Communication is the life source for any organization.
All the functions of management can only be
performed with effective communication.
It is vital for controlling and directing in the
Communication is derived from latin word
“communis” which means common.
Communication is exchange of ideas,facts,
opinions or emotions by two or more persons.
Neuman,Summer and warren
4. Features of communication
The sailent features of communication
Communication involves at least two
people;one who sends the message and the
second who receives message.
It is a two way process and the process does
not completed until the message has been
understood by the receiver.
It is to create the understanding in the mind
of the receiver of information
5. Features of communication….
It will be in various forms :
so and so on.
The message may be conveyed through words
spoken or written or guestures .
6. Purposes of Communication
Provides channel to establish and dissemniates the
Aids in management and utilization of manpower
and other resources in the most effective and
It helps manages lead ,direct and motivate staff to
contribute right things.
Facilitates in the development of plans for the
achievement of goals.
7. Communication Process
Communication is a complex process that many
models exist to explain how individuals and
Basic elements to common to most models are
sender,message channel and receiver .
8. Communication Process…
The communication is a dynamic process that
begins with the conceptualizing of ideas by the
sender who then encodes the message through a
channel to the receiver.
The receiver is the person who decodes his/her
own idea and in turn gives the feedback to the
9. Communication Process..;
There are eight major elements of communication
1.Sender: The sender or the communicator is the
person who initiates the conversation and has
conceptualized the idea that he intends to convey
it to others.
2.Encoding: The sender begins with the encoding
process wherein he uses certain words or non-
verbal methods such as symbols, signs, body
10. Communication Process
3.Message: Once the encoding is finished, the
sender gets the message that he intends to convey.
4.Channel: The Sender chooses the medium
through which he wants to convey his message to
11. Communication Process
5.Receiver: The receiver is the person for whom the message
is intended or targeted.
The degree to which the receiver decodes the message
depends on his knowledge of the subject matter,
experience, trust and relationship with the sender.
6.Decoding: Here, the receiver interprets the sender’s
message and tries to understand it in the best possible
12. Communication Process
7.Feedback: The Feedback is the final step of the
process that ensures the receiver has received the
message and interpreted it correctly as it was intended
by the sender.
8.Noise: It represents the disturbing factor in the
process of communication.
It interferes with effective communication and reduces
clarity of the message.
13. Barriers in communication…
1.Semantic Barrier :
Semantics is the study of words and their
Problems arising on account of transmission of
meanings are semantic problems.
Different words mean different things to different
Around 500 words in English language have about
25 definitions each. It is natural, therefore, that
they are interpreted differently.
14. Barriers in communication
2. Psychological Barriers:
Psychological barriers are the major source of
Psychological factors represent people’s state of
We all are receptive to information when we are
15. Barriers in communication
Some of the common psychological
barriers are as follows:
Filtering means manipulating information
in a way that only favourable information
is sent to the receiver.
16. Barriers in communication
Communication based on assumptions is bad
iii. Degree of Trust and Openness:
Worth of the message depends upon worth of the
sender. A manager perceived by his subordinates
as knowledgeable, trustworthy, sincere, concerned
about welfare of others, fair in taking decisions will
be rated high by them.
17. Barriers in communication
Communication in the environment of threat, fear,
punishment and penalties is a barrier to effective
Emotions—feeling of love, threat, compassion,
anger, jealousy, embarrassment, etc. largely affect
senders and receiver’s encoding and decoding of
18. Barriers in communication
Perception is individuals’ feeling, knowledge and
understanding of the subject-matter conveyed.
People with different cultural, educational and
emotional backgrounds understand the message
19. Barriers in communication…
Noise is the disturbing element that obstructs free flow of
It is “interference that occurs in a signal and prevents you
from hearing sounds properly.”
20. Barriers in communication…
viii. Poor Listening:
Listening is different from hearing. We do not listen when
we are preoccupied with other thoughts and engagements.
ix. Poor Retention:
Human mind cannot retain all that is communicated to
him orally. He tends to forget part of the information
because of his limited retention capacity.
21. Barriers in communication…
x. Resistance to Change:
Organizations operate in the changing, dynamic
When managers introduce change in people,
technology or structure and announce it to
organizational members, it may involve change
in their social or emotional set up.
22. Barriers in communication…
xi. Closeness of Mind:
Some people are not open to new ideas, persuasion
They prefer to work along pre-defined courses of
action and are not willing to listen to others.
