2. FBS ANALYSIS
It is a framework for conceptualizing design of objects in three categories: Function, Behaviour and
Structure. It is used to represent objects.
These categories are defined as follows:
Function (F): It is the purpose or the end objective of an object.
Behaviour (B): The attributes that can be derived from the object’s structure.
Structure (S): The components the object comprises and their relationships.
The Function-Behaviour-Structure Framework
The original version of the FBS framework was published by John S. Gero in 1990. It applies the FBS
ontology to the process of designing, by further articulating the three ontological categories. In this
articulation, behaviour (B) is specialised into expected behaviour (Be) (the "desired" behaviour) and
behaviour derived from structure (Bs) (the "actual" behaviour). In addition, two further notions are
introduced on top of the existing ontological categories: requirements (R) that represent intentions from the
client that come from outside the designer, and description (D) that represents a depiction of the design
created by the designer. Based on these articulations, the FBS framework proposes eight processes claimed
as fundamental in designing, specifically:
1. Formulation: formulates the problem space, by
transforming requirements into a function state
space (R → F), and transforming functions into a
behaviour state space (F → Be).
2. Synthesis: generates structure based on
expectations of the behaviour state space (Be → S).
3. Analysis: derives behaviour from the generated
structure (S → Bs).
4. Evaluation: compares expected behaviour with the
behaviour derived from structure (Be ↔ Bs).
5. Documentation: produces descriptions of the
design based on structure (S → D).
6. Reformulation type 1: modifies the structure state
space, based on a re-interpretation of structure
(S → S’).
7. Reformulation type 2: modifies the behaviour state space, based on a re-interpretation of structure (S → Be’).
8. Reformulation type 3: modifies the function state space, based on a re-interpretation of structure and
subsequent reformulation of expected behaviour (S → F’ via Be).
3. FBS ANALYSIS
Function, Behaviour and Structural aspects of structural elements:
F: Cover Head B: Hollow S: Conical and cylindrical are common
F: Shades the face B: Circumference S: Defined with inner and outer radius
F: Connects Crown and Brim B: Grip S: Runs around the bottom of the hat
• To Cover Head
• Fashion Accessory
The portion of a hat covering the top of the head.
Projection of stiff material from the bottom of the hat's crown horizontally all around the
circumference of the hat.
A ribbon or band that runs around the bottom of the torso of the hat
4. FBS ANALYSIS
UNUSUAL DESIGNS OF HAT:
F: To add to the apparent height and impressive appearance.
Ceremonial military uniform.
B: Thicker and dyed black. Protects against sword cuts.
S: Tall crown and Furry Hat. Bearskin is made of Canadian brown
F: Shades the face and shoulders from the sun. Worn during
B: Grip is provided with connected thread. Covers large area.
S: Large Brim.
F: Worn as customary headwear, common among Sikhs. Serves
the purpose of covering longer hair. A head wrap for women
following cancer treatments.
B: Peaked conical cap encircled with bands of cloth.
S: Based on cloth winding.
F: Worn at birthday parties
B: Conical Shape. Grip is secured with a long string of elastic going
from one side of the cone's bottom to another
S: playful conical hat made with a rolled up piece of thin
F: Fashionable for both men and women.
B: Felt (textile) hat. Pinches provide a new shape to hollow space.
S: A soft felt hat with a medium brim and lengthwise crease in the
crown. Pinched near the front on both sides.
5. FBS ANALYSIS
NON – FUNCTIONAL HATS:
In this hat, even though the crown is normal the brim is extended
downwards so much that it covers human eyes, which makes it
Here brim is placed inside the hat without changing the crown. This does not
allow head to get inside which makes it non-functional.
In this hat, the crown’s width is extended than normal. Now, as the brim starts
off much farer from head’s position it could not provide any kind of grip. This
leads to its non-functioning.
Here, the hat is made of transparent and soft material. So, it does not protect our
head from sun and rain making it non-functional.
Here the crown’s base circumference is 25cms only.
Whereas the average circumference of adult’s human
head is 53cms in females and 57cms in males. So, head
cannot fit into this and thus making it a non-functional
6. FBS ANALYSIS
Design a hat with an added function
Additional Function – Earmuff
Hat is also going to serve as an earmuff protecting ears. Fits on the
top of the head and covers external ears with thermoplastic band.
Made of fur to keep person’s ears warm in cold environments. An
elastic string is added to keep earmuffs closer to our ears.
Creative design of hat
Horns are added to the crown and brim is removed. Horns
can depict a particular animal which provides fun element.
Design of the hat can vary depending on the position and
shape of horns. Can be worn while celebrating or attending
parties. Allows to produce wide range of horn shapes.
Hat with an added adjective
Adjective – Status/ Identity
Change in the length of the conical crown. Different
sizes for different class of people in a society. A Kind
of uniform/customary dress code.
Long – Authority
Medium – Middle Class
Short – Low Class
7. JAKOBSON’S MODEL
Theatrical release poster of a 2013 Indian romantic
drama film RAANJHANAA
To gain viewer’s attention with a beautiful glimpse
of the movie
The background suggests Indian culture or Hindu
tradition. Celebration of Holi festival is expressed. Mixture of
colors can be related to the mixture of emotions in the film.
