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Chemical properties of minerals

  1. 1. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS
  2. 2. Chemical properties of minerals show the presence and arrangement of atoms in minerals. Using their chemical properties, minerals are identified by how they react to certain substances.
  3. 3. 1. SILICATE CLASS - largest group of minerals • contains silicon and oxygen, with some aluminum, magnesium, iron an calcium • MAFIC (magnesium) • FELSIC (feldspar)
  4. 4. COMMON EXAMPLES • Olivine • Pyroxene • Amphibole • Muscovite • Feldspar
  5. 5. USES • microchips (conductivity) • glass and ceramics • quartz crystals (vibrations)
  6. 6. 2. CARBONATE CLASS - deposited in marine environments • shells of dead planktons • places with high evaporation rates • in karsts and caves • in stalactites and stalagmites
  7. 7. COMMON EXAMPLES • Aragonite • Calcite • Malachite • Aragonite
  8. 8. USES • carbon paper • glass and ceramics • rayon • soap and detergent • livestock mineral supplement • soda ash
  9. 9. 3. SULPHATE CLASS - where salty waters slowly evaporate • places with high evaporation rates • water-sediments
  10. 10. COMMON EXAMPLES • Barite • Gypsum • Celestite
  11. 11. USES • plaster • algaecide • mineral supplement • epsom salt • surfactant • lead-acid battery
  12. 12. 4. HALIDE CLASS - contains natural salts • in lakes, ponds, and other landlocked seas
  13. 13. COMMON EXAMPLES • Halite • Flourite
  14. 14. USES • metal-halide lamps • steel and aluminum • fertilizer • rock salt
  15. 15. 5. OXIDE CLASS - most important class to human civilization • carry histories of changes in Earth’s magnetic field • precipitates close to Earth’s surface • oxidation products during weathering • accessory minerals in igneous rocks
  16. 16. COMMON EXAMPLES • Hematite • Corundum
  17. 17. USES • inorganic sunscreen • flame retardant • coloring agent • Alkali batteries
  18. 18. 6. SULPHIDE CLASS - contains most of the economically significant minerals to man • includes copper, lead, and zinc
  19. 19. COMMON EXAMPLES • Acanthite • Chalcocite
  20. 20. USES • photocells (CdS) • fungicide • infrared sensors (PbS) • photoluminescent strips in emergency lights (ZnS)
  21. 21. 7. PHOSPHATE CLASS - important biological minerals • found in bones and teeth of animals (Phosphorous)
  22. 22. COMMON EXAMPLES • Turquoise • Wavellite • Apatite
  23. 23. USES • phosphate fertilizers • health nutrients • phosphate salts
  24. 24. 8. ELEMENT CLASS - contains pure native elements •usually metals •pure form
  25. 25. COMMON EXAMPLES • Gold • Copper • Bismuth
  26. 26. USES • jewelries, coins • wires • cosmetics • pipes, guns, fish sinkers, alloy

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