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DESIGN &
CONSTRUCTION
ERRORS
HOW IT AFFECTS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONOF
STRUCTURES
SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://...
CONTENTS
■ Introduction
■ Design and Detailing Errors
– Causes
■ Types of Design Errors
■ Construction Errors
– Causes
■ T...
INTRODUCTION
■ In buildings, repair & rehabilitation become necessary, as some parts of the building
naturally tend to det...
CRACKSINCONCRETE
BEFORE
HARDENING
DRYING
PLASTIC
SHRINKAGE
SETTLEMENT
SHRINKAGE
BLEEDING
DELAYED CURING
CONSTRUCTIONAL
FOR...
CRACKSINCONCRETE AFTER HARDENING
UNSOUND MATERIALS
CEMENT
AGGREGATES
EXCESS SILT, MUD &
DUST
LONG TERM DRYING
SHRINKAGE
TH...
DESIGN & DETAILING
ERRORS
A deviation from the plans and specifications
Responsibility of owner, designer and contractor
6...
CAUSES
■ Accuracy of drawings
■ Number of design omissions and ambiguities
■ Inadequacy within plans and specifications
■ ...
TYPES OF DESIGN
ERRORS
8SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
TYPES OF DESIGN ERRORS
1. Inadequate Structural Design
2. Poor Design Details
A. AbruptChanges in Section
B. Insufficient ...
1. INADEQUATE STRUCTURAL
DESIGN
■ CAUSES
– Due to inadequate structural design the
concrete is exposed to greater stress t...
2. POOR DESIGN DETAILS
■ CAUSES
– Localised concentration of high stresses in structural members
■ SYMPTOMS
– Cracking of ...
2A. ABRUPT CHANGES
IN SECTION
■ SYMPTOMS
– Cracking because of stress
concentrations
■ PREVENTION
– Use of relatively thin...
2C. INADEQUATE
PROVISION FOR
DEFLECTION
■ CAUSES
– Loading of members or sections
beyond the capacities for which
they wer...
2E. INSUFFICIENT
TRAVEL IN EXPANSION
JOINTS
■ CAUSES
– Inadequately designed expansion
joints
■ SYMPTOMS
– Spalling of con...
2G. NEGLECT OF CREEP
EFFECT
■ CAUSES
– Inadequate provision for
deflections
– Neglect of creep in pre-stressed
concrete me...
2I. UNANTICIPATED
SHEAR STRESSES IN
PIERS, COLUMNS, OR
ABUTMENTS
■ CAUSES
– Lack of maintenance
– Freezing of expansion be...
17
INSUFFICIENT
REINFORCEMENT AT
CORNERS AND OPENINGS
INADEQUATE PROVISION FOR
DEFLECTION
INADEQUATE PROVISION FOR
DRAINAG...
CONSTRUCTION
ERRORS
Mistakes or inadequacies in a structure's own construction damage it partly
or completely
18SRISHTIWAK...
CAUSES
■ May occur due to failure to follow specified procedures and good practice or outright
carelessness
■ May not lead...
TYPES OF
CONSTRUCTION ERRORS
20SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION ERRORS
1. AddingWater to Concrete
2. ImproperAlignment of Formwork
3. ImproperConsolidation or
Compa...
1. ADDING WATERTO CONCRETE
22
CAUSES EFFECTS
Addition of water to the
concrete in a delivery
truck to increase slump
and d...
2. IMPROPER ALIGNMENT OF
FORMWORK
■ EFFECTS
– Discontinuities on the surface of the concrete
 These discontinuities are u...
3. IMPROPER CONSOLIDATION OR
COMPACTION OF CONCRETE
■ EFFECTS
– Improper compaction of concrete may result in a variety of...
These can be reduced by
inserting the vibrator
more frequently, and as
close as possible to the
form face without
touching...
4. IMPROPER CURING
Curing is probably the most abused aspect of the concrete construction process. Unless
concrete is give...
5. IMPROPER LOCATION OF
REINFORCING STEEL
■ CAUSE
– This section refers to reinforcing steel that is improperly located or...
6. MOVEMENT OF FORMWORK
■ CAUSE
– Movement of formwork during the period while the concrete is going from a fluid
to a rig...
