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  2. 2. AMU-CMHS-SON Lesson objective By the end of this chapter, students should be able to:  Identify varying definitions of curriculum  Analyze the five major conceptions of curriculum  Identify typical elements of curriculum  Differentiate between planning, design, and development of curriculum.  Compare the 2 models of curriculum development  Elaborate subject benchmarking  Develop a draft curriculum 2
  3. 3. AMU-CMHS-SON Glossary  Course A building block of a program consisting of a time-limited component, usually over one term, one semester or 1 year, and usually ending with a summative evaluation  Course outline a brief description of a course which allows the reader to understand the curriculum.  Curriculum: planned learning experiences offered in a single program  Discipline A field of study and practice often associated with a specific profession.  Macro-curriculum: the overall design or blueprint of the program done by a Curriculum Committee. 3
  4. 4. AMU-CMHS-SON Glossary...  Micro-curriculum: the course outlines and unit plans, usually developed by the individual teacher.  Module: a unit within a program or a course, which can be examined separately (modular instruction) or at the end of course.  Program: a coherent set of courses, leading to a certain degree, diploma or certificate. Courses might be core (compulsory) or optional courses (electives)  Subject: a clearly identifiable area of knowledge that studies a specific set of phenomena from a particular perspective.  Unit: the building block of a course, used interchangeably with ‘module 4
  5. 5. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum –- Definition  The word comes from the Latin “CURRERE”, meaning “to run, or to run a course” (Wiles & Bondi, 2011).  Curriculum is defined as “A COURSE, specifically, a regular course of study or training, as at a school or university” (OED Online, 2016).  Another perspective of curriculum is “a desired goal or set of values that can be activated through a development process, culminating in experiences for learners” (Wiles & Bondi, 2011). 5
  6. 6. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum — Definition  A more specific and expansive view is the curriculum is a set of plans made for guiding learning.  Usually represented in retrievable documents of several levels of generality, and the actualization of those plans in the classroom, as experienced by the learners and as recorded by an observer; those experiences take place in a learning environment that also influences what is learned (Glatthorn, Boschee, Whitehead, & Boschee, 2016) 6
  7. 7. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum — Definition  Despite differing definitions, a curriculum is implemented with the intention that learning will occur & student potential will be unlocked.  Curriculum here refers to planned learning experiences that the educational institution intends to provide for its learners. 7
  8. 8. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum — Conceptions  Conceptions of curriculum helps to look at a curriculum from several viewpoints.  It’s simply a way to see how a curriculum is defined.  When you see a curriculum it focus either on social and culture needs, the individuals needs or subject matter.  Conception of curriculum → Curriculum orientation 8
  9. 9. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum—Conceptions The 5-Main conceptions of curriculum Humanistic Academic Technology Cognitive process Social reconstruction 9
  10. 10. AMU-CMHS-SON The Academic — conception  Academic rationalism conceptualizes curriculum as distinct subjects or disciplines.  Individual needs to learn various academic subjects  Information should be taught by the teachers.  Basically, curriculum should be used to help individuals understand knowledge (skills, tools, concepts) they need to participate actively in their cultural needs. 10
  11. 11. AMU-CMHS-SON The Academic –conception 11 Academic: Focuses more on subjects, cognition and knowledge.
