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1. History & scope.pptx

  2. 2. History of veterinary Medicine • Medicine • Science of treating animals – healing art • Veterinary Medicine • Branch of medical science which deals with the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and general study of diseases in animals, especially domesticated animals.
  3. 3. • Apollo was regarded as God of healing (Greece) • First written record of veterinary Medicine was provided by Papyrus of Kahun (Egypt 1900 BC) • Oldest document of veterinary medicine: Code of Hammurabi (1700 BC) • Greek physicians – proposed humural theory for disease • Human body is composed of four “humours” – Cholor (yellow bile) melancholy (black bile), phlegm and blood • Hippocrates: Father of human medicine • Disease is a reflection of imbalance of the body humours • Lifted the medicine from the art of philosophy to a systemic clinical disease
  4. 4. • In Greece – A class of people known as “Haippiathri” (Horse doctors) • Democritus : disease is produced due to the change in the density of the body • Renatus Vegetius – Father of Veterinary Medicine • France – devastating outbreak of Rinderpest (1710-1714). This paved the way for establishment of first Veterinary School at Lyons (1761)
  5. 5. • Rene Laënnec (1781-1826) was a French physician who, invented the stethoscope (1816)
  6. 6. • Francis Rynd, Irish physician developed hypodermic needle and syringe
  7. 7. • In India during vedic period , people were concerned about the management, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of animals • In ancient India, animal treatment was mostly confined to “Ayurveda” • King Ashoka (250 BC) established veterinary hospitals manned by veterinarians • Salihothri – was the term used for horse doctors
  8. 8. • First army veterinary school in Pune (1862) • The first civil veterinary school was started in Babugarh (Hapur), in Uttar Pradesh (1877) • First veterinary college was started at Lahore, now in Pakistan, in 1882 • Veterinary College at Bombay 1886 • Veterinary College at Calcutta 1893 • Veterinary College at Madras 1903 • College of Veterinary Science, Bapatla 1955 , shifted to Tirupati 1957 • Veterinary Council of India (VCI) established in 1984
  9. 9. • The English word 'veterinarian' as defining one who provides medical care to animals, comes from the Latin verb “veheri” meaning “to draw” (as in "pull") and was first applied to those who cared for “any animal that works with a yoke” – cattle or horses
  10. 10. Scope of Veterinary Medicine • Clinical practice of food animal medicine • Clinical practice of small animal medicine • Laboratory animal medicine • Zoo animal medicine • Public health & Zoonoses • Regulatory services – control of infectious disease • Environmental health & safety • Research
  11. 11. • Medicine which deals with the diseases of farm animals is termed as “Farm animal medicine” • Medicine which deals with the diseases of pet animals is termed as “Companian animal medicine”
  12. 12. • Veterinary medicine broadly divided into • Clinical Veterinary Medicine • Preventive Veterinary Medicine • Clincal Veterinary Medicine (bed side medicine, internal medicine, curative medicine) is that branch which covers the art of making a correct diagnosis and extends the remedial and curative measures against diseases of animals • Preventive Veterinary Medicine is that branch which ensures measures to maintain health when disease is imminent. It deals with all measures to control and prevent animal diseases
  13. 13. • Health indicates physical, physiological and mental well being of an individual. • ( Health denotes the condition of bodily structure and function which on appraisal of larger number of similar individuals are observed to be identical or prevailing one) • Disease : any deviation from normal physical or physiological conditions will be considered as disease • It indicates inability to perform normal physiological functions though the nutrition and other environmental factors are maintained at optimum level
  14. 14. Classification of disease According to mode of origin / Gnesis • Hereditary disease : diseases which are transmitted to the offspring through sire or dam • Diseases are handed over through sperm or ovum of parents to the progeny Ex: Epilepsy, Haemophilia • Congenital disease • Diseases which are acquired during intra-uterine life of an individual and appreciable at birth • Denotes “begotten” or “ born with disease” Ex: Atresia ani, Brucellosis, Tuberculosis
  15. 15. Classification of disease • Acquired disease • Diseases which are neither hereditary nor congenitalbut are contracted during the entire life span of an individual Ex: Senile cataract
