UNIT 1: Introduction to Dance
Table of Contents
Lesson 1: The Evolution of Dance 3
Let’s Warm Up! 4
Learn about It! 4
Check Your Understanding 11
Block and Tackle! 12
Winning Moments 14
Lesson 2: Dancing Is Fun and Healthy! 14
Let’s Warm Up! 15
Learn about It 16
Check Your Understanding 20
Block and Tackle! 21
Winning Moments 21
Go the Distance! 22
Answers to Check Your Understanding 26
GRADE 12|Physical Education and Health
Introduction to Dance
“Dance is fun! It lifts the spirit, strengthens the body, and stimulates the mind.”
– Wayne Sleep (1986)
According to Mettler (1980), dance is an activity that has many forms and ﬁlls many diﬀerent
needs. It can be performed for recreation, entertainment, education, therapy, or religion.
Dance is a form of art because people can creatively express their feelings, culture, and even
religion through rhythmic movement.
As time went by, many studies concluded that dance could be a form of exercise or workout
that improves health. Bremer (2007) of The British Journal of General Practice in his article
“Dance as Exercise” cited that the qualities and beneﬁts oﬀered by dancing depend on the
form concerned. As a general rule, it improves physical health by developing strength,
suppleness, coordination, and balance in varying amounts.
Fig. 1 Diﬀerent types of dances for a healthy you
In this unit, we will trace the history of dances, describe their nature, and discover the
diﬀerent types we can engage in and make as recreational activities.
In this unit, you should be able to
● discuss the nature of the diﬀerent dances, and
● explain how to optimize the energy systems for a safe and improved performance.
Lesson 1: The Evolution of Dance
“Before man can do anything, he must draw breath, he must
move. Movement is the source and condition of life. To dance is
to be out of yourself. Larger, more beautiful, more powerful.
This is power, it is glory on earth and it is yours for the taking.”
– Agnes de Mille (1963)
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to
● trace the origin or history of dance, and
● describe the nature, styles, and types of dances.
Let’s Warm Up!
Group Activity: Interactive Dance Craze
Each group needs to perform any dance step that they can remember. They are given a few
minutes to practice. Their dance steps must only be limited to 16 counts. As the teacher plays
dance music, s/he will shout out the group number who will perform. It is up to them how
they will dance with the music.
Learn about It!
BRIEF HISTORY AND NATURE OF DANCE
Choreography is performed by both individuals and cultures around the globe. Dance
ﬂourished at various times in the past and were largely the product of cross-cultural trade and
interaction (Alejandro and Santos-Gana, 2002). The history of dance can be traced back to
ancient times. Dance was ﬁrst incorporated and developed by a variety of musical, spiritual,
and mass movements.
The table on the next page summarizes the origin and background of dance from prehistoric
up to the modern times.
Period Theme/ Nature Purpose of Dance
● A type of religious manual and
communication within older
“ Man danced originally to
supplicate the gods on all
important occasions of life.” Kraus
and Gaufman (1981)
● Movement of body parts for
● Served as a symbol of harmony
● Like other animals, it became a
part of attracting partners.
● Dance was also performed for
● It was only during this time that
the real knowledge of dance
● Dance was prosperous. Images
are recorded in historic
carvings and literary remnants.
The dances mostly involved worship.
● In ancient Greece, dance was
related to diﬀerent experiences
● Plato thought dance was
crucial part of life
● He stated the two kinds of
dance and music: the noble
(Aesthetic) and the ignoble
● It was a helpful part of military
● Use of dance is for recreation and
● Greek philosophers such as Plato,
Aristotle, and Socrates
encouraged dance as holy.
● Romans thought dance as a
waste of time.
● Since their performers were
inmates and prisoners of diverse
● The arts had more value
according to them and dance
● The rise of Catholics changed
● The Church was the only
repository of knowledge and
education and center of
● Theatrical entertainment was
forbidden when the ﬁrst
Christian emperors arrived.
backgrounds, dance became
barbaric and sensationalized, and
served grotesque purposes.
(Kraus et al., 1981).
● It slowly turned into corrupt or
unjust ways of movement.
● Dance occurred at religious rituals
inside the Synagogue.. This practice
was mediated by the priests if the
method and meaning was sacred
● The activities gradually melted
Dark and Early
● Public dancing became
popular. The round dance and
the pair dance were the two
most popular styles of
performing practiced by the
● In a ring movement,
performers create a long string
and step in an indoor or
outdoor circle, or in a
● Duo move was not as common
as ring dance at the time since
it was deemed as an immoral
● The bourgeoisie quickly joined
the ranks of the villagers, albeit
● Both powerful people and the
common folk performed dance
● Simultaneously, the commoners
entertained together by
participating in group dances.
● Ball dances arose as a result of
the aristocratic lifestyle.
in a more elegant and stately
manner. Since the people of
high class wore fancy attires
and jewellery, they were
unable to move properly and
the steps were limited to
posing, sliding, and curtseying.