Love story in the city of Varanasi
Title of the movie
Starring – Dhanush and Sonam Kapoor
Cast-Director, Producer, Music Director, Distributor, Writer
CHANNEL: Poster (Visual) – Print or Digital.
CODE: Movie stills, Colors, Banaras city background, Text- English language.
SENDER - Production unit of the movie RECEIVER – Audience
9. NARRATIVE STRUCTURE
Source – Wikipedia
Vladimir Propp was a Soviet folklorist and scholar who analysed the basic plot components of Russian folk
tales to identify their simplest irreducible narrative elements.
He concluded that all the characters could be resolved into 7 broad character functions in the 100 tales he
1. The hero—Leads the Narrative and is usually looking to solve a problem. Reacts to the donor, weds the
2. The villain — Conflicts Hero/Struggles against the hero.
3. The dispatcher — character who makes the lack known and sends the hero off.
4. The (magical) helper — helps the hero in their quest. Often acts as a sidekick.
5. The princess or prize and her father — the hero deserves her throughout the story but is unable to marry
her because of an unfair evil, usually because of the villain. The hero's journey is often ended when he
marries the princess, thereby beating the villain.
6. The donor — prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object.
7. The false hero — takes credit for the hero’s actions or tries to marry the princess.
He also concluded that there are a sequence of 31 functions that usually occur within fairy tales, once the
initial situation is depicted.
The Road to El Dorado
The Road to El Dorado is a 2000 American animated adventure comedy film
The movie begins in 16th-century Seville, Spain, and tells about two men named Tulio
and Miguel. During a dice game using loaded dice, they win a map that supposedly
shows the location of El Dorado, the legendary city of gold in the New World. However,
their cheating is soon discovered and as a result, they end up as stowaways on Hernan
Cortes fleet to conquer Mexico. They are discovered, but manage to escape in a boat
with Cortés' prize war horse and eventually discover the hidden city of El Dorado,
where they are mistaken for gods.
Analyzing with Propp’s 7 characters
1. Hero – Tulio and Miguel
2. Villain – Hernan Cortes
3. Dispatcher – Miguel
4. Helper – Altivo(Horse)
5. Prize - Chel Authority – Chief Tannnabok
6. Donor – Zaragoza, Chel, Chief Tannabok
7. False hero – Tzekel Kan
10. NARRATIVE STRUCTURE
Hero – Tulio and Miguel
Tulio and Miguel lead the play. They are good friends. They win a map to
the City of Gold, El Dorado, in a gambling match. Somehow they reach the
city with a horse, Altivo. The movie is all about their attempts to survive in
the new city and to bring back some gold to Spain.
Villain – Hernan Cortes
Hernan Cortes is conqueror. His appearance in the movie is less. He tries
to conquer El Dorado city with the help of Tzekal Kan
Dispatcher – Miguel
Miguel, one of the friends acts as dispatcher. He plants the desire of
reaching the city of gold and bring back some. Then they built their own
assumptions on the city.
Helper – Altivo (Horse)
Altivo helps them in reaching the city. It stays in the city and returns back
with them and witnesses all the adventures that take place.
Prize – Chel
Chel becomes the prize
for Tulio. Initially she is
need of help from these
friends but finally
becomes prize for Tulio.
Authority – Chief Tannnabok
Chief Tannabok is the
authority in the city El
Dorado. His orders
were followed by the
people of the city.
Donor – Zaragoza, Chel, Chief Tannabok
At different situations different donors are found. Even though the win the map fairly from Zaragoza, he
can be classified as a donor of the map. Chel for donating an armadillo (Biblo) for ball in the ball game with
the best players conducted by Tzekel Kan. Chief Tannabok for donating ship.
False hero – Tzekel Kan
Tzekel Kan tries to take the credit everywhere. When he came to know that
Tulio and Miguel are not gods, he tries to become the god in front of
11. NARRATIVE STRUCTURE
Source – Wikipedia, Slideshare
Tzvetan Todorov is a Franco-Bulgarian historian, philosopher, literary critic, sociologist and essayist. He is the author
of many books and essays, which has a significant influence in anthropology, sociology, semiotics, literary theory,
thought history and culture theory.
He concluded that there are 5 fundamental stages in any kind of narrative
1. Stage of Equilibrium
2. Disruption of that order by an event
3. A recognition that disorder has occurred
4. An attempt to repair the damage of disruption
5. A return/ restoration of a new equilibrium
This is the timeline analyzed for these stages in the movie. Even though there are multiple layers/ levels of story
leading to overlapping of stages and disorder, the overall timeline is analyzed as follows
1. 0 min – 8 min (Duration: 8 minutes)
They stay in their city in their own lifestyle. They play gambling in their city in Spain.
2. 9 min – 21 min (Duration: 12 minutes)
Then they try to travel to the City of Gold, El Dorado.
3. 22 min – 28 min (Duration: 6 minutes)
Then they understand that, it is not that easy to reach this city and start getting into troubles one by one and
4. 29 min – 1hr15 min (Duration: 46 minutes)
Here they try to overcome these troubles be acting as gods get into new troubles and attempts to solve them.
5. 1hr 16 min – 1hr 23 min (Duration: 8 minutes)
Now they come out from the city after an adventure. Even though they could not bring back any gold they save
the city from Hernan Cortes.
Department of Design
Indian Institute of Design Guwahati
Guwahati - 781039