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Unit-1-Introduction-to-Dance (1).pdf
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Unit-1-Introduction-to-Dance (1).pdf

  1. UNIT 1: Introduction to Dance Table of Contents Introduction 2 Lesson 1: The Evolution of Dance 3 Let’s Warm Up! 4 Learn about It! 4 Check Your Understanding 11 Block and Tackle! 12 Winning Moments 14 Lesson 2: Dancing Is Fun and Healthy! 14 Let’s Warm Up! 15 Learn about It 16 Check Your Understanding 20 Block and Tackle! 21 Winning Moments 21 Go the Distance! 22 Self-Check 24 Wrap-Up 25 Bibliography 26 Answers to Check Your Understanding 26 Glossary 27 1
  2. GRADE 12|Physical Education and Health UNIT 1 Introduction to Dance “Dance is fun! It lifts the spirit, strengthens the body, and stimulates the mind.” – Wayne Sleep (1986) According to Mettler (1980), dance is an activity that has many forms and fills many different needs. It can be performed for recreation, entertainment, education, therapy, or religion. Dance is a form of art because people can creatively express their feelings, culture, and even religion through rhythmic movement. As time went by, many studies concluded that dance could be a form of exercise or workout that improves health. Bremer (2007) of The British Journal of General Practice in his article “Dance as Exercise” cited that the qualities and benefits offered by dancing depend on the form concerned. As a general rule, it improves physical health by developing strength, suppleness, coordination, and balance in varying amounts. Fig. 1 Different types of dances for a healthy you 2
  3. In this unit, we will trace the history of dances, describe their nature, and discover the different types we can engage in and make as recreational activities. Learning Targets In this unit, you should be able to ● discuss the nature of the different dances, and ● explain how to optimize the energy systems for a safe and improved performance. Lesson 1: The Evolution of Dance “Before man can do anything, he must draw breath, he must move. Movement is the source and condition of life. To dance is to be out of yourself. Larger, more beautiful, more powerful. This is power, it is glory on earth and it is yours for the taking.” – Agnes de Mille (1963) At the end of this lesson, you should be able to ● trace the origin or history of dance, and ● describe the nature, styles, and types of dances. 3
  4. Let’s Warm Up! Group Activity: Interactive Dance Craze Each group needs to perform any dance step that they can remember. They are given a few minutes to practice. Their dance steps must only be limited to 16 counts. As the teacher plays dance music, s/he will shout out the group number who will perform. It is up to them how they will dance with the music. Learn about It! BRIEF HISTORY AND NATURE OF DANCE Choreography is performed by both individuals and cultures around the globe. Dance flourished at various times in the past and were largely the product of cross-cultural trade and interaction (Alejandro and Santos-Gana, 2002). The history of dance can be traced back to ancient times. Dance was first incorporated and developed by a variety of musical, spiritual, and mass movements. The table on the next page summarizes the origin and background of dance from prehistoric up to the modern times. 4
  5. Period Theme/ Nature Purpose of Dance Prehistoric ● A type of religious manual and communication within older tribes. “ Man danced originally to supplicate the gods on all important occasions of life.” Kraus and Gaufman (1981) ● Movement of body parts for interaction ● Served as a symbol of harmony and pride ● Like other animals, it became a part of attracting partners. ● Dance was also performed for worship purposes. Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Civilizations ● It was only during this time that the real knowledge of dance came about. Ancient Egypt ● Dance was prosperous. Images are recorded in historic carvings and literary remnants. The dances mostly involved worship. Ancient Greeks ● In ancient Greece, dance was related to different experiences ● Plato thought dance was crucial part of life ● He stated the two kinds of dance and music: the noble (Aesthetic) and the ignoble (vain). ● It was a helpful part of military training. ● Use of dance is for recreation and entertainment. ● Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates encouraged dance as holy. The Ancient Rome ● Romans thought dance as a waste of time. ● Since their performers were inmates and prisoners of diverse 5
