisade structure is hence lost •The structure has projections at the cardinal points •There are large elaborately carved gateways or Toranas providing access to the Stupa •The Toranas are designed in a Swastika pattern thereby enabling privacy for the m,monks using the Pradakshina Patha inside •The Toranas are provided with relief work based on tales from the Jataka or stories from the life of the Buddha
  48. 48. SANCHI STUPA •Vedika- •made entirely of stone •1100” high with an entrance in each of the cardinal points •The emblem of protection from the Vedic times •Large in proportion and austere in treatment •Uprights consist of octagonal posts 9’0” high placed at an interval of 2’0” in between •Three horizontal bars or rails connect these posts, each 2’ wide and separated by a narrow space of 3.25” •An immense beam was placed over this forming a coping stone to the whole The reason for such a large barrier is not known, might have been to keep with the proportions and dimensions of the overall structure •As distinctive as the proportions of the railing was the construction •The railing is entirely of stone but is a copy of the wooden original it replaced •The shape and the joints of the railing are common to timber as seen in the tenon of the Thaba, and the scarf jointing of the coping- Ushnisha, •The triple cross bars- Suchi are derived from the bamboo rails of the palisade fence •The craftsmen were hence thinking in wood although they were working with stone
  49. 49. SANCHI STUPA
  50. 50. SANCHI STUPA·          Ornamentation: •Highly carved •It was a copy of the wooden railing •A bit out of proportion •Inspiration from the megalithic stone age •Joints used are appropriate for wooden than for stone •Shows primitive craftsmanship ·         Gateway •Square vertical posts totaling 34' high 2 thk. •Ornamental balusters in-between the horizontal members •The four gateways took 50 years •style remained constant •1st gate was built by Andhras in 75BC in the south •10 years gap for the N, E and W gateways •Best carved gateway on the south •Less detailed gateway on the north •South gateway bears inscriptions made by ivory carvers of Mortise holes to hang chains and bells •   Decoration overtook construction techniques
  51. 51. SANCHI STUPA Torana: The entrances to religious buildings were always imposing structures with ornamental treatment The Torana ( tor in sanskrit is pass) was designed on the same principle as the bamboo and wood portcullis It was an archway accepted as a ceremonial portal There are 5 gateways in the complex- 4 for the main Stupa and one Stupa 3 added later •Consists of 2 square uprights 15’ high, prolonged vertically and connected by 3 separate lintels between each of which is a band of ornamental balusters •The total ht. Is 34’ with a width of 20’ at the broadest part •The thickness averages 2’ and it stands without support for 2000 years •Top heavy with a jointing which is highly irrational •Indigenous composition as there is no recognizable form of pillar or capital •In comparison with the unadorned railing the elegant intricacy of the gateways forms a contrast
  52. 52. OTHER STUPAS Barhut:: •68’0” dia.with a reconstructed railing •Half the size of the great Sanchi Stupa •Railing was 7’0” high with rich carvings of the Jataka tales and social life •The torana in Barhut is the oldest surviving eg. Of 4 similar gateways built during the Sungas- 184-72 BC •Hellenistic influence obvious – fluted bell shaped capitals and use of the honeysuckle motif in the large acroteria at the apex Bodh Gaya: •Quadrangular railing 145’ x 108’ conforming to the square plan of the building •Railing of 6’8” ht. •Presence of a Chankrama or promenade – pillared passage covered by a roof •The pillars had a stepped pedestal and vase shaped bases, decorated with a caryatid figure Sarnath
  53. 53. BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE Architectural production under Asoka’s rule Rock cut Caves at Barabar Rock cut architecture in the Western and the Eastern Ghats Egs. At Karle, Viharas at Nasik, Udaigiri, Gandhara