  12. 12. AMU-CMHS-SON Cognitive Process—conception  Focuses on the development of the intellectual process.  The curriculum should shape intellect and cognitive skill.  Once the skill is attained, it can be applied to others forms of learning and context.  It focuses mainly on the learner.  Right set of intellectual skill will help individual to grow intellectually. 12
  13. 13. AMU-CMHS-SON Cognitive Process—conception 13 Cognitive Process: Shaping the intellectual skills of young individuals
  14. 14. AMU-CMHS-SON Humanistic—conception  Focuses on individual and the individual’s needs.  A curriculum should be student oriented and child centered meaning children can pursue their individual choices.  Helps learner to discover and construct learning for themselves.  Everything in the curriculum should bring personal meaning to each individual that relates to experiences unique to the learner.  This can allow the individual to learn ways on how to manage things of personal significance. 14
  15. 15. AMU-CMHS-SON Humanistic—conception Humanistic: Focuses on the whole child
  16. 16. AMU-CMHS-SON Social reconstruction—conception  Focuses on societal needs.  an education where subject matter focuses on environmental, economic, social and political issues or perspectives happening in society.  It view curriculum as a way to produce social change.  Education should be structured to prepare students for living in a changing society 16
  17. 17. AMU-CMHS-SON Social reconstruction—conception 17 Social Reconstruction: Curriculum should be an extension of society
  18. 18. AMU-CMHS-SON Technology — Conception  This conception focused on how curriculum should be taught or how knowledge should be communicated.  It looks for a system of instruction that can be used to teach any content.  Learning is preplanned thus, goals, standards, expectations, and objectives should be predetermined.  The content, lesson plans, learning outcomes, assessment methods must align with these elements. 18
  19. 19. AMU-CMHS-SON Technology—conception 19 Technology: Technology is used to transfer learning through audio visual aids or computer assisted programs giving students immediate knowledge • Through this conception you focus more on the organization and presentation of materials to the learner.
  20. 20. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum vs program  The term curriculum is often used interchangeably with program.  However, program is broader in scope.  The program comprised of the curriculum, the schools culture; administrative operations of the school; faculty members’ complete teaching, research, and professional activities; and the school’s affairs with other units. 20
  21. 21. AMU-CMHS-SON Typical components of curriculum  Background  Mission/vision  Philosophy  Program rationale  Program objectives  Graduate profile  Implementation plan  Admission criteria  Graduation requirement  Program duration and nomenclature  Program profile  Course profile (course outline)  Grading scheme  Resource and facility required 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23 Curriculum planning design, and development
  24. 24. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum — Planning  The process concerned with making decisions about what to learn, why, and how to organize the teaching and learning process taking into account existing curriculum requirements and the resources available.  At the general level, it often results in the definition of a broad curriculum framework, as well as a syllabus for each subject to be used as reference by individual schools. At the school level, it involves developing course and assessment plans for different subjects. At the classroom level, it involves developing more detailed plans for learning units, individual lessons and lesson sequences. 24 What is Curriculum Planning?
  25. 25. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum — Planning 1. Setting the objectives to be achieved 2. Establishing an efficient procedure to met the objectives: - Select apt content/subject matter & learning experiences - Creating a proper environment to achieve the objectives - Establishing sound methods - Allocation of resources required to met the objectives - Appropriate time allocation - Identifying the characteristics of the student 25 Curriculum planning involves a two step
  26. 26. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum — Planning What is curriculum plan?  This is a document or a package indicating the curriculum goals, objectives, content, learning activities, teaching methods and suggested evaluation procedures. Who plans the curriculum?  Curriculum planning is a united effort by all those responsible in the organization of an education system. 26
  27. 27. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum—Planning  All curriculum planning depends on the following factors • The nature of knowledge, subject matter or content. • The needs and interests of learners • The social and physical environment • The nature of learning process • The facilities/resources available e.g. man power, classrooms, equipment's etc. 27
  28. 28. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum—Design  Curriculum design generally refers to the way in which the component parts or elements of the curriculum are arranged in order to facilitate instruction.  It is aspects like the structure, pattern or organization of the curriculum. 28 What is curriculum design?