7. PREMATURE REMOVAL OF SHORES
OR RESHORES
■ CAUSE
– If shores or reshores are removed too soon, the concrete affected may...
8. SETTLING OFTHE CONCRETE
■ CAUSE
– During the period between placing and initial setting of the concrete, the heavier
co...
9. SETTLING OFTHE SUBGRADE
■ CAUSE
– Settling of the subgrade during the period after the concrete begins to become
rigid ...
10.VIBRATION OF FRESHLY PLACED
CONCRETE
■ CAUSE
– Most construction sites are subjected to vibration from various sources,...
11. IMPROPER FINISHING OF FLAT
CONCRETE SURFACE
A. Adding water to the surface: Evidence that water is being added to the ...
11. IMPROPER FINISHING OF FLAT
CONCRETE SURFACE
C. Adding cement to the surface:This practice is often done to dry up blee...
35
MOVEMENT OF FORMWORK SETTLING OF CONCRETE SETTLING OF SUBGRADE
IMPROPER FINISHING OF FLAT
CONCRETE SURFACE
IMPROPER CUR...
EFFECT OF DESIGN AND
CONSTRUCTION ERRORS
ON REPAIR &
REHABILITATION
36SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin...
37
S.NO. DESIGN ERRORS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONTECHNIQUES
1. Inadequate Structural Design
• Plate Bonding Method
• RC Jacke...
38
S.NO. DESIGN ERRORS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONTECHNIQUES
2E Insufficient travel in expansion joints Repair or replace expa...
39
S.NO. CONSTRUCTION ERRORS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONTECHNIQUES
1. Adding Water to Concrete
• Epoxy Coating (Epoxy Resin + ...
40
S.NO. CONSTRUCTION ERRORS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONTECHNIQUES
4. Improper Curing
• Elastomeric sealer
• ‘Flexible’ epoxy ...
41
S.NO. CONSTRUCTION ERRORS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONTECHNIQUES
8. Settling ofThe Concrete
• Fusion Bonded Epoxy Powder Coa...
CONCLUSION
■ A structure, if regularly maintained, will not need extensive repair and rehabilitation
and the cost of the s...
REFERENCES
■ http://theconstructor.org/concrete/design-detailing-errors-concrete-construction/8190/
■ http://theconstructo...
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Design & Construction Errors- Building Maintenance and Repairs

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The ultimate guide to design and construction errors that has been compiled after visiting many websites and reading books.

Design & Construction Errors- Building Maintenance and Repairs

  1. 1. DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION ERRORS HOW IT AFFECTS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONOF STRUCTURES SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo BUILDING MAINTENANCE & REPAIRS
  2. 2. CONTENTS ■ Introduction ■ Design and Detailing Errors – Causes ■ Types of Design Errors ■ Construction Errors – Causes ■ Types of Construction Errors ■ Effect of Design & Construction Errors on Repair & Rehabilitation ■ Conclusion ■ References 2SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION ■ In buildings, repair & rehabilitation become necessary, as some parts of the building naturally tend to deteriorate & become more defective.This may also happen due to lack of maintenance. ■ Repair:To restore (something damaged, faulty, or worn) to a good condition, for example repair of leakage in buildings, etc. ■ Rehabilitation:To restore something to it’s good or original condition ■ Design and construction errors increase the cost and schedule overruns 3SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  4. 4. CRACKSINCONCRETE BEFORE HARDENING DRYING PLASTIC SHRINKAGE SETTLEMENT SHRINKAGE BLEEDING DELAYED CURING CONSTRUCTIONAL FORMWORK MOVEMENT EXCESS VIBRATION SUBGRADE SETTLEMENT FINISHING EARLY FROST DAMAGE 4SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  5. 5. CRACKSINCONCRETE AFTER HARDENING UNSOUND MATERIALS CEMENT AGGREGATES EXCESS SILT, MUD & DUST LONG TERM DRYING SHRINKAGE THERMAL HEAT OF HYDRATION EXTERNAL TEMPERATURE JOINTS IN CONCRETE ELEVATED TEMPERATURE FREEZING & THAWING MOISTURE MOVEMENTS TRANSITION ZONE BIOLOGICAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN DEFICIENCIES CHEMICAL SULPHATE ATTACK ALKALI-AGGREGATE REACTION ACID ATTACK SEA WATER CARBONATION CHLORIDE ATTACK CORROSION OF REINFORCEMENT 5SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  6. 6. DESIGN & DETAILING ERRORS A deviation from the plans and specifications Responsibility of owner, designer and contractor 6SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  7. 7. CAUSES ■ Accuracy of drawings ■ Number of design omissions and ambiguities ■ Inadequacy within plans and specifications ■ Quality of facility 7SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  8. 