• Bluetooth is a short range and low power wireless technology develop for exchanging data
over short distances from fixed and mobile devices creating personal area networks.
• Bluetooth uses UHF radio waves in The Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Radio band (ISM
band) from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz.
• Effective range of Bluetooth is 10 meters & It supports data rate of 1
• Bluetooth was standardized as IEEE 802.15.1.
•Bluetooth uses a radio technology Called Frequency-hopping spread Spectrum (FHSS).
• Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group
• Bluetooth radio channels are hopes at a rate of approx 1600 hops per second.
Fig. 1 Bluetooth Logo
•The name “Bluetooth” is taken from the 10th century Danish king “Harland Bluetooth”
who peacefully united all the tiny island kingdoms of Denmark, Southern Sweden, and
Southern Norway into one country.
• Bluetooth was invented by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994 and now is managed by
“Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG)” which was initiated by Ericsson, Intel, IBM,
Nokia and Toshiba.
• In 1998, Bluetooth technology is officially introduced and the BLUETOOTH SIG is
formed. Bluetooth technology's intended basic purpose is to be a wire replacement
technology in order to rapidly transfer voice and data.
• In 1999, Bluetooth 1.0 Specification is introduced.
• In 2004, Bluetooth Version 2.0 & EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) is introduced.
• In2007, Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2.1 & EDR is adopted by the SIG.
• In 2009, Bluetooth Core Specification Version 3.0 & HS (High Speed) is adopted by the
BLUETOOTH SIG. 4
5. NETWORK ARCHITECHTURE
It is a Wireless PersonalArea Network (WPAN) technology and is used for exchanging
data over smaller distances. There is normally peer-to peer communications between
Bluetooth devices in which each Bluetooth device is consider equal. The architecture of
Bluetooth defines two types of networks:
•Piconet: “Two or more Bluetooth units sharing the same channel”.
➢ One device acts as a master and the devices
connected to it acts as a slaves.
➢Slaves can not send data to each other.
➢In effect, the master acts as a switch for the piconet
➢and all traffic must passes through the master.
➢There can be up to 7 active slaves in a piconet
but only one master. Fig.2 Piconet and Scatternet
• Scatter net: “Aset of two or more interconnected piconets form Scatter nets”.
➢ A Bluetooth can be slave in two or more piconets, but it can be a master in only one.
➢ A slave that is present in one piconet can be act as master or primary in other piconet.
➢ This kind of node can receive message from master in one piconet and deliver the
message to its slave into the other piconet where it is acting as a slave.
6. SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE
• Bluetooth devices usethe Host ControllerInterface (HCI) as a common interface
between the Bluetooth host and the Bluetooth core in order to make different hardware
•The users having Bluetooth devicesareconnect to the other neighbouring devices in a
wireless mannervia Service Discovery Protocol.
•The baseband and Link Manager Protocol (LMP) control and establish links among
the Bluetooth devices.
• The Bluetooth hardwareand upper protocol (L2CAP) interfacing is done by the host
Bluetooth is defined as a layered protocol architecture. The core protocols form a five-layer
stack consisting of the following elements:
•Radio: Specifies details of the air interface, including frequency, the use of frequency
hopping, modulation scheme, and transmit power.
•Baseband: Concerned with connection establishment within a piconet, addressing, packet
format, timing, and power control.
•Link manager protocol (LMP): Establishes logical link between Bluetooth device and
maintains the link for enabling communication.
•Logical link control and adaptation protocol (L2CAP).: It adapts upper-layer protocols to
the baseband layer. L2CAP provides both connectionless and connection-oriented services.
•Service discovery protocol (SDP): It means to find a device through the range of other
CLASSES OF BLUETOOTH
Type Power Max Power
Class 1 High 100 mW
Up to 100 m
Class 1.5 (Low
Med - High 10 mW
Up to 30 m
(100 feet), but
typically 5 m
Class 2 Medium 2.5 mW Up to 10 m
Class 3 Low 1 mW
Up to 1 m
9. ERROR CORRECTIONS AND RETRANSMISSION
• Forward error correction (FEC) and an automatic repeat request (ARQ) schemes for
corrupted or missing data are the error correction schemes that are used by Bluetooth
• The number of retransmitted data packets is reduced by the Forward error correction
(FEC). The FEC can be eliminated to reduce overhead in case the errors are infrequent.
• A 1-bit positive acknowledge (ACK) or negative acknowledge (NAK) is used by the
Bluetooth Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) scheme, indicating whether the data
arriving at the receiving station matches the transmitted data.
• When there is no error in both the header error check and the cyclic redundancy check
(CRC) then transmitting station gets an ACK. If there is error then transmitting station
gets a negative acknowledgement (NAK) and retransmission of data takes place.