  29. 29. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum—Design  The term curriculum design or curriculum organization refers to the arrangement of the elements of a curriculum into a applicable entity.  According to Saylor and Alexander, the pattern or framework or structural organization used in selecting, planning and carrying forward education experiences in the school is called curriculum design. 29
  30. 30. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum—Design  Curriculum design is a scheme for planning and providing learning experiences. The scheme should: - Include the elements of design namely, objectives, learning experiences, content selection and evaluation - Be based on the principles of design, such as balance, vertically integration, coherence, rigorous, appropriate, focused and relevant. 30
  31. 31. 31 Key principles of curriculum design
  32. 32. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum—Development  Curriculum development is a process of improving the curriculum.  Curriculum development has a broad scope because it is not only about the school, the learners and the teachers.  It is also about the development of a society in general.  Different approaches have been used in developing curricula. 32 What is Curriculum Development?
  33. 33. AMU-CMHS-SON Stages of Curriculum Development  In every step of curriculum development, it is imperative to keep the learner in mind and involve them in process.  The curriculum development process consists of the following six stages: 1. Assessment of educational needs 2. Formulation of objectives 3. Selection of learning experiences to achieve these objectives. 33
  34. 34. AMU-CMHS-SON Stages of Curriculum Development 4. The selection of content through which learning experiences may be offered. 5. The organization and integration of learning experience and content with respect of the teaching learning process. 6. Evaluation of all the above phases. 34
  36. 36. AMU-CMHS-SON The Tyler’s Curriculum Inquiry Model  Tyler's inquiry model is an ends-means approach  Those involved in curriculum inquiry must try to define the four basic components of curriculum listed below: 1. Purposes of the school 2. Educational experiences related to the purposes; 3. Organization of these experiences and 4. Evaluation of the purposes 36
  37. 37. AMU-CMHS-SON The Tyler’s Curriculum Inquiry Model  By ‘purposes’, Tyler was referring to “objectives”  He indicated that curriculum planners should identify these general objectives by gathering data from three sources – the subject matter, the learners and the society.  Then formulate specific instructional objective  Next select educational experiences that would allow the attainment of objectives.  The organization and sequencing of these experiences 37
  38. 38. AMU-CMHS-SON The Tyler’s Curriculum Inquiry Model  Ordering of the experiences should be systematic to produce a maximum cumulative effect.  Organizing elements, like ideas, concepts, values & skills should be woven as threads into the curriculum fabric.  These key elements could serve as organizers and means and methods of instruction.  Lastly, evaluating effectiveness of planning and actions.  An evaluation should relate to all of the objectives. 38
  39. 39. AMU-CMHS-SON The Taba’s Grass-Roots Rationale Model  Hilda Taba deemed that, those who teach curriculum should participate in developing it.  Definite order in creating curriculum “GRASSROOTS APPROACH”  An INDUCTIVE approach should be used to curriculum development.  The needs of the students are at the forefront 39
  40. 40. AMU-CMHS-SON The Taba’s Grass-Roots Rationale Model 7 Major Steps of Grass-roots Model 1. Diagnosis of Needs: assessing needs of the students 2. Formulation of Objectives: set objective to be achieved 3. Selection of content: is based on the objectives. Validity & significance of content should be defined. 4. Organization of content: should rely on learners maturity, academic achievement and interests. 40
  41. 41. AMU-CMHS-SON The Taba’s Grass-Roots Rationale Model 5. Selection of Learning experiences: pupils must engage in interaction with content. Instructional methods should involve students with the content. 6. Organization of Learning Activities: sequence of the learning activities is determined by the sequence of content. 41
  42. 42. AMU-CMHS-SON The Taba’s Grass-Roots Rationale Model 7. Evaluation and means of evaluation: • The curriculum planner must define what objectives have been achieved. • Evaluation considers both the students and teachers. 42
  43. 43. 43 Subject Benchmarking
  44. 44. AMU-CMHS-SON Subject Benchmarking  Benchmarking is a process for identifying, understanding, and adopting best practices from others to refine one’s organization’s performance.  In the case of higher educational institutions the central focus is educational quality improvement. 44 What is BENCHMARKING?