  6. ● The arts had more value according to them and dance was terminated ● The rise of Catholics changed everything. ● The Church was the only repository of knowledge and education and center of morality. ● Theatrical entertainment was forbidden when the first Christian emperors arrived. backgrounds, dance became barbaric and sensationalized, and served grotesque purposes. (Kraus et al., 1981). ● It slowly turned into corrupt or unjust ways of movement. ● Dance occurred at religious rituals inside the Synagogue.. This practice was mediated by the priests if the method and meaning was sacred and meaningful. ● The activities gradually melted into rituals. Dark and Early Middle Ages ● Public dancing became popular. The round dance and the pair dance were the two most popular styles of performing practiced by the farmers. ● In a ring movement, performers create a long string and step in an indoor or outdoor circle, or in a continuous line. ● Duo move was not as common as ring dance at the time since it was deemed as an immoral act. ● The bourgeoisie quickly joined the ranks of the villagers, albeit ● Both powerful people and the common folk performed dance routines. ● Simultaneously, the commoners entertained together by participating in group dances. ● Ball dances arose as a result of the aristocratic lifestyle. 6
  7. in a more elegant and stately manner. Since the people of high class wore fancy attires and jewellery, they were unable to move properly and the steps were limited to posing, sliding, and curtseying. ● In comparison, farm routines feature vast gestures and big movements. This is attributed to their less intricate outfits, which allow them to move more freely. ● Furthermore, villagers danced on turf or the pounded ground of the village, while aristocrats danced in an auditorium which had a polished floor, timber, or finished tile. Early Renaissance ● As the financial elite in Europe grew, mentors of schooling and culture became more prevalent. ● Actors and musicians were a great asset to the Italian and French systems. ● They were to fulfil the worldly goals of the newly emerging rich and influential nobles around Europe. ● Dance and art in general grew in popularity during the Renaissance. The old constraints have been loosened, and clerical thoughts and goals no longer govern all forms of human creativity. (Kraus and Gaufman, 1981). 7
  8. 15th and 16th Centuries ● New justice movements produced by the bourgeoisie that gave birth to the practice of ballet in Italy during this period. Many other dance styles sprouted and scattered across several nations after that, especially in France. ● In Europe, new dances that were thematic variants of ballet appeared and developed during the height of ballet fame. ● Several dance styles emerged as well, and are still commonly recognized around the globe. (Kraus and Gaufman, 1981). Different Styles of Dance Many diverse dance styles around the world depend on their skills and technique. Practicing many kinds of dance routines was taken seriously by others. People tend to learn several types of dance before they specialize in one class. Below is a brief overview of some of the most popular ones. Ballet is often dubbed as the “backbone of dance.” It is a style that requires intricate movements to relay the message of a story. The basic steps in ballet usually use the entire range of dance styles. This dance typically uses techniques and requires enormous diligence and dedication to do a perfect execution. Ballet has three classifications: classical, neoclassical, and contemporary. 8
  9. Contemporary dance is a style that integrates modern, ballet, and jazz. It allows the dancers to express their feelings freely. It unites the mind and the body through dance movements. Jazz is a lively and enthusiastic dance. It is naturally combined with upbeat music such as hip-hop or show tunes to add a theatrical flair. Jazz dancers frequently have more freedom to express their unique character through their dance presentations. These dances usually have a lot of leaps, quick footsteps, turns, and other special moves. Folk dance is a leisure, ceremonial, or traditional dance that is usually executed by members of a community. Modern dance is deeply rooted in the ballet syllabus. It started as a free and expressive form of dancing. This style began in the 20th century as a response to classical ballet. In recent years, it has involved fundamentals not usually related to dance, such as speech and film. 9