  54. 54. ROCK CUT CAVES AT BARABAR - 3rd c. BC During the mauryan period in the 1st century AD, under the patronage of Ashoka, a few caves were carved into live rock to serve as retreats for the Ajivika monks. (Jains) •There are Rock cut sanctuaries in the hills about 19 miles N of Gaya.There are a total of seven chambers • 4 of which are at Barabar: Karna Kaupar Sudama Lomas Rishi Viswajhopri •3 on the Nagarjuni hill ½ mile NE Gopika(Milkmaid) Vahijaka Vadalhika •Sitamarhi is another eg. 23 miles E of Gaya Features of the Rock cut Caves: The earliest egs. of rock cut method in India.Exact copies of identical structures in wood and thatch from the earlier period.Quarried out of large boulder like masses of Quartzose Gneiss •Gopi or the Milkmaids cave is the largest of the group •Tunnel like excavation rounded in the plan at both ends •44’ x 19’ x 10’ at the apex with a vaulted roof
  55. 55. LOMAS RISHI AT BARABAR - 3rd c. BC •The Lomas Rishi and the Sudama are cut adjacent to one another on the hill •The interiors are very similar except for the façade of Lomas Rishi which is very ornamental •The doorways of the caves have a sloping jamb and are on the longer side of the chamber •The entrance unlike later caves, is not from the front but from the side, the cave has a vestibule or a path connecting two rooms. •The excavation was carried out this way and not axially due to the configuration of the whale backed hill •Barrel vaulted hall of 32’9” x 19’6” x 12’3”(ht.) •At the end of the chamber entered by an interior doorway is a circular cell 19’0” dia. With a hemispherical domed roof 12’3” high Rectangular Hall Circular room Domical roof Barrel vault
  56. 56. LOMAS RISHI AT BARABAR - 3rd c. BC Exteriors : •The façade is an accurate reproduction of the gable end of a wooden structure chiselled in rock •2 stout uprights inclined slightly inwards, 13’ high forms the main support •The principal rafters are jointed on the top with the other parallel rafters •On the rafters are fixed the curved roof of 3 laminated planks, the lower extremities of which are kept in place by short tie rods, circular in section (lathe) •The doorway is 7½’ is recessed within a semi circular archway above which are 2 lunettes forming a fanlight •The lower lunette has a procession of elephants.The elephants are exquisitely modeled performing an obeisance before a stupa •The upper lunette has a pattern of lattice work both designed copied from perforated wood •Surmounting the gable is a finial which gets its shape from a terracotta original •Sharply chiselled and a highly polished surface The circular cell has an overhanging cave like a thatch The walls have irregular perpendicular grooves in imitation of the upright battens of wood or bamboo ( beehive hut) A highly burnished surface resembling glass
  57. 57. PALACES – KUMRAHAR PATNA - 3rd c. BC •Excavation at Kumrahar-South of patna reveal the existence of palaces •From these excavations it was found that •the palace was an aggregation of structures enclosed by a high brick wall •Most important was the immense pillared hall 3 storied high with 250' square •15 pillars in 15 rows at 15' spacing •Ceiling of one floor supported by colossal caryatid figures •Each pillar 20" dia at base and tapering to 20' high. •No base/capital •Masons work inscribed similar to the ones in Persia •Wooden beams- destroyed by fire •Ashoka's palace inspired by •Achaemenid's Palace of Persepolis •Similar to the pillared hall-100 columns by Xerxes •Bas relief’s representing figures supporting upper storey on their raised •doorway- apart of a large portico •Figures as pillars used at Sanchi and Bodh gaya too •Façade of Ashoks palace made of carved stone-now preserved at the mathura museum •was built during 1st century AD •Contained two or more storey, each storey had an arcade of horse shoe arches •With bays in-between. •Each bay has a hanging balcony supported on a pillar •Central
