• Culture is understood as the customs,beliefs,norms and values that guide the
behavior of people in a society and that are passed on from one generation to the
• "Culture encompasses religion, food, what we wear, how we wear it, our language,
marriage, music, what we believe is right or wrong, how we sit at the table, how we
greet visitors, how we behave with loved ones, and a million other things,“
• Norms. Norms are informal, unwritten rules that govern social behaviors.
• Rituals & Ceremony.
• Cross culture is a concept that recognizes the differences among
business people of different nations, backgrounds. and ethnicities,
and the importance of bridging them. With globalization, cross
culture education has become critically important to businesses.
THEORIES OF CROSS CULTURE
1 •GLOBE THEORY
2 •HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS
3 •TROMPENAARS FRAMEWORK
GLOBE(GLOBAL LEADERSHIP & ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOUR EFFECTIVENESS) THEORY
❑Globe Project Team Comprises 170 Researchers Who have
Collected data over Seven Years on Cultural Values and
Practices and Leadership Attributes from 17,Ooo Managers in 62
Countries ,Covering as Many as 825 Organizations Spread
Across the Globe .The Research Team Identified Nine Cultural
Dimensions that Distinguish One Society from another and have
Important Managerial Implications
❑Globe’s Ranking is Highly helpful to International Managers
Who are Seeking to be Successful in Cross Cultural Settings.
NINE CULTURAL DIMENSIONS
❖ POWER DISTANCE
❖ UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
❖ FUTURE ORIENTATIONAL
❖ PERFORMANCE ORIENTATION
❖ HUMAN ORIENTATION
❖ GENDER DIFFERENTIATION
❖ IN-GROUP COLLECTIVISM
HOFSTEDE'S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS
• Psychologist Dr Geert Hofstede published his cultural dimensions model at the end of the 1970s,
based on a decade of research. Since then, it's become an internationally recognized standard for
understanding cultural differences.
• Hofstede studied people who worked for IBM in more than 50 countries. Initially, he identified four
dimensions that could distinguish one culture from another. Later, he added fifth and sixth
dimensions, in cooperation with Drs Michael H. Bond and Michael Minkov. These are:
• Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed
by Geert Hofstede.
• lt describes the effects of a society’s culture on the values of its members, and how these values
relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.
❑ Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner developed the model after spending 10 years
researching the preferences and values of people in dozens of cultures around the world.
As part of this, they sent questionnaires to more than 46,000 managers in 40 countries.
❑ They found that people from different cultures aren't just randomly different from one
another; they differ in very specific, even predictable, ways. This is because each culture
has its own way of thinking, its own values and beliefs, and different preferences placed on
a variety of different factors.
❑ You can use the model to understand people from different cultural backgrounds better, so
that you can prevent misunderstandings and enjoy a better working relationship with them.
This is especially useful if you do business with people from around the world, or if you
manage a diverse group of people.
❑ Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner concluded that what distinguishes people from one
culture compared with another is where these preferences fall in one of the following
• Recruitment attracts a large number of qualified applicants who desire to work in a company.
• Recruitment means searching for prospective candidates and stimulating them to apply for jobs
• Dowling defined “ recruitment is searching for and obtaining potential job candidates in
sufficient number and quality so that the organization can select the most appropriate people to
fill its job needs”.
• Globalization has created the need for management talent with knowledge of local markets
• Sometimes the most qualified candidates are not found within the limits of one’s own country
• Beyond the wider applicant pool hiring outside of your own country is called global recruitment.
MODERN SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT BY COUNTRY
• Parent country
are citizens of
• HOST COUNTRY
NATIONALS are the
employees of the
subsidiary who are
the citizens of the
country where the
subsidiary is located
• THIRD COUNTRY
NATIONALS IS AN
employee of a
in a country,which
is not his home
• Managers are
lying within the
• MOST APPROPRIATE
FOR JOBS FROM ANY PART
OF THE GLOBE
• HCN ARE
•PCN’S are selected
SELECTION CRITERIA FOR INTERNATIONAL
ADAPTABILITY TO CULTURAL
LEADERSHIP IN IHRM
MOTIVATION FOR FOREIGN
CULTURES AND VALUES
Values guide decision-making and a sense of what’s important
and what’s right. Culture is the collection of business practices,
processes, and interactions that make up the work environment.