• In Bluetooth Voice transmissions are strictly real time, i.e. lost or damaged packets are
10. BLUETOOTH APPLICATIONS
Some of the common applications of Bluetooth are −
• In laptops, notebooks and wireless PCs, mobile phones and PDAs (personal digital
• In printers & wireless headsets.
• In wireless PANs (PersonalArea Networks) and even
LANs (LocalArea Networks).
• To transfer data files, videos, and images and MP3
• In wireless peripheral devices like mouse
and keyboards. Fig.3 Bluetooth Applications
• In the short-range transmission of data from sensors devices to sensor nodes like
REASONS FOR USING BLUETOOTH
• It's Wireless : Bluetooth technology allows for items that would usually need to be hard
wired or cabled to become wireless. This in turn means portability! Barcode scanners,
printers, computers, mobile devices, RFID readers, calipers, scales and more no longer
require a cabled mess in order to be actively used.
• It's Inexpensive: Because Bluetooth is relatively inexpensive when compared with other
forms of wireless technologies. Furthermore, due to recent advances like Bluetooth Smart
which utilizes a smarter power management system.
• It's Automatic: Just connect and go! Turn on your Bluetooth radio on the host device. Put
the partner device in pairing mode and connect which is very simple.
• It's Standardized: From iOS, to Windows, to OSX, to Android, Bluetooth is standardized
method of communication. This means the consumer is not dependent on the operating
system to function, and that the results of communication will not vary from platform to
• It's Mobile: Unlike Wi-Fi, Bluetooth does not require a fixed location to be able to
function. As long as two devices that both have Bluetooth capability.
12. COMPARISON WITH OTHER TECHNOLOGY
Ad hoc PAN
10-100 <1 Medium 10 FHSS
1 16 Low 10 Single Freq.
802.11b High speed
100+ 11 High 45 DSSS
• Authentication and encryption is provided at the Link Manager Layer.
• The PIN is translated into a 128 bit link key which is used for authentication.
• After authentication the radios will settle on a suitable length encryption key to be used.
• Bluetooth relies on PIN codes to establish trusted relationships between devices.
13. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
• Wireless and Low power consumption (1 mill watt).
• Facilitates Data and Voice Communication. Bluetooth offers formation of Ad hoc
• Bluetooth devices avoid interference with other wireless devices by using a technique
known as spread-spectrum frequency hopping.
• Bluetooth uses UHF radio waves in The Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Radio band
(ISM band) from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz.
• Relatively short range ( Up to 10 Meters).
• Less secure & Less data rate up to 1.0 Mbps.
14. FUTURE OF BLUETOOTH
• Bluetooth has a good future ahead because it meets a basic need of connectivity.
• Currently a protocol is being researched that would support large ad hoc networks.
• New versions of Bluetooth technology will meet high-speed and large range.
• Many companies are designing impressive Bluetooth applications in demand.
• In coming future Bluetooth technology could also be implemented in many public places
such as hotels, other heavy traffic locations, airports and train stations.
Fig.4 Year wise growth of Bluetooth technology
• A new global standard for data and voice transfer.
• Eliminates cables.
• Low power, Low range, Low Cost network devices.’
• Bluetooth convenient faster data rates and more simple than flash drives.
• Bluetooth sends information at about 725 kbps, which is need to be improved.
• Its specification is publicly available and free
• Bluetooth uses an unregulated frequency band.
• As people nowadays are prefer to use different type of technology devices that make
their life easier, the demand of the new devices that applied Bluetooth in it is increasing
• Further improvements are to be made in terms of power reduction and range.
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 J.Haartsen (1998), Bluetooth—The universal radio interface for adhoc, wireless
 Anonymous, Build connected devices using Bluetooth Low Energy.
 Bluetooth SIG, Beginners Guide to Bluetooth, 1999. http:// www.blutooth.com.
 J. Haarsten (1988), Bluetooth - The universal radio interface for adhoc wireless
connectivity, Ericsson Review 3 (4) 1 – 5.
 Islam, S.,Ammourah, B., & Mahmoud, M.- Location Based Computation Sharing
Framework for Mobile Devices.
 Bluetooth SIG (1999), A Developer’s guide to Bluetooth.
 Naveen Erasala, David C. Yen (2002) - Bluetooth technology: a strategic analysis of its
role in global 3G wireless communication era.
 R. Frazier (April 20, 2000), Bluetooth a Boon for Wireless Devices.
 Design, implementation, and evaluationof Bluetooth security by Jun-Zhao-Sun,
Douglas Howie, Antti Kolvisto.