  58. 58. HINAYANA / EARLY PHASE -2nd c BC – 2nd c. AD Evolution of the Chaityas and the Viharas Two types of structures started making their appearance by 2nd c. BC These were the Chaitys – temple for rituals Vihara – monastery for the priests Salient features of the Chaitya: •It is a Vaulted hall •Consisting of a Colonnade •An Aisle •Central nave •Stupa in the apsidal end •Resembling Basilica of the Roman Empire Evolution of the Chaitya: •the appearance of the stupa as a symbolic object led to a kind of a building or a structure to house it •The ritual of circumambulation led to a portion of the structure being circular in plan with a domical roof •As the huts had originally been for the monks and the hermits the beehive huts with the conical roofs and thatch were readily adapted •Thus the rudimentary beginning of the chaitya hall is evident in the caves at barabar in the Asokan period •The inner cells of the Lomas rishi and Sudama were adapted to place the Stupa Chaitya grihas or halls of worship were built all over the country either of brick or excavated from rocks. Ruins are located in the districts of Srikakulam at Salihundam, of Visahkapatnam at Kotturu, of West Godavari at Guntapalli, of Krishna at Vijayawada, of Guntur at Nagajunakonda and Amaravati belong to the 3rd century BC and later. The largest brick  chaitya hall was excavated at Guntapalli. Some of the most beautiful rock-cut caves are those at Ajanta, ElIora, Bhaja, Karle, Bagh, Nasik and Kanheri. Some of the chunar sand-stone rock­-cut chaityas of Bhaja. Kondane. Karle and Ajanta, all in Maharashtra state are earlier excavations and belong to the first phase or Hinayana creed of Buddhism and are similar to the brick and wooden structures of Ashokan times
  59. 59. HINAYANA / EARLY PHASE -2nd c BC – 2nd c. AD Evolution of the Chaityas and the Viharas Salient features of the Chaitya: •Square central hall •Vestibule in front of the door •From the central hall to the cells •High level priest called the Bodhisatvas- had separate cells as in Karli •Style of architecture - wooden replications •Lot of wood was attached to the surfaces •Quarry man was the chisel man •Quarried from top to bottom to avoid scaffolding Viharas or monasteriesconstructed with brick or excavated from rocks are found in different parts of India. Usually built to a set plan, they have : •hall meant for congregational prayer •running verandah on three sides or •an open courtyard surrounded by a row of cells and •a pillared verandah in front. •These cells served as dwelling places for the monks. •These monastic buildings built of bricks were self-contained units and had a Chaitya hall or Chaitya mandir attached to a stupa - the chief object of worship. Some of the important Buddhist viharas are those at Ajanta, Ellora. Nasik, Karle, Kanheri, Bagh and Badami. The Hinayana viharas found in these places have many interesting features which differentiate them from the Mahayana type in the same regions. Though plain from the point of view of architecture, they are large halls with cells excavated in the walls on three sides. The hall has one or more entrances. The small cells, each with a door
  60. 60. HINAYANA / EARLY PHASE -2nd c BC – 2nd c. AD Evolution of the Chaityas and the ViharasEarlier the huts of the monks were grouped around an open space to form the first monasteries Evolution of the Vihara: •An arrangement of a series of cells enclosing the 3 sides of an open courtyard •The other side is left open for the entrance •Spatial planning: • rooms normally opened onto an interior quadrangle with the backs forming an outside wall •This maintained the privacy and security •An inside verandah was added along the perimeter of the square for the monks •A number of viharas are attached to a chaitya hallresembling cloisters in the abbey church of the west •Built mainly of wood and other perishable materials •Evidence from bas reliefs •Frequently a 2 storeyed structure, barrel vault, horse shoe gable ends, light admitted through dormer windows •Outer façade containing an entrance with woodwork, including a pillared portico supporting a balcony- view processions and ceremonie •Modest structures of utilitarian character changing
  61. 61. HINAYANA BUDDHIST VIHARAS ROCK CUT – ORISSA MAHAYANA Monasteries- GANDHARA Viharas at Ajanta, Ellora, Nasik,Kondane Rock Cut Architecture of the Eastern Ghats Rani Gumpha, Udaigiri Mahayana or theistic Monasteries Graeco Buddhist Takht I Bahai