On being offered suggestions, they may react
negatively, “I know how to do my work. I’m
experienced enough in this trade.
23. Barriers in communication…
xii. Attitudinal Barriers:
These barriers arise because of problems with staff
in the organization .
The personal attitudes of individual employees may
be due to lack of motivation or dissatisfaction at
work, brought about by insufficient training to
enable them to carry out particular tasks or just
resistance to change due to entrenched attitudes and
25. 5.Mechanical Barriers:
Where the very mechanism through which
communication passes fails, the message may not
teach the intended person in the intended form and
26. Organizational Barriers: It refers to hindrance in
flow of information among employes that results in
commercial failure of organization.
27. Elements of effective communication…
(a)Clarity of message
(b)Clarity of objectives of communication
(C)Use of Two way communication
(d)Adequacy and Completeness
h) Eleminating Differnces in perception
28. Elements of effective communication…
( i)Use of simple languge
(J) Noise reduction
(K)Avoid of overloading of message
(L) Select appropriate appraisal
(M) Flexibilty in meeting the targets
( N) Use of multiple choice question
( O) Be Confident
29. Group Dynamics
A group is number of person who communicate with
one one another often over a span of time and who are
few enough so that each person is able to
communicate with all the others , not at second hand,
through other people , but face to face.
30. Group Dynamics…
Group dynamics is the coined by two words : group and
Group is social unit two or more individuals who have in
common a set of beliefs and values and follow same norms and
works to achieve common aim.
Dynamics is the flow of coherent activites which is
envisaged,will lead the establishment of its set goals.
The word ‘dyanmics’is Greek word which means study of
Group dynamics is the interaction between people who are
talking together in group setting.
31. Group Dynamics…
Need For a group
The task in health organization are becoming more work.
Group help in making participative management more
An individual cannot perform each and every task ,group
efforts are required for its completion.
A group can judge in a better way as compared to an
In a group ,individuals communicate with each other
,discuss their work prefoormance and take suggestions.
33. Types of Groups
Formal groups are created to achieve specific
Usually, are concerned with the coordination of the
People are brought together on the basis of different
roles within the structure of the organization.
The nature of the task to be undertaken is a
predominant feature of the formal groups.
Goals are identified by management and short and
rules relationship and norms of behavior established.
34. Types of Groups…
The formal structure of the organization and system of
role relationship, rule, and procedures, will be
augmented by interpretation and development at the
Informal groups are based more on personal
relationships and agreement of group’s members than
on defined role relationships.
They serve to Satisfy psychological and social needs
not related necessarily to the tasks to be undertaken.
35. Types of Groups…
(C) Goal Group
The goal group acts together to achieve a shared
objective or desired outcome.
( d)Friendship Group
Groups often develop because individual members
have one or more common characteristics.
36. Types of Groups…
A group that seeks to influence public policy on the
basis of particular common intrest.
Reference groups are the group to which individual or
another group is compared .
37. Functions of Group…
Initiating: Proposing tasks and goals, defining
the problesolutions all help to give direction and
purpose to a groupms, suggesting procedures and.
Information seeking: Requesting relevant facts
and soliciting clarification helps groups gather
information, and makes them aware of what
information is needed.
38. Information giving: Offering relevant facts, and
sorting out biases and opinions from facts, helps to
provide useful information.
Opinion seeking: Asking for opinions or feelings
on a topic can test for unity, and helps groups
understand an issue more deeply.
Clarifying: Defining terms, interpreting ideas,
indicating issues and alternatives helps to
39. Elaborating: Giving examples, developing meanings and
explaining help reduce ambiguity and illustrate consequences
of plans and positions.
Coordinating: Suggesting ways to handle a problem or
process can help harmonise conflicting issues, or help a group
make tough choices.
Developing procedures: Suggesting agendas and discussion
formats helps meetings to become more efficient.
Summarising: Pulling together related issues or
contradictions, restating and identifying conclusions all focus
discussions, and keep groups
40. Facilitating communication: Drawing out silent
members and suggesting procedures for
discussions helps keep groups open and promotes
Setting standards and goals: Identifying
common concerns and outlining standards for the
group to achieve, helps groups to enact direction
and follow progress.
41. Functions of Group…
Encouraging: Being friendly, warm or responsive, and
eliciting others' contributions all help to bring out opinions
and give recognition.
Expressing feelings: Expressing feelings, restating others'
feelings, and getting people to label their own helps groups
Having fun: Joking, breaks and games all help to diffuse
tensions, allow groups to express feelings, and create a
lively social setting.