  16. 16. Classification of disease Based on systems involved • Localised disease • Clinical changes attributable to a disease is prominent and confined in a particular spot or organ • Ex: Glossitis, Abscess • Generalised disease • Diseases which affects most or all parts of a body • Systemic involvements are prominent in this form of disease • Ex: Toxaemia, Septicemia
  17. 17. Classification of disease Based on changes in the organ • Structural or organic disease • Disease which brings about pathological changes in the structure of any organs Ex: Pericarditis, Nephritis, Rickets • Functional disease • Disease which affects functional efficiency of any organ without altering the structural components of it Ex: Idiopathic Epilepsy, Arrhythmia
  18. 18. Classification of disease Based on specific cause • Specific disease • Disease which have got a definite identity and are produced by a specific pathogen • Contagious disease (contagion – pollution by touching • Disease is spread by intimate contact with the diseased animal Ex: Rinderpeat, FMD • Infectious disease • Disease is caused by living infecting organisms • Ex: Viral , bacterial, protozoal, mycotic diseases • Non specific diseases: • Diseases whose cause is indefinite or multiple Ex: Diarrhoea, Vomiting
  19. 19. •All infectious diseases may or may not be contagious but all contagious diseases are infectious
  20. 20. Classification of disease According to the intensity and spread of disease • Endemic, Epidemic, Pandemic, Sporadic • Endemic 'Endemic' is used in two senses to describe: 1) the usual frequency of occurrence of a disease in a population 2) the constant presence of a disease in a population
  21. 21. Classification of disease According to the intensity and spread of disease • Endemic, Epidemic, Pandemic, Sporadic • Epidemic • sudden, usually unpredictable, increase in the number of cases of an infectious disease in a population • In modern epidemiology, an epidemic is an occurrence of an infectious or non-infectious disease to a level in excess of the expected (i.e., endemic) level.
  22. 22. Classification of disease According to the intensity and spread of disease • Endemic, Epidemic, Pandemic, Sporadic • Pandemic occurrence • A pandemic is a widespread epidemic that usually affects a large proportion of the population. • Many countries may be affected
  23. 23. Classification of disease According to the intensity and spread of disease • Endemic, Epidemic, Pandemic, Sporadic • Sporadic • Disease which affects a single animal and shows no tendency to spread with in the herd • Disease occurs irregularly and haphazardly
  24. 24. Symptomology It is the science that deals with the symptoms of various diseases • Symptom : • It denotes adverse feelings by the animals owing to abnormalities in bodily or mental condition. • In human medicine, the abnormal sensations or feelings are expressed by the patient which is out of question in vet.medicine • Sign It is outward manifestation of a disease observed through objective evidence • It is observed by veterinary clinician, animal attendant or others • Ex: Bottle jaw, red urine, loose stools are the signs of anaemia, haemoglobinuria and enteritis respectively
  25. 25. Symptomology Subjective symptoms • It indicates the feelings expressed by the patient • In Human medicine, patient voluntarily expresses his difficulty to the clinician • Actual location of pain in any organ can be obtained through interrogation of human patient Objective symptoms • Symptoms which are observed by the clinician through various methods of examination
  26. 26. Symptomology Premonitory/ precussory symptoms • An initial phase of a forthcoming disease, the balance of health become upset and some symptoms may appear and thus serve as warning of approach of a disease • Ex: suspension of rumination, lack of appetite, feeling of chill before the onset of fever
  27. 27. Symptomology Direct or Idiopathic symptoms • These symptoms which are spontaneous in nature and are directly reflected from a disease process and are not secondary to some other affections of organs • Ex: Mucus and blood accompained with tenesmus in dysentery Indirect / sympathetic symptoms • Symptoms which are associated with the disease of any remote organ • Ex: Vomiting due to nephritis, dyspnoea due to hypertrophy of liver
  28. 28. Symptomology Typical symptoms • Symptoms which are characteristic of a disease • Clinician may distinguish the disease from its typical manifestation (diagnostic symptoms) • Ex: Septicemia along with crepitation of muscles • Black quarter Atypical symptoms • Symptoms which are irregular and do not bear any conformity of typical symptoms • Ex: Nervous manifestation of calf suffering from Coccidiosis
  29. 29. Symptomology Diagnostic / pathognomonic symptoms • Symptoms which point directly and definitely to a particular disease and afford a distinct basis for diagnosis • Ex: Lock jaw • – Tetanus, • Oozing of tarry coloured unclotted blood from natural orifices • - Anthrax