  62. 62. HINAYANA VIHARAS The Hinayana Viharas are not of architectural significance as the Chaityas Salient features of the Vihara during the Hinayana Period: •Open simple central hall •The assembly room was a large compartment •The whole space was uninterrupted by columns or pillars •The cells opening from the central hall always had rock cut beds and couches •A small recess for use as a locker •Cell was usually 9’0” square •Due to the presence of the couch in the cell the doorway was normally to one side •The central hall normally corresponded to the open courtyard •The façade, vestibule and cells were translations in rock of the original wooden viharas •The surviving egs. are at Ajanta nos. 8,12,13, 11(Mahayana), Kondane, Nasik
  63. 63. HINAYANA VIHARAS – 200 BC – 200 AD Ajanta cave nos. 8,12,13, Kondane The first series at Ajanta consisted of 5 excavations of which cave 9,10 were Chaityas and the remaining 8,12,13 were Viharas •Chaitya 10 with Vihara 12 is the earliest •Vihara 13 added later •Chaitya 9 along with Vihara 8 constructed later •Vihara 12 is typical eg. •Single storied, façade destroyed •Around the central square is the carved horse shoe arch resulting in a pleasant frieze •Every feature is planned and cut with precision CAVE 13 CAVE 12 The vihara at Kondane is an exception which has a pillared central hall •Pillared portico •Massive cornice and detailing of wooden construction •Screen wall with 3 square openings •Hall 23’0”x29’0” surrounded by colonnade and cells
  64. 64. HINAYANA VIHARAS – 200 BC – 200 AD Ellora & Ajanta
  65. 65. HINAYANA VIHARAS – 200 BC – 200 AD Viharas at Nasik 100 AD The Vihara at Nasik consists of 3 egs. known for the treatment of the exterior: 1. Gautamiputra no.3 2. Nahapana no.8 3. Sri Yajna no.15 Typical Features: • Columned porticos • Large central halls without pillars • Cells with stone beds Gautamiputra –no.3: •In the façade the base of the columns are behind a richly decorated dwarf wall on which are giant figures appearing to carry the entire structure, by means of projecting beams •Above the portico is a large architrave supported on the superstructure of the pillars •Each pillar has a pair of elephants, bulls, or other beasts, while there is a border of animals and scroll of foliage •The entrance doorway in the inner wall has a square headed opening with ornamentation similar to the stupa toranas •Has lintels and cross bars with voluted ends
  66. 66. HINAYANA VIHARAS – 200 BC – 200 AD Viharas at Nasik 100 AD Nahapana cave 8 •The 1st to be executed •The façade of the cave has a half column at each end which are exact copies of the Ganesh Lena chaitya at Junnar •Derived from the portico pillars at Bedsa- lotus base on the stepped pedestal below •Animal groups on the abacus above SriYajna no.15 •Last to be executed •The interiors were modified by the later •Mahayana priets to make it suitable for rituals •The floor was sunk to provide a sq. dias at •the end of the pillared hall •Large image of the buddha in the 7th c. Ellora Ajanta
  67. 67. ROCK CUT E GHATS ORISSA – 200 BC – 200 AD Gumphas at Udaigiri 160 BC Contemporary to the Monasteries in the W ghats, we have rock cut cells in the E ghats for the Jains & not the Buddhists There is a treatment not conforming to the Buddhist type •No Chaityas •Formation of cellular retreats similar to the viharas •Close grouping of cells indicate the area was of sanctity The 2 tree clad hills in which the rock cut chambers are located are : •Khandragiri •Udaigiri •Excavated during the rule of Kharavella of Kalinga dynasty •Probably for a small group of Ajivika hermits who Sandstone hills 16 in Udaigiri hills 35 in total Single celled, 3 or 4 celled Many chambers-double storeyed Workmanship is clumsy and crude Hathi Gumpha
  68. 68. ROCK CUT E GHATS ORISSA – 200 BC – 200 AD Rani Gumpha at Udaigiri 160 BC Tha facades are normally pillared verandahs with the cells leading out of them Pillars are simple square shafts with bracket capitals The Rani Gumpha or the queens cave is the most important of the series •the largest constructed in 150 BC •brackets- Hellenistic influence •Arches- instead of horse shoe, they were semi circular •supported on pilasters with capitals ,vase bases •only in Orissa-A sand-stone ledge or a podium carved like a bench with back rest in the cells in certain compartments •The Asana- a stone seat with a sloping back rest •cells are oblong in plan with 2 or 3 doors •no stone benches, but the floor was sloped to form a couch •Roof height was only 4‘ hence only for sleeping •2 storied •Cells around 3 sides of a courtyard •