Compromising: Offering or accepting compromises,
yielding status, or admitting error, all help to build trust
42. Interpreting: Paraphrasing often helps to explain and
interpret, creating greater understanding.
listening: Actively listening to others builds trust,
gathers information, and promotes mutual respect.
Following: Accepting and appreciating the ideas of
others, and going along with the group promotes
Declaring success: Noticing successes, even small
ones, helps groups develop self-confidence and
43. Functions of Group…
SELF INTREST FUNCTION
Activities that identify self-interest behaviour are as
a) Dominating and by displaying lack of respect for
others, cutting them off, controlling: not listening,
and restating other members’ suggestions with a
b) Blocking: by stifling a line of thought, and
changing the topic either away from the point of view
or back to his or her own interest.
44. c) Manipulating: by providing self-serving
information, or a single point of view designed to
achieve a decision that is consistent with their
d) Belittling: through put-downs, sneering at
other’s point of view, or making jokes about
another member’s contribution.
e) Splitting hairs: by nit-picking, searching for
insignificant details that delay a solution, or
45. Group Development
Group Development refers to forming the
association of people to work as group and
direct their action towards their
accomplishment of human goal.
46. Group Development Theories
Social exchange theory
According to this theory, individuals form
relationships based on the implicit expectation of
mutually beneficial exchanges based on trust and felt
47. Group Development…
A classic theory, developed by George Homans,
suggests that groups develop based on activities,
interactions, and sentiments.
Basically, the theory means that when individuals
share common activities, they will have more
interaction and will develop attitudes (positive or
negative) toward each other.
48. Group Development…
Social identity theory offers another explanation for
Simply put, this theory suggests that individuals get a
sense of identity and self-esteem based upon their
membership in salient groups.
The nature of the group may be demographically
based, culturally based, or organizationally based.
49. Group Development…
According to Tuckman's theory, there are five stages
of group development: Forming,Storming,
Norming, Performing, and Adjourning.
1. Forming: At this first stage of development,
members are preoccupied with familiarizing
themselves with the task and to other members of the
50. Group Development…
2. Storming: At this stage, the group encounters
conflict as members confront and criticize each other
and the approach the group is taking to their task.
3. Norming: At this point, members start to resolve the
issues that are creating the conflict and begin to
develop their social agreements
51. Group Development…
4. Performing: When the group has sorted out its social
structure and understands its goals and individual
roles, it will move toward accomplishing its task.
Mutual assistance and creativity become prominent
themes at this stage.
52. Group Development…
5. Adjourning: During this phase, the group will
resort to some form of closure that includes rites
and rituals suitable to the event. These may
include socials and parties, or ceremonies that
exhibit emotional support .
53. Group Development…
Tubbs' systems model
Stewart Tubbs "systems" approach to studying small
group interaction led him to the creation of a four-
phase model of group development:
In this stage, group members get to know each other,
they start to talk about the problem, and they examine
the limitations and opportunities of the project.
54. Group Development…
Conflict is a necessary part of a group's development.
Conflict allows the group to evaluate ideas and it
helps the group conformity and groupthink.
Conflict ends in the consensus stage, when group
members compromise, select ideas, and agree on
In this stage, the final result is announced and group
members reaffirm their support of the decision.
55. Group Development…
Fisher's theory of decision emergence in groups
Fisher outlines four phases through which task
groups tend to proceed when engaged in decision
By observing the distribution of act-response pairs
(a.k.a. "interacts") across different moments of the
group process, Fisher noted how the interaction
changed as the group decision was formulated and
56. Group Development…
During the orientation phase, group members get to
know each other and they experience a primary
tension: the awkward feeling people have before
communication rules and expectations are established
The conflict phase is marked by secondary tension, or
tension surrounding the task at hand. Group members
will disagree with each other and debate ideas.
57. Group Development…
In the emergence phase, the outcome of the group's
task and its social structure become apparent. Group
members soften their positions and undergo an
attitudinal change that makes them less tenacious in
defending their individual viewpoint.
In this stage, group members bolster their final
decision by using supportive verbal and nonverbal
58. Group Development…
Poole's multiple-sequences model
Poole suggests three activity tracks: task progress,
relational, and topical focus.
Interspersed with these are breakpoints, marking
changes in the development of strands and links
Normal breakpoints pace the discussion with topic
shifts and adjournments.