8. TYPES OF DESIGN ERRORS 8SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  9. 9. TYPES OF DESIGN ERRORS 1. Inadequate Structural Design 2. Poor Design Details A. AbruptChanges in Section B. Insufficient Reinforcement at Corners and Openings C. Inadequate Provision for Deflection D. Inadequate Provision for Drainage E. InsufficientTravel in Expansion Joints F. Incompatibility of Materials G. Neglect of Creep Effect H. Rigid Joints Between Precast Units I. Unanticipated Shear Stresses in Piers, Columns, or Abutments J. Inadequate Joint Spacing in Slabs 9SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  10. 10. 1. INADEQUATE STRUCTURAL DESIGN ■ CAUSES – Due to inadequate structural design the concrete is exposed to greater stress than it can handle or strain in concrete increases more than its strain capacity and fails ■ SYMPTOMS – Spalling of concrete due to high compressive strength – Cracking of concrete due to torsion and shear stress ■ PREVENTION – Thorough review of all design calculations – Careful review of rehabilitation methods, if any 10SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  11. 11. 2. POOR DESIGN DETAILS ■ CAUSES – Localised concentration of high stresses in structural members ■ SYMPTOMS – Cracking of concrete that allows water or chemicals to pass through concrete – Seepage through structural members – Structural failure ■ PREVENTION – Thorough and careful review of all design calculations 11SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  12. 12. 2A. ABRUPT CHANGES IN SECTION ■ SYMPTOMS – Cracking because of stress concentrations ■ PREVENTION – Use of relatively thin sections rigidly tied into massive sections or patches and replacement concrete that are not uniform in plan dimensions 2B. INSUFFICIENT REINFORCEMENT AT CORNERS AND OPENINGS ■ CAUSES – Increased stress concentration at corners ■ SYMPTOMS – Cracking of concrete ■ PREVENTION – Provide additional reinforcement in areas where stress concentrations are expected to occur 12SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  13. 13. 2C. INADEQUATE PROVISION FOR DEFLECTION ■ CAUSES – Loading of members or sections beyond the capacities for which they were designed ■ SYMPTOMS – Cracking of walls or partitions due to loadings 2B. INADEQUATE PROVISION FOR DRAINAGE ■ CAUSES – Ponding of water caused by poor attention to details of draining – Saturation resulting in severely damaged concrete in an area subjected to freezing and thawing ■ SYMPTOMS – Leakage may result in damage to the interior structure – Staining and encrustations on the structure 13SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  14. 14. 2E. INSUFFICIENT TRAVEL IN EXPANSION JOINTS ■ CAUSES – Inadequately designed expansion joints ■ SYMPTOMS – Spalling of concrete adjacent to the joints ■ PREVENTION – The full range of possible temperature differentials that a concrete may be expected to experience should be taken into account in the specification for expansion joints 2F. INCOMPATIBILITY OF MATERIALS ■ CAUSES – The use of materials with different properties (modulus of elasticity or coefficient of thermal expansion) adjacent to one another ■ SYMPTOMS – Cracking or spalling as the structure is loaded or as it is subjected to daily or annual temperature variations 14SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  15. 15. 2G. NEGLECT OF CREEP EFFECT ■ CAUSES – Inadequate provision for deflections – Neglect of creep in pre-stressed concrete members may lead to excessive prestress loss ■ SYMPTOMS – Cracking as loads are applied 2H. RIGID JOINTS BETWEEN PRECAST UNITS ■ SYMPTOMS – Cracking or spalling ■ PREVENTION – Designs utilizing precast elements must provide for movement between adjacent precast elements or between the precast elements and the supporting frame 15SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  16. 16. 2I. UNANTICIPATED SHEAR STRESSES IN PIERS, COLUMNS, OR ABUTMENTS ■ CAUSES – Lack of maintenance – Freezing of expansion bearing assembles causing horizontal loading to be transferred to the concrete elements supporting the bearings ■ SYMPTOMS – Cracking of concrete – Entry of water into the concrete 2J. INADEQUATE JOINT SPACING IN SLABS ■ SYMPTOMS – Cracking of slabs-on-grade 16SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  17. 17. 17 INSUFFICIENT REINFORCEMENT AT CORNERS AND OPENINGS INADEQUATE PROVISION FOR DEFLECTION INADEQUATE PROVISION FOR DRAINAGE BLUETSHUMI ABRUPT CHANGE IN SECTION INSUFFICIENTTRAVEL IN EXPANSION JOINTS SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  18. 