• The United States of America is a state today that takes the title of
super power in the world. It is without a doubt that what is reflected
off them tends to attract aspiration from many other countries of the
• U.S has presented through time a varying “hot and cold” relation with
other states. And although most of their elapses have been
controversial it is impeccable how their relations with other states is
always at a prosper.
• Today the Foreign Policy Agenda of
U.S is to “build a sustain a more
democratic, secure, and prosperous
world for the benefit of the
American people and international
community (George, 2008).”
• A global survey of 2014 conducted
by Pewglobal presents that at least
33 surveyed countries have a
positive view of U.S (Pew Research
Center, 2014). The top of the list
includes Philippines, Israel, South
Korea and Kenya among others (Pew
Research Center, 2014).
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE U.S FOREIGN
•The war brought out U.S as a reputable state as it allied forces with other powers in battling their enemies.
•During this period President Wilson of U.S developed an idealist plan in transcending the value of democracy and
militarism in order to end violent conflict (Thompson & Randall, 2008). This prompted the Treaty of Varsailles.
•U.S adopted a formal foreign policy of non-interventionism from 1932 to 1938 (Jones, 1999).
•After WWII European power was weakened due to the destruction of the war.
•U.S started active involvement on an international level to contain communism threat and gave up the policy of
•The world found itself being divided into two broad categories of ideology: USSR that advocated for communism
and the U.S. advocating for capitalism. This prompted the non-alignment movement.
THE U.S FOREIGN POLICY TODAY
• The 21st Century brought with it a whole new world order
of globalization and interdependence of world states.
• After the Cold War several new priorities have emerged in
the world. This is as a result of major happenings such as
the 9/11 attacks, the war on terror and environmental
catastrophes among others.
• As opposed to earlier times of state expansion,
imperialism, nuclear power etc., the priorities lie on
handling climate change and conservation, terrorism and
nuclear terrorism, global integration, nuclear production
and economic growth.
• Although U.S held a progressing growth in world economics for
almost two decades after the Cold War, recent times have
observed emerging potential powers in the world. This is seen
among countries such as China, India, Brazil and Russia among
others (Pew Research Center, 2014).
UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE U.S FOREIGN
• Trade policy, contracts, taxes and tariffs, and
monetary policy all fall within the realm of economic
• Governments do their best to make sure that their
export products make it to retail shelves in other
countries; they also try to protect their domestic
industries through the use of import tariffs and
• The category of economic interests is difficult to navigate
because governments have different levels of control
over the economy in different countries.
• China, for instance, has a planned economy in which the
government is in charge of most aspects of the
marketplace, including the value of its currency.
• In the United States, almost all companies and industries
are susceptible to free-market forces, although the
government has moved to protect agriculture,
transportation, and finance, among other industries
CHARACTERISTICS ON ECONOMIC
1. Protecting American businesses;
• Encourage Economic development and private
Enterprise in Aids recipient countries.
• Open and develop international markets for the
2. Enhancing Energy Security and clear clean Energy
• Promoting free and fair trade
• Structural adjustment programmes
4. Financial Stability – Support to International Financial
institutions e.g. IMF, WB, WTO.
5. Global Environmental change e.g. Globalisation –
shared resources, trade environment.
• The U.S. and oil in the Middle East
• The U.S. and Iran
• Of vital importance to every
country is its safety. Any threats,
or potential threats, fall into the
realm of security interests.
• Because the U.S. military is spread
out, with bases and installations in
more than 120 countries, threats
and instabilities in these countries
can have security implications for
the United States.
• The rise in international terrorism
has left its mark in Madrid,
London, New York City, and
CHARACTERISTICS ON SECURITY INTERESTS
• Protect U.S. allies and partners from state adversaries’ e.g.
Asian allies from China and North Korea, Middle East
partners from Iran, Syria and violent non state groups, Asian
and European partners from Russia.
• Preventing The Soviet Expansion - U.S. military actions in the
Middle East Cuba missile crisis.
• Strengthening Friendly Countries – Strategic Alliances with
African nations through foreign aids, Global HIV initiatives,
support to Turkey
• Maintaining Balance of Power – between US and Russia on
Crimea, Korea, Syria (all in the name of war on Terror – ISIS)
CHARACTERISTICS ON SECURITY INTERESTS
• Dissuade Military competition and arms races e.g.