Delays, another breakpoint, are holding patterns of
recycling through information.
59. Group Development…
The task track concerns the process by which the
group accomplishes its goals, such as dealing doing
problem analysis, designing solutions, etc.
The relation track deals with the interpersonal
relationships between the group members. At times,
the group may stop its work on the task and work
instead on its relationships, share personal information
or engage in joking.
60. Group Development…
The topic track includes a series of issues or concerns
the group have over time
Breakpoints occur when a group switches from one
track to another. Shifts in the conversation,
adjournment, or postponement are examples of
61. Group Development…
McGrath's (1991) work emphasized the notion that
different teams might follow different developmental
paths to reach the same outcome.
He also suggested that teams engage in four modes of
group activity: inception, technical problem solving,
conflict resolution, and execution.
62. Group Development…
Mode I: Inception
Inception and acceptance of a project (goal choice)
Mode II: Technical Problem Solving
Solution of technical issues (means choice)
Mode III: Conflict Resolution
Resolution of conflict, that is, of political issues (policy
Mode IV: Execution
Execution of the performance requirements of the project
63. Group Development…
Wheelan's integrated model of group
In this model, "early" stages of group
development are associated with specific issues
and patterns of talk such as those related to
dependency, counter-dependency, and trust which
precede the actual work conducted during the
"more mature” stages of a group's life.
64. Group Development…
Stage I Dependency and Inclusion
In this stage, members rely on the leader and
powerful group members to provide direction. Team
members may engage in what has been called
“pseudo-work,” such as exchanging stories about
outside activities or other topics that are not relevant
to group goals.
65. Group Development…
Stage II Counterdependency and Fight
Conflict is an inevitable part of this process. The
group's task at Stage 2 is to develop a unified set of
goals, values, and operational procedures, and this
task inevitably generates some conflict.
Conflict also is necessary for the establishment of
trust and a climate in which members feel free to
disagree with each other.
66. Group Development…
Stage III Trust / Structure
This third stage of group development, referred to as
the trust and structure stage, is characterized by more
mature negotiations about roles, organization, and
It is also a time in which members work to solidify
positive working relationships with each other.
67. Group Development…
Stage IV Work / Productivity
As its name implies, the fourth stage of group
development is a time of intense team productivity
and effectiveness. Having resolved many of the issues
of the previous stages, the group can focus most of its
energy on goal achievement and task accomplishment
68. Group Development…
Groups that have a distinct ending point experience a
Impending termination may cause disruption and
conflict in some groups.
In other groups, separation issues are addressed, and
members' appreciation of each other and the group
experience may be expressed.
69. Group Norms…
Types of Norms
Norms may be positive or negative.Other types of
These norms determine how quickly members should
work and how much they should produce.They are in
an effort to determine level of individual effort.
These norms determine how rewards are bestoed upon
70. Group Norms…
The Norm of Equality
It dictates equal treatment of all members.Every member share
equally to rewards are distributed equally to everyone.
These suggest that rewards are distributed according to the
member’s contribution.In other words,members who contribute
to most receive the largest share of the rewards.
71. Group Norms…
Behavior norms are rules that standardize how
individual act while working on day to day basis.
Social Responsibilty Norms
These norms reward on the basis of need. Memebers
who have special needs therefore receive the largest
share of the reward.
72. Group Norms…
Characeterstics of Norms
Norms should be appropriate in order for the behavior
to be accepted .
They should be social and far in nature.
There must be shared understanding that the group
supports the norms.
Change the norms if the majority of members do not
adhere to it.
73. Group Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness is attraction of members towards the
group or resistance of the members leaving it.It refers
to the attachment members with in the group.
Cohesiveness refers to the bonding of group members
and their desire to remain of the group.
74. Group Cohesiveness…
Importance of Group cohesiveness
Ability of a group to return its member
Power of the group to influence its members.
Degree of participation and loyality of members.
Feeling of security on the part of the members.
Make the greater contribution to the achievement of
the organizational goals
75. Group Cohesiveness…
Effects of Group Cohesiveness
Low turnover and absentism
Higher empowerment and productivity
More participation in decision making and problem
Poor assessments of the problem
Incomplete information search
77. Group Cohesiveness…
Advantages of Group Cohesiveness
The advantages of group cohesiveness are as
The member of cohesive groups have high
morale,they works togetherly
Members of cohesive groups are regular at their work
Cohesiveness increases productivity and achieve the
Organization gain form the members of cohesive
group as they are committed to the group.