18. CONSTRUCTION ERRORS Mistakes or inadequacies in a structure's own construction damage it partly or completely 18SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  19. 19. CAUSES ■ May occur due to failure to follow specified procedures and good practice or outright carelessness ■ May not lead to failure or deterioration of concrete ■ May have adverse impact on the structure with time 19SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  20. 20. TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION ERRORS 20SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  21. 21. TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION ERRORS 1. AddingWater to Concrete 2. ImproperAlignment of Formwork 3. ImproperConsolidation or Compaction of Concrete A. Bug Holes B. Honeycombing C. Over-consolidation 4. ImproperCuring 5. Improper Location of ReinforcementSteel 21 6. Movement of Formwork 7. Premature Removal of Shores or Reshores 8. Settling of Concrete 9. Settling of the Subgrade 10. Vibration of Freshly Placed Concrete 11. Improper Finishing of FlatConcrete Surface SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  22. 22. 1. ADDING WATERTO CONCRETE 22 CAUSES EFFECTS Addition of water to the concrete in a delivery truck to increase slump and decrease pouring or placement effort • Concrete with lowered strength and reduced durability • W/c ratio of the concrete increases, the strength and durability will decrease Water is commonly added during finishing of structural member Scaling, crazing, and dusting of the concrete SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  23. 23. 2. IMPROPER ALIGNMENT OF FORMWORK ■ EFFECTS – Discontinuities on the surface of the concrete  These discontinuities are unsightly in all circumstances  Their occurrence may be more critical in areas that are subjected to high velocity flow of water, where cavitation-erosion may be induced, or in lock chambers where the “rubbing” surfaces must be straight 23SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  24. 24. 3. IMPROPER CONSOLIDATION OR COMPACTION OF CONCRETE ■ EFFECTS – Improper compaction of concrete may result in a variety of defects, the most common being bug holes, honeycombing, and cold joints 24 BUG HOLES HONEYCOMBING OVER- CONSOLIDATION SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  25. 25. These can be reduced by inserting the vibrator more frequently, and as close as possible to the form face without touching the form, and slower withdrawal of the vibrator. Obviously, any or all of these defects make it much easier for any damage-causing mechanism to initiate deterioration of the concrete. It is usually defined as a situation in which the consolidation effort causes all of the coarse aggregate to settle to the bottom while the paste rises to the surface. If this situation occurs, it is reasonable to conclude that there is a problem of a poorly proportioned concrete rather than too much consolidation. 25 These are formed when small pockets of air or water are trapped against the forms. A change in the mixture to make it less “sticky” or the use of small vibrators worked near the form has been used to help eliminate bug holes. 3A BUG HOLES 3B HONEYCOMBING 3C OVER-CONSOLIDATION SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  26. 26. 4. IMPROPER CURING Curing is probably the most abused aspect of the concrete construction process. Unless concrete is given adequate time to cure at a proper humidity and temperature, it will not develop the characteristics that are expected and that are necessary to provide durability. ■ SYMPTOMS – Various types of cracking and surface disintegration – Failure to achieve anticipated concrete strengths, structural cracking may occur 26SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  27. 27. 5. IMPROPER LOCATION OF REINFORCING STEEL ■ CAUSE – This section refers to reinforcing steel that is improperly located or is not adequately secured in the proper location ■ EFFECTS – First, the steel may not function structurally as intended, resulting in structural cracking or failure. E.g.is the placement of welded wire mesh in floor slabs. In many cases, the mesh ends up on the bottom of the slab which will subsequently crack because the steel is not in the proper location – The second type of problem stemming from improperly located or tied reinforcing steel is one of durability. The tendency seems to be for the steel to end up near the surface of the concrete. As the concrete cover over the steel is reduced, it is much easier for corrosion to begin 27SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  28. 28. 