China, North Korea, Iran and Russia
• Protect Americans from terrorist attacks
• Restrict the flow of illegal trade and the proliferation
of dangerous Materials
• Ensure the flow of Commerce and key resources
• Respond to Humanitarian emergencies and regional
• Ideological interests are those that
relate to a country’s way of life and
ideals. All countries have their own
worldviews; some are in direct conflict
with one another. Often these views
are about forms of government, civil
rights, or religion. The United States
has been regarded as a world leader
since the end of World War II.
• Because of this status and the allure
and influence of American cultural
products, the United States has had a
strong impact on world ideologies.
• Advocates of humanitarian
intervention in Sudan have
used ideological interests
to argue that the United
States should use its
military power to stop or to
• Pro-democracy advocates
have also argued that the
United States should have
intervened more forcefully
in the various uprisings of
• The history of American foreign policy begins with the
assertion of independence. One historian, Bradford Perkins,
has characterized the American Revolution as "an act of
isolation." But until the end of the nineteenth century,
American ideology had little influence beyond its borders and
later changed to Internationalism after the cold war which
involved opportunities outside the state borders and
partnering with other states and regions.
TRUMANS DOCTRINE – Prevent Spread of Communism
MARSHALL PLAN – Helping Europe Recover from the Aftermath
of WW2SIRAJ MARYAN
SOURCES OF U.S FOREIGN POLICY
• No country’s foreign policy can be considered without
reference to its external environment. The United
States is no exception.
• According to Roseau (1997), the external category
refers to all aspects of its external environment or any
actions occurring abroad that condition or otherwise
influence the choice made by its decision makers.
• The idea that the foreign policy of the US is
conditioned by the world around it has a very long
tradition. As pointed out by Wittkopf et al., (2010) the
following factors in the international system affects
American foreign policy: changing distribution of
power, deepening interdependence, rapidly expanding
• But it needs to be pointed out that all these external
factors can become determinants only as they affect
the mind, the heart, and the will of the American
decision-makers and they act according to the
domestic political process and priorities.
The domestic sources of US foreign policy are divided into the
1. Societal Sources
The societal source category comprises those characteristics of
the domestic social and political system of the United States that
shape its orientation toward the world
2. Public Opinion
• Researches carried out by the
scholars of American foreign policy
provide split judgment on the
question of how much influence
public opinion has on American
• Gabriel et al., (2010) represent this
dominant “realist” view that
American public opinion on foreign
policy is unstable, incoherent and
consequently largely influential.
3. Interest Groups
• President Dwight, just before leaving his office
had warned the American public of the influence
of the special interest group of the American
• True to Eisenhower’s warnings, as many as
34,000 lobbying firms are located along
Washington’s now-famous K Street.
• They lobby members of Congress, members of
the executive branch and other officials of the
federal government in Washington on behalf of
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE MAKING OF
THE U.S FOREIGN POLICY
• The chronicle of American foreign policy is
composed by the liberal tradition (Kennan 1951;
Kagan 2002). Liberal thoughts for many years
have provided ideological orientation, policy
direction, and, at times, a rhetorical tool to
justify strategic foreign engagements. The
advocacy of free-market capitalism, the creation
and use of international organizations, the
commitment to human rights, and the
promotion of democracy are all indicative of the
• It is more evident in the early directives of President George
Washington, the longest period of expansionism through the
world wars, numerous Cold war interventions and the years
following the fall of the Soviet union.
• Liberalism remains central to the era of globalization, the
post- 9/11 security environment, and the "post American
world" ( Zakaria 2009). Liberal theorists commonly focus on
how U.S foreign policy is crafted. In all these respects,
Liberalism is a " constant" in U.S foreign policy (Desch
2007/2008). The liberal tradition is consistently present in the
American foreign policy agenda, at times it serves as a guiding
principle whereas at other times it acts as a veneer legitimizing
practices of real politics that are best explained by the rival
perspective of realism (Morgenthau 1978; Waltz 1979;
• Realism is still the most venerable- and
scrutinized- theoretical approach to the study
of international relations and American
foreign policy. Realists approaches ultimately
conclude that power factors influence
institutional and ideational factors. An actor's
relative power determines how it behaves in
various international relationships and what
ideas or identities it espouses in international
discourse. Large power tend to favor free
trade; small powers generally do not. Large
powers adopt identities that espouse
interests of the international system as a
• There are various Realists theories but focusing on the
Offensive realism , they argue that states seek security
not only by deterrence, defense and equilibrium but
also by dominance and hegemony. Since power is
always changing, and inherently difficult to assess,
states always seek more power because more power
yields more security.