  69. 69. ROCK CUT E GHATS ORISSA – 200 BC – 200 AD Rani Gumpha at Udaigiri 160 BC Broad terrace- supported by columns forming the verandah below •Staircase at the side •One side had a throne •Other smaller cells for storage existed •Frieze on the upper storey depicting a story •Courtyard for special ceremonies •Pillars- descendants of wood •Structural elements arch-pilasters, Springer, railings- corbels •water system from a common cistern •Sculptures- Assyrian connections The arrangement of courtyards and terraces forming an open air theatre in which the scenes depicted in the frieze were brought to life on festivals The other egs. are the Bagh Gumpha, Ganesha, Manchapuri, Anantha Gumpha
  70. 70. ROCK CUT E GHATS ORISSA – 200 BC – 200 AD Rani Gumpha at Udaigiri 160 BC
  71. 71. MAHAYANA VIHARAS – 250 BC – 450 AD Gandhara During the birth of Christianity the Buddhist communities were involved in Stupas Chaitya halls Monasteries or viharas In the north western region of the country a movement was rising which in its setting had offshoots from 4 races Greeks Parthians Scythians Indians A distinctively composite style thus evolved which displayed Fusion of Hellenistic elements Buddhist ideal Geographically known as the Gandhara It was in the sculpture that the style is most distinctive Fusion of Hellenistic elements with the Buddhist ideals resulted in the Graeco Bactrian designation The MAHAYANA- THEISTIC SYSTEM was a reformation which provided a broader and more progressive interpretation of the teachings of Buddha ·       Image worship ·       Production of plastic representation of divine forms on the monuments ·       Statues of Buddha ·       Sacred figures Posed, modeled, draped ·       Inclusion of well known pagan deitiess uch as Hercules, athene, eros, thinly disguised but identifiable ·       Corinthian capital with a small figure of the Buddha among the leaves The monastery is the most typical of the style Consists of: Irregular aggregation of structures, Stupa, Sanghrama- quarters for monks
  72. 72. MAHAYANA VIHARAS – 250 BC – 450 AD, Gandhara Chronology: Hellenistic art and culture found its way to central Asia due to Alexander the great to mountains of the Hindu Kush(N Afghanistan, Balkh) By 3rd c. BC Bactria boasted of as many as 60 towns, magnificent palaces as mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang in 7th AD. Graeco Parthian phase by 2nd c. BC- Persian style Similar situation till 2nd c. BCoverwhelmed by the Scythians in 125 BC from Mongolia leading to the Bactrians moving to Indus Valley ans Sialkot By 20-225AD we had the Indo Scythians of the Kushans 1st c AD: Gandhara was the focus and center of the buddhist movement – Monasteries Architectural style: Surface treatment purely indian Structure and mode was Greek Hence Corinthian capitals, pediments, entablatures, medallions and mouldings Ornamental elements from Parthians- fire altar, animal capital etc. Egs. At Taxila, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Afghanisthan Takht I bahai, Mohra Moradu, Jaulain
  73. 73. MAHAYANA VIHARAS – 250 BC – 450 AD Takht I Bahai - Gandhara Salient Features: •axial plan •Rectangle of 200 ' long •stupa court on the south •monastery on the north •all round terrace for votive stupas, small chapels •west is a conference/ assemble hall •Refectory, Vestment chamber,kitchen servant quarters •Courtyard-45' x 55‘ •platform 20 ' square 8 ' high •STUPA •Stupa total height= 50 ' •6 tiered umbrella •elegant staircase on North •Circumambulation on top •processional path below •Enclosing the stupa on 3 sides small chapels •not in Hinayana Style but to accommodate
  74. 74. MAHAYANA VIHARAS – Takht I Bahai - Gandhara •Roof-Cupola alternating with trifoil vault •Cupola beehive hut •Trifoil -conventional chaitya hall •No true arches- corbelling was done •Court of stupa + monastery connected with •flight of steps passing through an open space •Open space contained- stupas and other elements •Front of the monastery facing court of stupa •had a range of cells containing images •Sangrama- open courtyard with cells all •around, •rooms simple •unadorned walls in between were painted.