6. MOVEMENT OF FORMWORK ■ CAUSE – Movement of formwork during the period while the concrete is going from a fluid to a rigid material may induce cracking and separation within the concrete ■ EFFECTS – A crack open to the surface will allow access of water to the interior of the concrete. – An internal void may give rise to freezing or corrosion problems if the void becomes saturated 28SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  29. 29. 7. PREMATURE REMOVAL OF SHORES OR RESHORES ■ CAUSE – If shores or reshores are removed too soon, the concrete affected may become overstressed and cracked ■ EFFECTS – In extreme cases there may be major failures 29SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  30. 30. 8. SETTLING OFTHE CONCRETE ■ CAUSE – During the period between placing and initial setting of the concrete, the heavier components of the concrete will settle under the influence of gravity – This situation may be aggravated by the use of highly fluid concretes ■ EFFECTS – If any restraint tends to prevent this settling, cracking or separations may result. – These cracks or separations may also develop problems of corrosion or freezing if saturated 30SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  31. 31. 9. SETTLING OFTHE SUBGRADE ■ CAUSE – Settling of the subgrade during the period after the concrete begins to become rigid but before it gains enough strength to support its own weight ■ EFFECTS – Cracking may also occur – Sags and Humps (Localized Depressions) may occur 31SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  32. 32. 10.VIBRATION OF FRESHLY PLACED CONCRETE ■ CAUSE – Most construction sites are subjected to vibration from various sources, such as blasting, pile driving, and from the operation of construction equipment. Freshly placed concrete is vulnerable to weakening of its properties. ■ EFFECTS – If subjected to forces, concrete matrix may disrupt during setting 32SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  33. 33. 11. IMPROPER FINISHING OF FLAT CONCRETE SURFACE A. Adding water to the surface: Evidence that water is being added to the surface is the presence of a large paint brush, along with other finishing tools.The brush is dipped in water and water is “slung” onto the surface being finished. B. Timing of finishing: Final finishing operations must be done after the concrete has taken its initial set and bleeding has stopped.The waiting period depends on the amounts of water, cement, and admixtures in the mixture but primarily on the temperature of the concrete surface. On a partially shaded slab, the part in the sun will usually be ready to finish before the part in the shade. 33SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  34. 34. 11. IMPROPER FINISHING OF FLAT CONCRETE SURFACE C. Adding cement to the surface:This practice is often done to dry up bleed water to allow finishing to proceed and will result in a thin cement-rich coating which will craze or flake off easily. D. Use of tamper: A tamper or “jitterbug” is unnecessarily used on many jobs.This tool forces the coarse aggregate away from the surface and can make finishing easier.This practice, however, creates a cement-rich mortar surface layer which can scale or craze.A jitterbug should not be allowed with a well designed mixture. If a harsh mixture must be finished, the judicious use of a jitterbug could be useful. E. Jointing:The most frequent cause of cracking in flatwork is the incorrect spacing and location of joints. 34SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  35. 35. 35 MOVEMENT OF FORMWORK SETTLING OF CONCRETE SETTLING OF SUBGRADE IMPROPER FINISHING OF FLAT CONCRETE SURFACE IMPROPER CURING- PLASTIC SHRINKAGE SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  36. 36. EFFECT OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ERRORS ON REPAIR & REHABILITATION 36SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  37. 37. 37 S.NO. DESIGN ERRORS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONTECHNIQUES 1. Inadequate Structural Design • Plate Bonding Method • RC Jacketing of beams & columns with RCC • Strengthening by Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) 2. Poor Design Details • RC Jacketing • Increase in longitudinal reinforcement 2A Abrupt Changes in Section • Providing struts for span reduction of beam • Concrete strengthening 2B Insufficient Reinforcement at Corners and Openings • Installing Ferro-cement plates at corners • Providing vertical reinforcement at corners, junction of walls 2C Inadequate Provision for Deflection Rebuilding portions of the wall 2D Inadequate Provision for Drainage • Fixing of drainage pipes • Drainage of sloped roof with tiles • Waterproofing • Correction of floor leaks & traps SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  38. 