• According to John Mearsheimer (2001:2), a leading
offensive realist, " the overriding goal of each state is to
maximize its share of world power...Their ultimate aim
is to be the hegemony. Security is the safest position
because, by definition, o other state can challenge the
• The distinction between security-seeking and greedy
states diminishes because hegemony gives a state that
means to implement any other goals it may have, such as
spreading its religion or exploiting the wealth of other
countries. On the other hand, the defensive realists
disagree. After the end of the Cold war and before 9/11,
the United states in fact assumed a position as the world's
sole nuclear superpower. Some realists celebrated
America's unipolarity. Its dominance was so great there
was no likelihood that it would be challenged (Wohlforth
1999). Realism is essential in sublimating conflicts to the
of crises to determine winners and losers by a contest of
resolve rather than by actual conflicts on the battlefield
Constructivism gained prominence as a theoretical
perspective in the study of international relations
in the early 1990s. It provided a new and
alternative way to understand dramatic changes in
the international systems. It is no surprise that the
study of American foreign policy has mirrored
general trend toward constructivist analysis in
recent years. Particular attention is paid to the
linguistic tools used by American foreign policy
makers in creating and later reinforcing national
identities of the United states in order to justify its
• In Wendt's formulation of constructivism, which was
developed in contrast to realism, anarchy did not
determine a state's interest in survival, security, or
war. He argued instead that anarchy was "what state's
interest make of it" (1992) because state interests
depended on the specific quality of their interactions
with other states over time. Constructivism has
converged to provide new insights into American
foreign policy. The substantial and growing empirical
record of the United states., as seen through the
constructivist lens, greatly enhances our collective
understanding of this subject.
• Bureaucracy can be defined as a system of government in which
most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather
than by the elected representatives.
• Both practitioners and observers have long recognized that
bureaucratic politics are a persistent feature of U.S foreign policy
making. Bureaucratic politics shape the daily formulation and
implementation of American foreign policy and have the capacity
to affect the content and quality of particular decisions and
actions. Max weber, a German sociologist was one of the first
people in modern times to think seriously about the importance
of bureaucracy. The term comes from a French word "bureau", a
reference to the small desks that the king's representatives set up
in towns as they travelled across the country on king's business
BUREAUCRACY AND U.S FOREIGN POLICY
• Observers of the modern American government often point
to an iron triangle that best demonstrates who really does
the work of the government. The iron triangle, sometimes
called a sub government, consists of interest groups,
members of congressional subcommittees, and agency
• According to the theory, agencies and departments usually
keep close contacts with interests groups lobbyists who want
to influence... their actions. Interests groups may provide
valuable statistics to government agencies, and they are
motivated to have their point of view heard. Both lobbyists
and bureaucrats value contact with congressional
• The U.S political system's fragmented political
authority serves to strengthen the power and
influence of bureaucratic actors. The political power of
the bureaucratic officials and agencies in turn, fosters
resistance to innovative policies that challenge
existing organizational programs and routines.
Significant portion of American foreign policy will be
shaped by political interactions among fragmented
governmental actors pursuing their organizational
• The best known scholarly effort to capture and
analyze this behavior is Graham Allison's
U.S FOREIGN POLICY
• In his classic study of the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis ( 1969,
1971), Allison challenged the longstanding realist
assumption that states behave as rational, unitary actors and
embraced the perspective that foreign policy decisions are
product of political bargaining among individual leaders in
• One oft-used definition of foreign policy in the American
politics literatures that it involves " the goals that the
national's official seek to attain abroad, the values that give
rise to those objectives, and the means or instruments used
to pursue them (Wittkopf, Jones and Kegley 2008:17). In
other words, foreign policy involves goals, values/norms and
• Foreign policy links aspirations to actions as " decreed or
promulgated by those in power ." (Carlsnaes 1986:60) -
those with the authority to commit the resources of the
• In effect, foreign policy is a guide for action declared by an
authoritative sources that makes certain behaviors more
probable and other behaviors less probable, narrowing the
range of actions that are likely to be viewed as appropriate
in response to a particular situation. On the other hand
policies are considered to exist when they are explicitly
stated and recognized by officials such as- by being
spoken, stated intentions and plans (gain) some degree of
normative force in their own rights" (Onuf 2001:77-78).
CONTINUITY VS. CHANGE IN U.S FOREIGN
• Opinion and scholarship seem to differ with regard to how
consistent American foreign policy is and has been across
time. Some scholars have argued that there is consistency in
American foreign policy - that U.S foreign policy is both
reflective of and contributes to the exceptionalism inherent
in American history (e.g., Smith 1994; Huntington 2004).