  30. 30. Symptomology Prognostic symptoms • Symptoms which help the clinician to determine the course of termination of disease • The prognosis of a disease following therapy may also be assessed • Ex: Sudden relief of pain after severe colic in equines- rupture of organ
  31. 31. Syndrome • A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms which are correlated with each other and often associated with a particular disease or disorder • A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process • Ex. Acid indigestion may produce concurrent heaptic insufficeincy, renal insufficiency, polyencephalomalacia symdromes
  32. 32. DIAGNOSIS • Most difficult task in treating a patient • It is an art of recognition of disease and determine the nature of disease Snap shot diagnosis • Diagnosis which is declared at the very approach of a patient at a glance Direct diagnosis • Made directly by observing structural or pathognomonic lesions
  33. 33. DIAGNOSIS Differential diagnosis • Art of differentiation of disease by comparison and contrast with similar disease Exclusion form of diagnosis • A method of diagnosis by the process of excluding all other similar disease
  34. 34. DIAGNOSIS Tentative diagnosis • Process of determination of disease on the basis of subjective changes evidenced through clinical examination • Considered as presumptive diagnosis where a precise diagnosis is not feasible unless laboratory and other measures are not adopted Confirmatory diagnosis • Actual disease condition of the animal diagnosed through clinical and clinico-pathological examination
  35. 35. DIAGNOSIS Symptomatic diagnosis • When etiological diagnosis is not possible and the leading symptoms are poorly manifested, diagnosis has to be made based on principal pathological changes Herd diagnosis • Examination of most of the affected animals • Meticulous search of the environment on which animals are kept in relation to grazing pasture, housing condition, feeds offered • Post mortem examination of dead animals
  36. 36. PROGNOSIS • It is the forecast of the probable course and termination of a disease process • Prognosis depends on • nature & course of the disease • success/ failure of previous treatment • state of appetite • behaviour, physical condition of the animal • involvement of vital systems or • any other complications arising out of the primary disorder and • extent of the local lesion or functional disorder
  37. 37. PROGNOSIS • Grades of prognosis Favourable Uncomplicated traumatic peritonitis in cattle Doubtful Traumatic reticuloperitonitis with adhesion of diaphragm with abdominal wall Poor Traumatic reticuloperitonitis complicated by abscess in liver Grave (Hope less) Traumatic reticuloperitonitis following penetration of sharp foreign object
  38. 38. TREATMENT • Application of knowledge of pharmacology in treatment of disease • Cost of treatment should not exceed cost of animal • Treatment may be General / Specific 1) General treatment • Measures adopted to combat certain complications during the course of a disease & to resuscitate the vitality of animal a) Fluid therapy : dehydration b) Mechanical treatment : Ex: Exercise, Massage etc. Massage with various counter irritants is frequently done in paraplegic dog
  39. 39. TREATMENT c) Physical treatment : e.g. use of heat, electricity, X-rays, U.V. rays, Infra red rays. Rays are generally used in diseases of musculoskeletal system d) Helio treatment : e.g. Exposure to sunlight in case of Rickets, Hypopigmentation e) Dietetic treatment: (therapeutic nutrition) Regulation and monitoring of diets in different diseases e.g. Diabetes, obesity, renal diseases, hepatic disease, cardiac disease
  40. 40. TREATMENT f) Psychologic treatment : it includes sympathetic approach, training and psychiatric management to prevent behavioural stress and various vices of animals g) Aerosol treatment: therapy done for humidification of respiratory mucous membrane. Aerosol drugs are used
  41. 41. TREATMENT 2. Symptomatic treatment : Adm. of medicines in order to get rid of symptoms which may be causing distress e.g. Expectorants in respiratory disease, Carminative mixtures in tympany 3. Specific treatment : Adm. of specific curative agents against disease causing agents e.g. specific antidote in poisoning, Calcium therapy in milk fever, antibacterial agents against bacteria, anthelminthics for helminths 4. Palliative treatment : Type of treatment extended in case of incurable diseases to prolong the life span of the individual e.g. Insulin in Diabetes mellitus
  42. 42. TREATMENT 5. Emperical treatment : Art of treating the patient with experienced gained through a long time trail & error methods. The basis of such treatment is ill understood & very often the exact pathology and pharmacology are not known e.g. Inflation of udder with air in case of milk fever in cattle 6. Rational treatment : Adm. of medicines based on pathophysiology of the disease process and knowledge of pharmaco therapeutic of drugs e.g. Atropine sulphate to alleviate spasmodic colic in horse 7. Prophylactic treatment : It embraces all measures to prevent spread of disease when it is likely to be contracted by animals e.g. Quarantine, disposal of carcasses, balanced nutrition, Vaccination