  45. 45. AMU-CMHS-SON Benchmarking…  It helps to identify weakness that needs improvement.  And it answers the following questions: - How well are we doing compared to others? - How good do we want to be? - Who is doing it to the best? And How do they do it? - How can we adapt what they do to our institution? - How can we do better than the others? 45
  46. 46. AMU-CMHS-SON Subject Benchmark—Components  Educational Aims  Program learning outcomes  Program content specifications  Teaching/learning strategies (method of delivery)  Assessment methods  Level of performance criteria for learning outcomes. 46
  47. 47. AMU-CMHS-SON Subject Benchmark—Components 1. Educational Aims:  Are statements that identify the broad educational purposes of the program.  MEANT to provide a clear understanding of the programs teaching intentions. 47
  48. 48. AMU-CMHS-SON Subject Benchmark—Components 2. Program Learning Outcomes:  LO: are statements of what the student is expected to know, understand or be ABLE to do on completion of the program.  Benchmarking for learning outcomes may indicate reference to the following three benchmark categories. a. Subject and Understanding (facts, concepts & principles) b. Intellectual (Cognitive/subject specific practical Skill) c. Transferable skills 48
  49. 49. AMU-CMHS-SON Subject Benchmark—Components 3. Program content specification.  Course titles with credit hours offered in each semester/year.  Each course shall be identified as general, or supportive, Major, or Minor, Core or Elective (course type)  Course syllabus is the main element of program content specification. 49
  50. 50. AMU-CMHS-SON Subject Benchmark—Components  General information (course title, course code, credit hours etc.)  Course description  Couse Objectives  Course content  Mode of delivery  Method of Assessment  References 50 COURSE SYLLABUS—CONTENTS
  51. 51. AMU-CMHS-SON Subject Benchmark—Components 4. Teaching learning strategies  Lectures, Tutorials and Seminars  Special external or guest lecturers  Practical classes- simulation or field practice  Independent learning  Group or individual assignments or projects  Web based, and computer assisted learning 51
  52. 52. AMU-CMHS-SON Subject Benchmark—Components 5. Assessment methods  Should match the teaching and learning strategy.  Should meet learning outcomes & include varied methods.  Should be used to assess students learning.  Assessments must be clear, just, valid & reliable.  Should include both formative & summative assessment. 52
  53. 53. AMU-CMHS-SON Subject Benchmark—Components  Oral Presentations (ability, confidence, and knowledge of subject matter)  Group or individual seminar presentations  Practicum (simulated or real situation)  Group or individual assignments or projects 53
  54. 54. AMU-CMHS-SON Subject Benchmark—Components 6. Level of performance criteria  Threshold Performance – describes the baseline to be exceeded by all graduates to obtain a degree.  Modal Performance – is expected to be achieved by the majority of graduates (better to develop & apply)  Top Performance– is characterized by excellence (additional creativity and adaptability) 54
  55. 55. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum—Evaluation  Evaluation is the process of measuring and judging the extent to which the planned courses, programs, learning activities and opportunities as expressed in the formal curriculum actually produce the expected results.  Evaluation of curriculum is an integral and essential part of curriculum development.  The findings are used to develop, maintain and/or revise the program. 55
  56. 56. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum –evaluation  It is a continuous activity and not a “tail-end-process”.  Evaluation and planning are complementary processes which occur almost simultaneously and continuously.  Planning is made on the basis of evaluation and vice versa 56
  57. 57. AMU-CMHS-SON  There are two ways of looking at curriculum evaluation A. Curriculum Program Evaluation B. Curriculum Program Component Evaluation  57 Ways of looking at curriculum evaluation
  58. 58. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum evaluation.. Curriculars/person Definition Ornstein, A. & Hunkins, F. [1998] Curriculum evaluation is process done to gather data that enables one to decide whether to accept, change, or eliminate the whole curriculum of a textbook. McNeil, J (1997) Evaluation answers two questions: 1. Do planned learning opportunities, programs, courses and activities as developed and organized actually produce desired results? 2. How can a curriculum best be Improved? 58