According to Huntington (1993), the American
exceptionalism remains a dominant component of American
national identity and by extension is promoted through its
foreign policy, embracing as it does the language of the
nation's founding documents: liberty, democracy, and
ACTORS INVOLVED IN MAKING THE U.S FOREIGN
Researchers and Scholars in international relations has
identified a variety of actors who appear to influence U.S.
foreign policy, including experts and “epistemic
communities,” organized interests groups (especially
business and labor), and ordinary citizens or public
Who is responsible for making the U.S Foreign Policy?
• Fabrini S. (2010) Anti-Americanism and US Foreign Policy
states that; The United States has a separated
government in which decision-making power is shared
by governmental institutions. These governmental
institutions are separated not only functionally but also
• Adam Smith(2008) has tried
to answer the question of
the most important actors
making foreign policy
decision. He states that the
obvious candidates are the
head of states, head of
ministers or secretaries of
states, inner executives,
security councils, cabinets,
politburos, or governments
as a whole, parliaments and
1. HEADS OF GOVERNMENT AND OTHER
Rositer C. The American Presidency (1996) states that
President Harry S. Truman once made a remarked that he
possessed foreign and defense policy making authority
that would make "Caesar, Genghis Khan or Napoleon bite
his nails with envy. The statement highlight the fact that
the most important actor in virtually every country's
foreign policy process is its head of government most
commonly titled president, prime minister, or premier.
As Commander in Chief, the President of the United
States has an unusual amount of influence in foreign
policy making by Appointing and Nominating
Ambassadors, Ministers. Special Advices, and Negotiating
trade and Political Deals. Several executive departments
and agencies advise the president and Congress on
foreign policy and play their own roles in implementing
these policies. These include: the Department of State,
the Department of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the
2. CONGRESS (LEGISLATURE)
• The United States Constitution divides the foreign policy powers
between the President and Congress so that both share in the
making of foreign policy. Hence the congress just as the office of
President are initiators of U.S foreign Policy. Congress makes
foreign policy through its power to declare war, making policy and
funding programs, and the role in ratifying treaties.
• Edward S. Corwin (1957) The President, Office and Powers wrote:
What the U.S. Constitution does, and all that it does, is to confer on
the President certain powers capable of affecting our foreign
relations, and certain other powers of the same general kind on the
Congress; but which of these organs shall have the decisive and
final voice in determining the course of the American nation is left
for events to resolve. Hence, the complex process of determining
U.S. foreign policy makes it difficult to decide who should be
credited with initiating or altering any particular foreign policy. The
• Tasie, G. O. (1997). in his book Public sector Administration and
Management. Explained Bureaucracy as any large-scale
organization of appointed officials whose primary function is to
implement the policies of the decision makers. Examples are the
Military, Bank and Financial Firms, the navy and air-force etc. The
dividing line between decision makers and bureaucrats is often
hazy, but we can say that bureaucrats are career governmental
personnel, as distinguished from those who are political
appointees or elected officials. Bureaucrats do not always agree
with their country's foreign policy. Instead they may favor another
policy option based on their general sense of their unit's mission
• Every state, whatever its strength or type of government, is heavily
influenced by its bureaucracy. Take for example arms reduction in
• Gelpi, Christopher, and Peter D. Feaver. 2002. Speak Softly and
Carry a Big Stick Veterans in the Political Elite and the American Use
of Force. States that Whether the area was Kosovo, Bosnia, Haiti, or
elsewhere, the U.S. military has often been a reluctant warrior
within the council of government, especially regarding the use of
ground forces. A common view, expressed by then Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Colin Powell, is that politicians start
wars. Soldiers fight and die in them.
How does bureaucracy influence foreign policy?
1)Filtering information is one way that bureaucracies influence
policy. Decision makers depend on staff for information, and what
they are told depends on what subordinates choose, consciously
or not, to pass on.
2)Recommendations are another source of bureaucratic influence
on foreign policy. Bureaucracies are the source of considerable
• The media also play important roles in informing the public and
seeking to shape public perceptions of the world. Mass media content
is the most likely source of over-time changes in individuals’ foreign
policy preferences. Soroka, S. N. (2003). Media, Public Opinion, and
Foreign Policy, argues that the media are the principal means by which
the vast majority of individuals receive information about foreign
affairs. foreign policymakers respond to the public and the public
responds to the media, then the nature and degree of media influence
on public opinion and foreign policy becomes very crucial.