  10. Hip-hop is a style of dance that progressed from hip-hop principles and is typically performed with hip-hop music. It is usually very bouncy, that permits the dancer to have freedom of movement within the repetitive music, and can integrate it to one’s personality. Breakdancing is the most familiar and most diverse type of hip-hop dance. Other classes of hip-hop dance include krumping, popping, and locking. Ballroom typically is done in pairs - a man, and a woman. This dance is well known to be a social dance because communication is important between the partners. The common types of ballroom dances are Cha Cha, Foxtrot, Jive, lindy hop, mambo, pasa-doble, quickstep, rumba, samba, tango, Vietnamese waltz, and the waltz. There is a competitive form of ballroom dancing, which is called a dance sport. It has different rules and regulations in executing the steps. Cheerdancing is a relatively new area in athletics and culture, having first originated as an art of gymnastics competitions in the 90s. This is one of the International Cheerleading Competition divisions that concentrate on dance steps and fundamental gymnastics features, such as tricks and advanced athletics abilities. Cheerleaders are among the participants. 10
  11. Check Your Understanding A. What historical period of dance is being described? Answer Description 1. Dance as an aid to military education 11
  12. 2. Entertainer became valuable appendage to the court of Italy and France 3. Court dance became popular B. Pick one type of dance you are interested in learning and explain why you are interested in it. Write your answer, in essay form, on a piece of paper in no more than twenty (20) sentences. Rubric Number of Points Content has relevance to the question. 3 The thought is well organized. 3 The reasoning ability is manifested. 2 Block and Tackle! PSYCHOMOTOR ACTIVITY Group presentation Group the class into five. Select one from the different dance styles (can be randomly assigned): jazz, modern, ballroom, folk dance, and hip-hop. Show the distinct characteristics and styles of the dance chosen through a creative presentation. Observe how to optimize the energy systems for safe and improved performance. 12
  13. Perform all the parts of a workout: warm-up, stretching, activity portion (dance), and cool down stretch. The dance exercise must be at least 3 minutes. Rubric Criteria Beginning (0-12 points) Developing (13-16 points) Accomplis hed (17-20 points) Score Content (Focus on details/events is clearly evident and related to the topic.) Organization (Presentation of the steps /events has clear transitions. Health topic is clearly seen in the performance. Creativity (flow, appearance, and execution of the group) Total Score: 13
  14. Winning Moments Lesson 2: Dancing Is Fun and Healthy! “Dancing raises the physique and gives a feeling of satisfaction and hence is enjoyable.” –Wayne Sleep (1986) “Dancing is one of the oldest and most popular forms of exercise. Several forms of dancing are considered aerobic since they entail about an hour of continuous exercises, choreographed to music” (Fine, 1981). Women's sports medicine centre in New York has sports science expert Polly de Mille. According to her, the potential welfare acquired via dancing is identical to various 14
  15. other training which comprises repeated efforts to achieve certain goals. At the end of this lesson, you should be able to ● explain the benefits of dance to our health, and ● enumerate ways to keep safe while dancing. Let’s Warm Up! Identify what dance style is being illustrated by the following pictures. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 15
  16. Learn about It According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report, non-communicable diseases (NCD) are responsible for nearly half of all deaths worldwide. Thailand is attempting to encourage regular physical activities among its citizens in order to prevent NCDs. These include kung fu, meditation, dance, and other fitness activities. The majority of them are carried out in city spaces. All of this is part of WHO's plans to create a national framework plan to encourage vigorous exercise. BENEFITS OF DANCING ON DIFFERENT ASPECTS A. Physical ● Dancing, when performed on a daily basis, is a healthy way to improve cardiovascular and muscular fitness, body shape, posture, and flexibility (Malvar, 2006;Fine, 1981; Keller, 2007; Childs, 2007). Dancing enhances balance mechanisms as well. (Rickett-Young, 1996). According to Angioi et al. (2009), performers who participate in low- to moderate-level routines have significantly improved their cardiovascular and athletic fitness. As a result, medium to low dance activity is just as good at increasing health as most intensive exercise treatments. Thus,dance is an excellent way to reduce the risk of heart disease. ● As per Flores (1995), people who participate in dance-based athletic events have a poorer prognosis and cardiac output than those who participate in other types of daily fitness exercises. It was also seen that as people dance, their biosynthesis pathway 16