  59. 59. AMU-CMHS-SON Curriculum evaluation.. Curriculars/person Definition Gay, L (1985) Evaluation is to identify the weaknesses and strengths as well as problems faced in the implementation, to improve the curriculum development process. It is to determine the effectiveness of and the returns on allocated finance. Olivia, P. (1988) It is a process of delineating, obtaining and providing useful information for judging alternatives for purposes of modifying, or eliminating the curriculum. 59
  60. 60. AMU-CMHS-SON Reason for curriculum evaluation  Curriculum evaluation identifies the strengths and weaknesses of an existing curriculum that will be the basis of the intended plan, design or implementation.  When evaluation is done in the middle of the curriculum development, it will tell if the designed or implemented curriculum can produce or is producing the desired results. 60
  61. 61. AMU-CMHS-SON Reason for curriculum evaluation  Based on some standard, curriculum evaluation will guide whether the results have equaled or exceeded the standards, thus can be labeled as success.  Curriculum evaluation provides information necessary for teachers, school managers, curriculum specialist for policy recommendations that will enhance achieved learning outcomes. 61
  62. 62. AMU-CMHS-SON Tyler Objectives Centered Model (1950) Curriculum Elements Evaluation Process Action taken Yes or No 1. Intended objectives learning Outcomes Pre- determine intended learning Outcomes or objectives 2. Situation or Context Identify the situation/context that gives opportunity to develop behavior or achieve objectives. 3. Evaluation Instruments/Toots Select, modify and construct evaluation instruments or tools. Check its objectivity, reliability and validity. 4. Utilization of Tool Utilize the tools to obtain results. Compare the results obtained from several instruments before and after to determine the change 62
  63. 63. AMU-CMHS-SON Tyler Objectives Centered Model (1950) Curriculum Elements Evaluation Process Action Taken Yes or No 5. Analysis of Results Analyze the results obtained to determine strength and weaknesses. Identify possible explanation about the reasons for the particular pattern 6. Utilization of Results Use the results to make the necessary modifications. 63
  64. 64. 64 Daniel Stufflebeam medel-context, Input, Process Product Model (CIPP) Stages of the CIPP model Steps Taken in All the Stages 1. Context Evaluation Step 1; identify the kind of decision to be made. Step 2: Identify the kinds of data to make that decision. 2. Input Evaluation Step 3: Collect the data needed Step 4: Establish the criteria to determine quality of data. 3. Process Evaluation Step 5; Analyze data based on the criteria. 4. Product Evaluation Step 6: Organize needed information needed for decision makers
  65. 65. AMU-CMHS-SON A simple way of curriculum evaluation process  Does the curriculum emphasize learning outcomes?  Does the implemented curriculum require less demands?  Can this curriculum be applied to any particular level?  Can the curriculum aspects be assessed as a)written, (b)taught (c) supported (d) tested and (e) learned?  Does the curriculum include formative assessment?  Does the curriculum include summative assessment? 65
  66. 66. AMU-CMHS-SON A SIMPLE WAY OF CURRICULUM EVALUATION PROCESS  Does the curriculum provide quantitative methods of assessment  Does the curriculum provide for qualitative methods of assessment  Can the curriculum provide the data needed for decision making?  Are the findings of evaluation available to stakeholders? 66
  67. 67. AMU-CMHS-SON References  Glatthorn, A. A., Boschee, F., Whitehead, B. M., & Boschee, B. F. (2016). Curriculum leadership: Strategies for development and implementation (4th ed.)  OED Online. (2016). Curriculum. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oed.com.proxy1.lib.uwo.ca/view/Entry/46107?redirectedFrom=curri culum  Wiles, J. (2005). Curriculum essentials: A resource for educators (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.  Wiles, J. W., & Bondi, J. C. (2011). Curriculum development: A guide to practice (8th ed.) 67