  75. 75. MAHAYANA VIHARAS – Takht I Bahai - Gandhara
  76. 76. At Sirka (Taxila in modern Pakistan), capital of the Bachtrians and successive invaders of India, the grid plan is Hellenistic, the palace Mesopotamian, the so-called Fire Temple Graeco-Roman, and the image shrine made its first-known appearance BACTRIAN TOWNS –
  77. 77. Rock-cut architecture is the creation of structures, buildings, and sculptures, by excavating solid rock where it naturally occurs. Rock-cut architecture is designed and made by man from the start to finish. In India and China, the terms 'cave' and 'cavern' are often applied to this form of man-made architecture Interiors were usually carved out by starting at the roof of the planned space and then working downward. This technique prevents stones falling on workers below. The three main uses of rock-cut architecture were  temples Tombs cave dwellings ROCK CUT ARCHITECTUR E
  78. 78. The most laborious and impressive rock-cut architecture is the excavation of tall free-standing monolithic structures entirely below the surface level of the surrounding rock, in a large excavated hole around the structure.  Ellora in India provide the most spectacular and famous examples of such structures. Rock-cut architecture, though intensely laborious with ancient tools and methods, was presumably combined with quarrying the rock for use elsewhere; the huge amounts of stone removed have normally vanished from the site. Rock-cut architecture is also said to be cut, hewn, etc., "from the living rock“  Another term sometimes associated with rock-cut architecture is monolithic architecture, which is rather applied to free-standing structures made of a single piece of material. Monolithic architecture is often rock-cut architecture (e.g.Ellora Kailasanathar Temple but monolithic structures might be also cast of artificial material, e.g. concrete. Gomateshwara (Bahubali), the largest monolithic statue in the world is situated at Shravanabelagola, Karnataka, India. It was built in 983 A.D
  79. 79. In the early years of Buddhism, following the practices of contemporary religions such as Hinduism and Jainism (and other faiths that no longer exist), monks dedicated themselves to an ascetic life (a practice of self-denial particular to the pursuit of religious or spiritual goals) wandering the country with no permanent living quarters. They were fed, clothed, and housed in inclement weather by people wishing to gain merit, which is a spiritual credit earned through virtuous acts. Eventually monastic complexes were created for the monks close enough to a town in order to receive alms or charity from the villagers, but far enough away so as not to be disturbed during meditation.  The beginnings of monasteries
  80. 80. These earliest rock-cut caves include the Gandhara Caves, Bhaja Caves the Karla Caves and some of the Ajanta Caves The Buddhist monks naturally moved to caves for use, since cave temples and abodes was in accord with their religious ideas of asceticism and the monastic life. The Western Ghat topography with its flat-topped basalt hills, deep ravines and sharp cliffs, was suited to their natural inclination. The earliest of the Kanheri caves were excavated in the 1st  and 2nd  centuries BCE, as were those at Ajanta, which were occupied continuously by the Buddhist monks from 200 BCE to 650 CE.  Since the Buddhist ideology encouraged identification with trade, monasteries became stopovers for inland traders, and provided lodging houses that were usually located near trade routes {even Lalitagiri, Ratnagiri and Udaygiri in Odisha (known asSilver Triangle)}.
  81. 81. As their mercantile and royal endowment grew, cave interiors became more elaborate with interior walls decorated with paintings and reliefs, and intricate carvings. Facades were added to these exteriors as the interiors became designated for the specific uses as monasteries/residence of the monks (vih raā s), and congregational worship halls (chaityas). Over the centuries, simple caves began to resemble three-dimensional buildings needing to be formally designed, and required highly skilled artisans to execute. These artisans had not forgotten their timber roots, and imitated the nuances of wooden structure and wood grain in working with stone. MONASTRIES GROWS AS A SYMBOL OF PRIDE….
  82. 82. mitive beds in early viharas at Kanheri Caves Rock cut stair leading to Kanheri
  83. 83. RAINWATER HARVESTING - DRAINAGE
  84. 84. Rock Cut Monasteries in Nasik carved between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD, representing the Hinayana buddhist caves Most of the caves are Viharas except for the 18th cave which is a Chaityas.The location of the caves is a holy Buddhist site and is located about 8 km south ofNasik, Mharashtra, India. The city is situated at the foothills of the Western Ghats mountains on the banks of the river  Godavari The caves are located high in the mountains of Trirashmi. Some caves are intricately connected by stone-cut ladders that join them to the other caves. Steps lead to the caves from the bottom of the hill. The caves lodge idols of Buddha and Bodhisattva. Steps lead to the caves from the bottom of the hill. Some of the caves are large and contain numerous chambers - these rock-cut caves served as a viharas or monasteries for the disciples to meet and hear sermons.
  85. 85. They contain interesting sculptures. One of the vihara caves is older and finer in sculptural detail and is thought to be nearly as old as the Karla Cave near Lonavala. Another cave (cave No. 18) is a Chaitya and is similar in age to the Karla Cave and has a particularly elaborate facade. The site has an excellent ancient water management system and skillfully chiseled out of solid rock are several attractive water tanks. The caves were called Pundru which in Pali language means "yellow ochre color". This is because the caves were the residence of Buddhist monks who wore "the chivara or the yellow robes“ The various inscriptions confirm that Nashik in that period
  86. 86. Pandava Caves, Nasik
  87. 87. Pandeulena Caves– PRAYER HA Partially destroyed Mahavira sculpture
  88. 88. Statue of Buddha

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