5. INTEREST GROUPS
Interest Groups are private associations of people
who have similar policy views and who pressure the
government to adopt those views as policy. interest
groups are becoming a more important part of the
foreign policy making process. We can see this by
looking at several types of interest groups Each year,
groups ranging from multinationals to non-profits
spend hundreds of millions of dollars lobbying
Congress on foreign policy bills.
Jacobs, L, & Page, B. (2005). Who Influences U.S.
Foreign Policy argues that interest Groups are the
dominant lobbying groups in American politics and
her foreign Policies, and have long been thought to
• Jacobs and Page went further to state
that President Dwight, just before
leaving his office had warned the
American public of the influence of
the special interest group of the
American foreign policy. True to
Eisenhower’s warnings, as many as
34,000 lobbying firms are located
along Washington’s now-famous K
Street. They lobby members of
Congress, members of the executive
branch and other officials of the
federal government in Washington on
behalf of labour unions, private
companies, ethnic and religious
6. THE PEOPLE
• Focuses on domestic issues plays a highly variable role in
foreign policy. Public opinion is a marginal factor in
authoritarian governments. In democracies, the role of
the people is more complex (Howell, 2005). On occasion,
public opinion plays a key role. For example The United
States got out of Vietnam in the 1970s in significant part
because of the determined opposition of many
Americans to continued involvement in that war. Yet even
in democracies, the public usually plays only a limited
role in determining foreign policy. One reason for the
public's limited role is that few citizens ordinarily pay
much attention to international issues. During the 2004
U.S. presidential election, terrorism and Iraq were
prominent issues. That was unusual, though. Normally,
THE RELEVANCE OF THE PRESIDENTIAL POWERS
IN MAXIMIZING U.S FOREIGN POLICY
• The Constitution has been described as an “invitation to
struggle” between the President and Congress over the making
of foreign policy. The U.S. Constitution divides the foreign
policy power between the three key branches of government:
the legislative, the executive and the judicial. It also gives each
branch some check on the other. The President can veto
legislation; Congress can override the President’s veto
• Congress can override the President’s veto; the courts can
declare a law of Congress or an act of the President
unconstitutional. Hence, Foreign policy is thus split amongst
different governmental structures.
• Barrett, David M. in “Chapter 3 of the Presidential
Foreign Policy.” The Making of US Foreign Policy. By
John Dumbrell. Manchester, UK: Manchester UP,
1990.Though the President’s specific powers on
foreign policy may be few, his role in foreign policy,
many believe, is crucial. Congress as long as it is
consulted is less inclined to challenge presidential
initiatives in foreign policy than in domestic policy. By
creating a political system where power would be
divided between a legislature, an executive and a
judiciary, the framers of the United States Constitution
not only ensured that there would be a system of
CASE STUDY: COMPARING CHINA’S
FOREIGN POLICY MAKING PROCESS
• The People’s Republic of China also known as China is a
country in East Asia that was proclaimed in 1949.
• It controls mainland China and two special regions; Hong Kong
• Its capital city is Beijing.
• China is a single state party; Communist Party of China (CPC).
• China has foreign relations with 171 countries and maintains
162 embassies of these countries.
• China’s economy has continued to emerge and prosper
creating progressive relations with other countries globally.
CHINA’S FOREIGN POLICY MAKING PROCESS
• China’s foreign policy making process is shaped by rank consciousness.
Government agencies and parties must inherently adhere to level
• The Communist Party of China and the Government of China have
separate decision-making structures although some entities overlap in
function, authority and even personnel.
• Therefore, within the formal Chinese political system, decisions are made
along dual tracks: the Party track and the State track.
• There are three major coordination bodies of interest: one within the Party
and two within the State.
• The CPC Central Committee is the leading Party coordination body.
Because the Party reigns supreme, the Central Committee is also the most
important body in the Chinese system. The Central Committee has 205
members who are assigned to the most important positions in the
• The second major body is the state Council to which the Central
Committee has bestowed the day-to-day administration of the
country. The State Council which serves as China’s Cabinet is
headed by a state premier, who plays a role similar to that of a
prime minister, and who, with a number of vice-premiers and
councilors, oversees a government system.
