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Bioethanol production

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its about how bioethanol can be used an alternative fuel option

Publicada em: Tecnologia
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Bioethanol production

  1. 1. Bioethanol PRESENTED BY :- NANKITA 14ECP006 SMIRITI 14ECP015 M.TECH( ECE)
  2. 2. CONTENTS i. Bioethanol ii. Properties iii. Production Processes iv. Application v. Advantages vi. Disadvantages and Concerns vii. Comparison of Bioethanol and Biodiesel viii.Future development ix. References
  3. 3. What is Bioethanol ? Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn or sugarcane. Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production
  4. 4. CO2 Cycle For Bio Ethanol
  5. 5. Bioethanol Properties • Colorless and clear liquid • Used to substitute petrol fuel for road transport vehicles • One of the widely used alternative automotive fuel in the world (Brazil & U.S.A are the largest ethanol producers) • Much more environmentally friendly • Lower toxicity level • The principle fuel used as a petrol substitute is bioethanol • Bioethanol fuel is mainly produced by the sugar or cellulose fermentation process • Bioethanol is an alternative to gasoline for flexi fuel vehicles.Ethanol is a high octane fuel and has replaced lead as an octane enhancer in petrol.
  6. 6. Bioethanol Production • Wheat/Grains/Corn/Sugar-cane can be used to produce ethanol. (Basically, any plants that composed largely of sugars) • Bioethanol is mainly produced in three ways. • Sugar ethanol • starch sugar ethanol • cellulose and hemicellulose ethanol
  7. 7. Bioethanol Production Processes •Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis •Dilute Acid Hydrolysis •Wet milling process •Dry milling process •Sugar fermentation •Fractional Distillation Process •
  8. 8. Bioethanol Production Chemical reaction 1 The fructose and glucose sugars react with zymase to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. Chemical reaction 2 Fermentation process requires 3 days to complete and is carried out at a temperature of between 250°C and 300°C.
  9. 9. Conversion of starch to sugar and then sugar to ethanol Eg:-1) Wheat Fermentation conditions Temperature - 32˚C and 35˚C pH - 5.2.  Ethanol is produced at 10-15% concentration and the solution is distilled to produce ethanol at higher concentrations
  10. 10. Eg:- 2) Sugar cane Simplest of all the processes • Fermentation conditions are similar to the above process
  11. 11. Ethanol can be produced from a variety of feedstocks such as sugar cane, bagasse, sugar beet, grass, potatoes, fruit, molasses corn, stover, wheat, straw, other biomass, as well as many types of cellulose waste and harvestings Agricultural feedstocks are considered renewable because they get energy from the sun using photosynthesis Cornfield in South Africa Sugar cane harvest grass Contd.
  12. 12. The top fiveethanol producerstill 2010 Brazil - 16500 billion liters The United States -16270 billion liters China - 2000 billion liters The European Union - 950 billion liters India - 300 billion liters
  13. 13. Consumption of Ethanol in India
  14. 14. Application • transport fuel to replace gasoline • fuel for power generation by thermal combustion • fuel for fuel cells by thermochemical reaction • fuel in cogeneration systems • feedstock in the chemicals industry
  15. 15. Advantages • Exhaust gases of ethanol are cleaner due to complete combustion. • Ethanol-blended fuels such as E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) reduce up to 37.1% of GHGs. • Output of energy during the production is more than the input. • Any plant containing sugar/ starch can be use for production of bioethanol . • Carbon neutral i.e. CO2 released in bioethanol production process = one the crops previously absorbed during photosynthesis.
  16. 16. • Decrease in ozone formation • Renewable energy resource • Energy security • Reduces the amount of high-octane additives • Fuel spills are more easily biodegraded or diluted to non toxic concentrations.
  17. 17. Disadvantages and Concerns • Biodiversity • A large amount of arable land is required to grow crops, natural habitats would be destroyed • Food vs. Fuel debate • due to the lucrative prices of bioethanol some farmers may sacrifice food crops for biofuel production which will increase food prices around the world • Carbon emissions (controversial) • During production of bioethanol, huge amount of carbon dioxide is released • Emission of GHGs from production of bioethanol is comparable to the emissions of internal-combustion engines
  18. 18. Disadvantages and Concerns • Not as efficient as petroleum • energy content of the petrol is much higher than bioethanol • its energy content is 70% of that of petrol • Engines made for working on Bioethanol cannot be used for petrol or diesel • Due to high octane number of bioethanol, they can be burned in the engines with much higher compression ratio • Used of phosphorous and nitrogen in the production • negative effect on the environment • Cold start difficulties • pure ethanol is difficult to vaporise
  19. 19. Disadvantages and Concerns • Transportation • ethanol is hygroscopic, it absorbs water from the air and thus has high corrosion aggressiveness • Can only be transported by auto transport or railroad • Many older cars unequipped to handle even 10% ethanol • Negatively affect electric fuel pumps by increasing internal wear and undesirable spark generation
  20. 20. Comparisonof Bioethanoland Biodiesel Bioethanol Biodiesel Process Dry-mill method: yeast, sugars and starch are fermented. From starch, it is fermented into sugar, afterwards it is fermented again into alcohol. Transesterification: methyl esters and glycerin which are not good for engines, are left behind. Environmental Benefit Both reduce greenhouse gas emissions as biofuels are primarily derived from crops which absorb carbon dioxide. Compatibility ethanol has to be blended with fossil fuel like gasoline, hence only compatible with selected gasoline powered automobiles. Able to run in any diesel generated engines Costs Cheaper More expensive Gallons per acre 420 gallons of ethanol can be generated per acre 60 gallons of biodiesel per acre soybeans cost of soybean oil would significantly increase if biodiesel production is increased as well. Energy provides 93% more net energy per gallon produces only 25% more net energy. Greenhouse- gas Emissions (GHG) 12% less greenhouse gas emission than the production and combustion of regular diesel 41% less compared to conventional gasoline.
  21. 21. Social impacts • Employment for locals • Brazilian sugarcane industry poor record in respecting worker’s rights. • Expansion in sugar cane cultivation may increase food prices. • increased the wealth of the sugar and alcohol sector’s industries, the poor to deal with negative impacts.
  22. 22. Future Scope • For bioethanol to become more sustainable to replace petrol, production process has to be more efficient • Reducing cost of conversion • Increasing yields • Increase the diversity of crop used • As microbes are use to convert glucose into sugar which is ferment in bioethanol • Microbiology and biotechnology will be helpful in the genetic engineering
  23. 23. References www.googleimage.com/bioethanol www.slideshare.com/bioethanol www.wikipedia.com/bioethanol Philippidis, G. P., and Smith, T, K, 1995, Limiting factors in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process for conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 51/52:117-124. DEMiRBA AYHAN “Bioethanol from Cellulosic Materials” 2005 Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey

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