  43. 43. Period and Course of Disease • Disease process in body can be divided into 2 main groups • Those associated with inflammation • Those of non-inflammatory nature • Inflammatory diseases usually give rise to pain, redness, swelling,  body temp & impairment of function • In non-inflammatory process swelling and disturbance of function may occur but erythema, heat and pain are generally absent • Diseases – rapid course – signs are well marked • Disease – slow course- signs are much less obvious
  44. 44. Period and Course of Disease Disease Latent period Prodromal period Period of manifestation Outcome of disease Recovery Complete recovery Incomplete recovery Relapse Complica tion Sequelae Death
  45. 45. Period and Course of Disease • Latent period • Time lapses between infection and the shedding of the agent (parasite's prepatent period, a virus's eclipse phase, and a bacterium's latent period) • Incubation period • The period of time between infection and the development of clinical signs. • Inapparent infections have a prepatent period, but do not have an incubation period • Generation time • Period between infection and maximum infectiousness
  46. 46. Period and Course of Disease • Prodromal period • Period characterized by the presence of early signs and nonspecific symptoms of a disease • Period between incubation period and the illness period • Period of manifestation • Period of development of marked clinical manifestations which help the clinician to diagnose the disease
  47. 47. Period and Course of Disease • Outcome of disease • Recovery • In some cases the disease ends in restoration of functions and complete recovery • Infectious diseases- host acquires a state of immunity to the given infection • Recovery or cure may occur through gradual diminishing of marked manifestations and fever with slow return health. This type of cure is known as “Lysis” • E.g. Infectious canine hepatitis, Canine distemper
  48. 48. Period and Course of Disease • Recovery or cure may occur by rapid loss of manifestations and fever with rapid return of health. This type of cure is known as “Crisis” • E.g. Acute bronchopneumonia • If the functional disturbances caused by disease do not completely disappear then the cure is incomplete • In some cases, structural and functional changes persist • E.g. 1) Vegetative endocarditis - heart valve retain lesions 2) Joint remain immobile after tubercular arthritis
  49. 49. Period and Course of Disease • Relapse : recurrence of the disease after clinical cure during the period of convalescence • E.g. Recuurrent endocarditis • Relapse may be due to break in the immunity competency of the host as a result of exposure, exertion and errors in diet • Complication • Primary disease causes a weakness of the body and animal become susceptible to other diseases • E.g. after canine distemper infection dog suffers from secondary bacterial infection
  50. 50. Period and Course of Disease • Convalescence • It is the state through which a patient passes after prolonged illness till it regains normal health and optimum power of production • Sequelae • Affections which may arise after the apparent recovery of a primary disease • E.g. Chorea observed after Canine distemper in dogs
  51. 51. Death • Clinical death is characterised by deepest depression of the activity of central nervous system. • The metabolic process are greatly disturbed • The energy reserves are depleted, but changes in tissues remain reversible for 5-6 minutes. After that, there is appearance of irrevesible changes in the tissues, which first occur in the higher part of the CNS and there by state of biological or true death sets in. Three modes of death • Coma – death from failure of functioning of brain • Syncope- death from failure of functioning of heart • Asphyxia - death from failure of functioning of lungs
  52. 52. Death signs of death • There is cessation of respiration • There is cessation of circulation • There is no response to external stimuli • There is dilatation of pupil & fixation of eye ball • There is fall of body temperature • There is setting up of rigor mortis
  53. 53. Death Types of death 1) Apparent death : vital functions are feebly maintained and thus not apparent 2) Intra uterine death: death of fetus while still in the uterus 3) Neonatal death: death of newly born animals 4) Somatic death: death of whole body of animals

Notas do Editor

  • This implies that appropriate circumstances have occurred locally, producing small, localized outbreaks.
  • This implies that appropriate circumstances have occurred locally, producing small, localized outbreaks.