• The State Council controls a wide array of central bodies of lower
rank, including commissions, ministries, administration bodies
and central organizations (such as hospitals or state-owned
• The third body, though less important than the Central
Committee or the State Council, is the National People’s
Congress. The National People’s Congress is a parliament-like
entity that in principle oversees the State Council. In reality, its
power is limited although in recent years it has become
CHINA’S FOREIGN POLICY
• Since the mid-1990s, China’s foreign policy has grown
internationally. Its win-win diplomatic style has created a greater
accommodation for short-term common economic interests
• This has continuously made China gain markets for its goods,
increased its access to raw materials and improved its international
esteem while providing other countries with foreign investment aid
without imposing its principles and conditions on their political and
• This use of foreign policy is referred to as Non-interference.
China’s foreign policy embodies five key principles of Peaceful Co-
existence. These are:
1. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and
2. Mutual non-aggression
3. Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
4. Equality and Co-operation for mutual benefit.
5. Peaceful Coexistence
• These five principles create harmony with uniformity where each
state party maintains its unique state characteristics without
trying to make the other conform to what is perceived as the
better or higher nature.
• It allows the partnering states to form diplomatic relations
despite their preferences and differences. This policy has led
• Despite this growth in China’s foreign policy performance and
productivity, The United States of America (U.S.A/U.S) still remains
the preeminent global force in many areas of soft power.
• It exceeds China in global trade in and investment and far
surpasses China in GDP and foreign direct investment. Its alliances
in Europe, Asia and Latin America far outweigh China.
• Its military capabilities cannot be compared to that of China.
• However, global confidence in U.S foreign policy has declined and
connotes to its lacking capabilities in Soft Power capacity.
• Due to the continuous changing global needs, many developing
countries are drawn to China’s foreign policy finding it adaptable
and mutually beneficial.
• Moreover, its competition with Taiwan for diplomatic recognition
has spurred China’s engagement with Latin America and Africa.
• The United States of America and China have six distinct areas
in which their foreign policy processes differ:
China’s public diplomacy emphasizes in teaching and
understanding of its cultures and policies rather than seeking
common values through dialogue while U.S cultivates democratic
values through its public diplomacy and international military
training. It facilitates an understanding of American Values and
cultures and instilling its policies and principles in its affairs.
The U.S. requires its partnering countries to create changes in
their policy and performance so as to provide assistance while
China only aims to provide aid and create mutual benefits for
China values regime preservation of the Communist Party and therefore
creates partnerships that provide economic growth that will raise living
standards and therefore provide favour and legitimacy for its one party
rule while the U.S values preservation and projection of values and often
uses the improvement of human rights as a negotiation tool.
In the Chinese system, the presence of a Single party dictating on state
affairs creates a closed system which is not transparent while in the U.S.
system, the process is not always understandable but is transparent due
to the presence of various actors.
In China, the government is not strictly accountable to a national
legislature while in the U.S. the congress demands accountability from
its government and also has substantial influence over the foreign policy
making process through the allocation of funds, oversee responsibilities
6. Press Freedom:
The media in the U.S. is independent of the government and
aims to provide the unvarnished truth about U.S. foreign policy
while in China the media is still controlled by the communist
party and the government
• President Barrack Obama has explicitly associated himself with
liberal traditions in foreign policy.
• He’s been in the past termed as a liberal idealist due to the
eminent nature of his principles which were often termed as
ideally progressive but not realistic.
• A key characteristic in his foreign policy is activism with the
aim of the renewal of American diplomacy.
• His policies have often been termed as weak and he has been
termed as a progressive pragmatic.SIRAJ MARYAN
• Once Donald Trump/Hilary Clinton wins the presidential
elections on US-Iran relations
• War on terror
• US-Cuba relations
• US-Russia relations
• US-North Korea
• African/Muslim immigrants.
• The various American policies that have been observed
with time have presented an anomaly in how U.S has dealt
with other countries.
• With changes in global ideologies and evolution of the
American administration, the involvement of the U.S in any
given arena has been both supported and questionable.
• Looking at the gruesome impact observed from the
outcome in countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria and
USSR among others; it is crucial for U.S foreign
policymakers to be mindful of the penalties as a result of
their military assistance and use of force.
• Although policymakers need to be mindful of global actors in
the policies they make, it does not imply that the U.S
government is expected to consult with such actors. This is
because this impinges on their sovereignty as a state. Given
this, it is important for U.S to value the Organization of the
United Nations. Keeping in mind what other countries have
related to UN, U.S can make policies effective to themselves
and less destructive or not destructive at all for others.
• Admittedly any country values state interest and sovereignty on
a high caliber in today’s politics. However, it is important for
U.S to comply to their advocacy of globalization, democracy,
and inter-dependence. Despite how much the world has
evolved in creating a global village, U.S is among many other
developed country that still focuses solely on state interest