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Additive manufacturing ppt

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Additive manufacturing ppt

  1. 1. Additive Manufacturing; Present And Future Presented by, Stephin Abraham Sabu S7 ME B Roll No. 48 Guided by, Prof. Aneesh K S Mechanical Dept.
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. What is additive manufacturing?  Functional principle  Advantages & disadvantages  Applications 3. AM Processes 4. Present conditions 5. AM - Future Aspects 6. Gaps & needs 7. Recommendations 8. Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Introduction Manufacturing is a process in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods. Additive Manufacturing • Technology that can make anything. • Eliminates many constraints imposed by conventional manufacturing • Leads to more market opportunities. • Increased applications such as 3D faxing sender scans a 3D object in cross sections and sends out the digital image in layers, and then the recipient receives the layered image and uses an AM machine to fabricate the 3D object. 3
  4. 4. What is Additive Manufacturing?  The process of joining materials to make objects from three- dimensional (3D) model data, usually layer by layer  Commonly known as “3D printing”  Manufacturing components with virtually no geometric limitations or tools.  AM uses an additive process  Design for manufacturing to manufacturing for design  Distinguished from traditional subtractive machining techniques 4
  5. 5. Functional principle  The system starts by applying a thin layer of the powder material to the building platform.  A powerful laser beam then fuses the powder at exactly the points defined by the computer-generated component design data.  Platform is then lowered and another layer of powder is applied.  Once again the material is fused so as to bond with the layer below at the predefined points. 5
  6. 6. ADVANTAGES  Freedom of design  Complexity for free  Potential elimination of tooling  Lightweight design  Elimination of production steps DISADVANTAGES  Slow build rates  High production costs  Considerable effort required for application design  Discontinuous production process  Limited component size. 6
  7. 7. Applications AM has been used across a diverse array of industries, including;  Automotive  Aerospace  Biomedical Consumer goods and many others 7
  8. 8. AM processes are classified into seven categories 1) Vat Photopolymerisation/Steriolithography 2) Material Jetting 3) Binder jetting 4) Material extrusion 5) Powder bed fusion 6) Sheet lamination 7) Directed energy deposition 8
  9. 9. Vat photopolymerization/Steriolithography • Laser beam traces a cross-section of the part pattern on the surface of the liquid resin • SLA's elevator platform descends • A resin-filled blade sweeps across the cross section of the part, re-coating it with fresh material • Immersed in a chemical bath Stereolithography requires the use of supporting structures 9
  10. 10. Material Jetting • Drop on demand method • The print head is positioned above build platform • Material is deposited from a nozzle which moves horizontally across the build platform • Material layers are then cured or hardened using ultraviolet (UV) light • Droplets of material solidify and make up the first layer. • Platform descends • Good accuracy and surface finishes 10
  11. 11. Binder Jetting • A glue or binder is jetted from an inkjet style print head • Roller spreads a new layer of powder on top of the previous layer • The subsequent layer is then printed and is stitched to the previous layer by the jetted binder • The remaining loose powder in the bed supports overhanging structures 11
  12. 12. Material Extrusion/FDM • Fuse deposition modelling (FDM) • Material is drawn through a nozzle, where it is heated and is then deposited layer by layer • First layer is built as nozzle deposits material where required onto the cross sectional area. • The following layers are added on top of previous layers. • Layers are fused together upon deposition as the material is in a melted state. 12
  13. 13. Powder Bed Fusion • Selective laser sintering (SLS) • Selective laser melting (SLM) • Electron beam melting (EBM) No support structures required 13 PROCESS • A layer, typically 0.1mm thick of material is spread over the build platform. • The SLS machine preheats the bulk powder material in the powder bed • A laser fuses the first layer • A new layer of powder is spread. • Further layers or cross sections are fused and added. • The process repeats until the entire model is created.
  14. 14. Sheet Lamination • Metal sheets are used • Laser beam cuts the contour of each layer • Glue activated by hot rollers 14 PROCESS 1. The material is positioned in place on the cutting bed. 2. The material is bonded in place, over the previous layer, using the adhesive. 3. The required shape is then cut from the layer, by laser or knife. 4. The next layer is added.
  15. 15. Directed Energy Deposition • Consists of a nozzle mounted on a multi axis arm • Nozzle can move in multiple directions • Material is melted upon deposition with a laser or electron beam 15 PROCESS 1. A4 or 5 axis arm with nozzle moves around a fixed object. 2. Material is deposited from the nozzle onto existing surfaces of the object. 3. Material is either provided in wire or powder form. 4. Material is melted using a laser, electron beam or plasma arc upon deposition. 5. Further material is added layer by layer and solidifies, creating or repairing new material features on the existing object.