38. 38 S.NO. DESIGN ERRORS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONTECHNIQUES 2E Insufficient travel in expansion joints Repair or replace expansion joints 2F Incompatibility of materials • Grout injection • Concrete ring beams & roof & floor substitution • Bond coats 2G Neglect of Creep Effect • Bed Joints Reinforcement Technique • Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite (CFRP) 2H Rigid Joints Between Precast Units Shear Keys/ Mechanical Anchors 2I Unanticipated Shear Stresses in Piers, Columns, or Abutments • Cutting new expansion joints, jacking structure, isolation bearings, removal of portions of structure • Providing struts for span reduction of beam • Reducing dead loads and live loads 2J Inadequate Joint Spacing in Slabs • External stressing • FRP Method • Plate Bonding SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  39. 39. 39 S.NO. CONSTRUCTION ERRORS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONTECHNIQUES 1. Adding Water to Concrete • Epoxy Coating (Epoxy Resin + Hardener) • Polymer Resin based Coating • Shotcrete/ Gunite 2. Improper Alignment of Formwork • Shear Keys • Preformed Foam Gaskets • Cast In Place Foam 3 Improper Consolidation or Compaction of Concrete Fibre Reinforced Concrete 3A Bug Holes Epoxy Resin 3B Honeycombing • Polymer Modified Cement Mortar (PMM) • Polyester Putty • Epoxy putty • Emulsified Styrene Butadiene Rubber(SBR) Polymer 3C Over-consolidation • Polymer Modified Cement Mortar (PMM) • Polymer Modified Concrete (PMC) • Epoxy Resin SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  40. 40. 40 S.NO. CONSTRUCTION ERRORS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONTECHNIQUES 4. Improper Curing • Elastomeric sealer • ‘Flexible’ epoxy filler • Membrane or special mortar • Strengthening by Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) 5. Improper Location of Reinforcement Steel • Introducing new reinforcement bars for structural connections • Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) for durability 6. Movement of Formwork • Coarse aggregate and grout • Dry-pack • Waterproofing by Acrylic Polymer or SBR Polymer 7. Premature Removal of Shores or Reshores • Cutting new expansion joints, jacking structure, isolation bearings, removal of portions of structure • Caulking for live cracks SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  41. 41. 41 S.NO. CONSTRUCTION ERRORS REPAIR & REHABILITATIONTECHNIQUES 8. Settling ofThe Concrete • Fusion Bonded Epoxy Powder Coatings (FBEC) • Cathodic Protection • Chloride Removal • Realkalisation • Epoxy • FRP Strengthening 9. Settling ofThe Subgrade • Patching with Base Repair • Overlay Patches • Grader Patching 10. Vibration of Freshly Placed Concrete • Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) • Re-concreting • Hardened Cement Paste (HCP) 11. Improper Finishing of Flat Concrete Surface • Polymer Modified Cement Mortar (PMM) with Bond Coat • Shotcrete with Finishing Plaster and Water Curing • Polyurethane Coat SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  42. 42. CONCLUSION ■ A structure, if regularly maintained, will not need extensive repair and rehabilitation and the cost of the same would also go down. ■ Design errors' onset is during the stage of planning. These can be prevented by careful and thorough inspection of drawing at each stage. ■ Construction errors' commence during the stage of execution and can be controlled by inspection, excepting when environmental factors govern the error. ■ Even after the identification of repair/rehabilitation method, it is significant to know the specifications of the materials to be used, so that these can be altered depending upon the need. 42SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
  43. 43. REFERENCES ■ http://theconstructor.org/concrete/design-detailing-errors-concrete-construction/8190/ ■ http://theconstructor.org/concrete/construction-errors-during-concreting-at-site/8184/ ■ http://nairaproject.com/projects/080.html ■ Concrete Problems & RepairTechniques- Professor Khaled A. Soudki, Peng ■ CPWD Handbook on Repair & Rehabilitation of RCC Buildings ■ Repair & Rehabilitation of Structures- Prof. M.Vijayalakshmi ■ WSDOT Maintenance Manual- Chapter 3- Page 3 to 28 43SRISHTIWAKHLOO B.TECH CE (HONS.) https://in.linkedin.com/in/srishti-wakhloo
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The ultimate guide to design and construction errors that has been compiled after visiting many websites and reading books.

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