  17. improves significantly (Malvar, 2006). ● Furthermore, unlike with the use of treadmills and elliptical machines, dance moves are omnidirectional, allowing for knee stability, hip flexibility, and backbone stability (Keller, 2007; Childs, 2007). It's also a muscle mass practice that helps reduce osteoporosis by improving and maintaining bone mass (Keller, 2007) (Keller, 2007). ● Across time, dance therapy has been used in a variety of medical areas. After an accident, it helps in the recovery of balance and other musculoskeletal abilities (Dance Your Way to Fitness, 2007; Chowder, 2013). B. Mental/Emotional ● Dance may be used as an aid in mental health nursing, according to Ravelin et al. (2006, p. 312). Dance may be an appropriate solution to eliminate negative thoughts, according to the researchers. Given that most of the mental health issues of nurses are related to their patients, dance was recommended as useful for the promotion of non-verbal interaction through a simple framework to be with each other. ● When opposed to other types of movement, dancing has additional potential health effects. A new research released in the publication "Neurobiology of Aging" contributes to the large body of knowledge that workout will help the mind razor-sharp (Keller, 2007; Childs, 2007; Ravelin et al., 2006). In their research, Vorghese et al. (2003) found a reduction in the prevalence of cognitive impairment, like Alzheimer's disease, among people whose only daily physical exercise is dance. ● The impact of aerobic exercise on physiology and mental health were also investigated by Gondoh et al. (2009). Their results indicate that cardiovascular exercise can help to stabilize the amount of brain tissue in the parietal lobe (a location implicated in multisensory cognitive control and plays a vital role in the development of emotional states in response to stressful activation) (Gondoh et al., 2009). “[It] reduced major 17
  18. depression and improved the personality of the relay team compared to control category,” the investigators discovered in this report (Gondoh et al., 2009). ● There was a presumption that physical exercise and body surveillance are connected. Dance, according to -, is a good way to improve somebody's body confidence. As a result, dance is an excellent way to boost one's self-esteem. C. Social Dance promotes deep, constructive social engagement and reciprocal interactions in a group making it a rare platform for active group participation. It leads to each association's ability for the achievement of ego in culture, they claim (Kraus and Gaufman, 1981). Dance also fosters a feeling of belongingness in a group. Various dance-based community exercise models have been developed and are in high demand in recent years. The growing call for and social interaction among the sexes in the modern era has been one of the factors for the rapid expansion of dance-based fitness routines. (Childs, 2007). 18
  19. D. Cultural Dance celebrates a place's or country's rich culture by showcasing various cultural dances. Via the traditional dances of a single region, people all over the world gain a “closer understanding of the lives of the people represented and an awareness of their particular cultural practices” (Duggan, Schlottmann, Rutledge, 1948). Appreciation of one's heritage may be achieved by studying their native dance movements. FRIENDLY REMINDERS WHEN DANCING Like other aerobic exercises and activities, dancing also requires proper precautions to prevent injuries. Since it also involves movement, dancing requires specific skills that need to be improved and taken care of. The following are simple reminders to keep ourselves safe while enjoying and performing a dance. 1. Assess yourself on what dance styles you can perform based on the level of your fitness. 2. Consider the attire suitable for the dance styles you will be performing. Professionally wear the clothes prescribed. 3. Don’t forget to have a warm up before you start and cool down after the dance. Always consider stretching. 4. Bear in mind the proper techniques and correct posture and skills in dance styles you are about to perform. 19