  16. 16. Present Condition & Trends Technology And Research • The model data, usually in stereolithography (STL) format, is first decomposed into a series of 2D, finitely thick cross sections, which are then fed into an AM machine. • Used directly and indirectly to produce prototype parts • Reduce manufacturing and product costs University–Industry Collaboration and Technology Transfer More and more companies have begun using AM technology to; • Reduce time-to-market • Increase product quality • Improve product performance • Costs 16
  17. 17. • Metal-based AM processes have recently emerged in industrial applications for manufacturing items such as automotive engines, aircraft assemblies, power tools, and manufacturing tools including jigs, fixtures, and drill guides Education And Training • Educating the general public about AM empowers people to build what they dream. • Formal AM education has already been integrated into curricula at different levels. • Educational materials on rapid prototyping have long been a part of manufacturing engineering courses 17
  18. 18. AM - Future Aspects Technology And Research • “ Third industrial revolution “ • The cost effective mass customization of complex products • Reduced material waste and energy consumption • Adapt new product designs without the additional expenses • In the biomedical field, AM can be used to fabricate tissue scaffolds that are biocompatible, biodegradable, and bio-absorbable Education & Training • AM holds great potential for promoting science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education • The availability of low-cost 3D printing equipment is creating the opportunity for AM-enabled, hands-on labs in primary, secondary, and postsecondary schools across the nation 18
  19. 19. Gaps & Needs Technology and Research 19
  20. 20. Material • Intensive materials research and development is needed • In metallurgy, it takes about 10 years to develop a new alloy, including the determination of various critical properties such as fatigue strength. This time frame also applies to developing new materials for AM • Even with existing materials, advancements are needed Design • Various AM-oriented design tools must be developed • CAD systems should be re-invented to overcome its limitations Modeling, Sensing, Control, and Process Innovation • Difficult to predict the microstructures and fatigue properties resulting from AM processes • The sensing of AM processes may require fast in situ measurements of the temperature, cooling rate, and residual stress Characterization and Certification • Real production environments and practices are much more rigorous than those for prototyping purposes. • The existing AM systems are still predominantly based on rapid prototyping machine architectures 20
  21. 21. University–Industry Collaboration and Technology Transfer. • To compete with conventional mass production processes, AM technology must advance significantly in order to drastically reduce the cost of fabrication, improve the performance of fabricated parts • The price of materials for AM would need to drop substantially in order to achieve sufficient return on investment to make AM for mass production a reality 21
  22. 22. Hype Curve 22
  23. 23. Education & Training  While numerous AM education resources and training materials are available, there is still no readily applicable, proven model for AM education and training Taking full advantage of AM will require; • Educating the current workforce • Recruiting a new generation of students • Developing proper design tools 23
  24. 24. Recommendations Technology and Research. Materials • Development of new materials for AM processes • Formation and mixing of materials in desired forms and with desired properties Design • Methods and tools for simultaneous multifunctional • Product design and AM process design Modeling • Robust physics-based mathematical models of temperature, stress etc. • Prediction of microstructures and fatigue properties resulting from extreme heating and cooling rates in AM processes Sensing and control • Fast-response sensors for detecting defects and phase transformations • Integrated real time sensing and closed-loop control of AM processes • The production costs, manufacturing time, and part defects must be reduced drastically in order for AM to become hugely successful. 24
  25. 25. University–Industry Collaboration and Technology Transfer • Collaborations incentivized by federal funding programs • Increased federal research and development (R&D) support Education and Training Teaching Factory In the teaching factory, students are exposed directly to a manufacturing enterprise where they design products to meet customer needs and manufacture their designed products for the market. Other Training Efforts  Promotion of public awareness  Use of the Internet  Establishment of publicly accessible AM facilities 25
  26. 26. CONCLUSION • The process of joining materials to make objects from three- dimensional (3D) model data, usually layer by layer • Traditional subtractive machining techniques rely on the removal of material by methods such as cutting or milling • Has many advantages over traditional manufacturing processes • Seven processes of AM • AM is on the verge of shifting from a pure rapid prototyping technology • Manufacturing metal components with virtually no geometric limitations or tools offers new ways to increase product performance or establish new processes and revenue streams 26
  27. 27. References Base Journal ; Additive Manufacturing: Current State, Future Potential, Gaps and Needs, and Recommendations 1. ASTM, 2009, ASTM International Committee F42 on Additive Manufacturing Technologies, ASTM F2792–10 Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing Technologies, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA. 2. Wohlers Associates, Inc., 2013, Wohlers Report 2013: Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing State of the Industry, Wohlers Associates, Fort Collins, CO. 3. Bourell, D. L., Beaman, J. J., Leu, M. C., and Rosen, D. W., 2009, “A Brief History of Additive Manufacturing and the 2009 Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing: Looking Back and Looking Ahead,” Proceedings of RapidTech 2009: US-TURKEY Workshop on Rapid Technologies, Istanbul, Turkey, Sept. 24–25, pp. 1–8. 4. Google 5. Wikipedia 27
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