  20. 5. Always keep yourself hydrated by drinking water. Check Your Understanding A. The following are the benefits of dancing. Write the aspect where each benefit belongs. 1. Improvement of cardiovascular system 2. Understanding the lives of people 3. Meaningful group involvement B. Write TRUE if the statement is a correct practice in keeping dancing safe and FALSE if it is not. 1. Dance immediately and set aside the proper techniques. 2. Limit the water intake during the practices. 3. Wear the shoes you like to wear. 20
  21. Block and Tackle! PSYCHOMOTOR ACTIVITY Group Activity: As a group, write your own steps on how to be safe while dancing. Use the given table below. (3 points for each column) Dance Style Description Proper Attire Do’s Don’ts Winning Moments 21
  22. Go the Distance! Students will perform the given task as their final output. Goal: Create a dance festival with the theme “Dance with a Purpose” showcasing its history and nature. Role: You are a choreographer for the Cultural Center of the Philippines. Audience: School board, parent’s representative, and students Situation: The Cultural Center of the Philippines is promoting its program that aims to foster cultural sensitivity through dancing. You, as a choreographer, will show the history of dance through a dance concert performance. Product/Performance and Purpose: You will create a dance concert showing the evolution of dance and its benefits Standard and criteria for success: Your output will be scored using the following rubric. Criteria Beginning (0-12 points) Developing (13-16 points) Accomplishe d (17-20 points) Score Unity The phrases of the dance are coherent and flow smoothly Continuity & Development 22
  23. Phrase of the dance are organized Variety & Contrast The dance shows changing of direction, use of energy, and timing of a movement phrase Transition Makes the logical progression of the dance flow smoothly Repetition Gives emphasis and significance Climax Apex of energy Total Score: 23
  24. Self-Check Using the chart below, assess your understanding of the lesson discussed. Put a check mark (∕) before each statement that describes your skills, attitudes, and feelings during and after doing the activities in this unit. Check I can… Trace the origin or history of dance. Describe the nature and styles of types of dances. Explain the benefits of dance in relation to our health. Enumerate ways in keeping oneself safe while dancing. Reflect I find __________________________ the most interesting because ______________________. I got ____ checks because _______________________________________________________. I need to improve on _______________________because _____________________________. I need to practice _________________________ because _____________________________. I plan to _____________________________________________________________________. 24
  25. Wrap-Up o Physical: Improves muscle built, decreases heart and cholesterol issues, reduces hypertension and hyperglycemia, improves overall flexibility and stability, and prevents memory loss o Emotional: Serves as a way of coping up with depression and anxiety, and eliminates progression of dementia by increasing confidence. o Social: Improves relationships o Cultural: Promotes intercultural spread 25
  26. Bibliography Aparanto, Conrado A., et al., 2017, Physical Education and Health Volume II. Quezon City: Rex Printing Company, Inc. Bremer, Zoe. 2013. US National Library of Medicine . May 15. Accessed February 28, 2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2034191/citedby/. Unknown. 2017. World Health Organization. October. Accessed February 28, 2018. http://www.who.int/features/2017/thailand-physical-activity/en/. Unknown. 2018. WikiMedia Commons. February 23. Accessed March 1, 2018. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Liza_Macuja-Elizalde_launches_Art_2_Art.jpg. Answers to Check Your Understanding Lesson 1: The Evolution of Dance 1. Ancient Greek 2. Dark Ages 3. 15th -16th century 2. Pick a dance you are interested to learn and explain why you are interested in it. 26
  27. Lesson 2: The Benefit of Dance and Creative Movement A. 1. Physical 2. Cultural 3. Social B. 1. True 2. False 3. False Glossary Aesthetic: It is about dealing with the beautiful, artistic value. Civilization: It is a condition that exists when people have developed effective ways of organizing society and care about art, science, etc. Fitness: It is the quality of the state of fitness. Mobility: It is the capability of moving or being moved. Noble: It refers to the features everyone admires. Therapy: It is the treatment of physical or mental illnesses. 27
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