● In comparison, farm routines
feature vast gestures and big
movements. This is attributed
to their less intricate outﬁts,
which allow them to move
● Furthermore, villagers danced
on turf or the pounded ground
of the village, while aristocrats
danced in an auditorium which
had a polished ﬂoor, timber, or
● As the ﬁnancial elite in Europe
grew, mentors of schooling
and culture became more
● Actors and musicians were a
great asset to the Italian and
● They were to fulﬁl the worldly
goals of the newly emerging
rich and inﬂuential nobles
● Dance and art in general grew in
popularity during the
Renaissance. The old constraints
have been loosened, and clerical
thoughts and goals no longer
govern all forms of human
creativity. (Kraus and Gaufman,
15th and 16th
● New justice movements
produced by the bourgeoisie
that gave birth to the practice
of ballet in Italy during this
period. Many other dance
styles sprouted and scattered
across several nations after
that, especially in France.
● In Europe, new dances that
were thematic variants of
ballet appeared and
developed during the height of
● Several dance styles emerged as
well, and are still commonly
recognized around the globe.
(Kraus and Gaufman, 1981).
Diﬀerent Styles of Dance
Many diverse dance styles around the world depend on their
skills and technique. Practicing many kinds of dance routines
was taken seriously by others. People tend to learn several
types of dance before they specialize in one class. Below is a
brief overview of some of the most popular ones.
Ballet is often dubbed as the “backbone of dance.” It is a style
that requires intricate movements to relay the message of a
story. The basic steps in ballet usually use the entire range of
dance styles. This dance typically uses techniques and
requires enormous diligence and dedication to do a perfect execution. Ballet has three
classiﬁcations: classical, neoclassical, and contemporary.
Contemporary dance is a style that integrates modern,
ballet, and jazz. It allows the dancers to express their
feelings freely. It unites the mind and the body through
Jazz is a lively and enthusiastic dance. It is naturally
combined with upbeat music such as hip-hop or show tunes
to add a theatrical ﬂair. Jazz dancers frequently have more
freedom to express their unique character through their
dance presentations. These dances usually have a lot of
leaps, quick footsteps, turns, and other special moves.
Folk dance is a leisure, ceremonial, or traditional dance that is usually executed by members
of a community.
Modern dance is deeply rooted in the ballet syllabus. It started as a free and expressive form
of dancing. This style began in the 20th century as a response to classical ballet. In recent
years, it has involved fundamentals not usually related to dance, such as speech and ﬁlm.
Hip-hop is a style of dance that progressed from hip-hop
principles and is typically performed with hip-hop music. It is
usually very bouncy, that permits the dancer to have freedom
of movement within the repetitive music, and can integrate it to
Breakdancing is the most familiar and most diverse type of
hip-hop dance. Other classes of hip-hop dance include
krumping, popping, and locking.
Ballroom typically is done in pairs - a man, and a woman. This dance is well known to be a
social dance because communication is important between the partners. The common types
of ballroom dances are Cha Cha, Foxtrot, Jive, lindy hop, mambo, pasa-doble, quickstep,
rumba, samba, tango, Vietnamese waltz, and the waltz. There is a competitive form of
ballroom dancing, which is called a dance sport. It has diﬀerent rules and regulations in
executing the steps.
Cheerdancing is a relatively new area in athletics and culture, having ﬁrst originated as an art
of gymnastics competitions in the 90s. This is one of the International Cheerleading
Competition divisions that concentrate on dance steps and fundamental gymnastics features,
such as tricks and advanced athletics abilities. Cheerleaders are among the participants.
Check Your Understanding
A. What historical period of dance is being described?
1. Dance as an aid to military education
2. Entertainer became valuable appendage to the court
of Italy and France
3. Court dance became popular
B. Pick one type of dance you are interested in learning and explain why you are
interested in it. Write your answer, in essay form, on a piece of paper in no more than
twenty (20) sentences.
Rubric Number of Points
Content has relevance to the
The thought is well organized. 3
The reasoning ability is manifested. 2
Block and Tackle!
Group the class into ﬁve. Select one from the diﬀerent dance styles (can be randomly
assigned): jazz, modern, ballroom, folk dance, and hip-hop. Show the distinct characteristics
and styles of the dance chosen through a creative presentation.
Observe how to optimize the energy systems for safe and improved performance.
Perform all the parts of a workout: warm-up, stretching, activity portion (dance), and cool
down stretch. The dance exercise must be at least 3 minutes.
(Focus on details/events is
clearly evident and related
to the topic.)
(Presentation of the steps
/events has clear
Health topic is clearly seen
in the performance.
(ﬂow, appearance, and
execution of the group)
Lesson 2: Dancing Is Fun and Healthy!
“Dancing raises the physique and gives a feeling of satisfaction and hence is enjoyable.”
–Wayne Sleep (1986)
“Dancing is one of the oldest and most popular forms of exercise.
Several forms of dancing are considered aerobic since they entail
about an hour of continuous exercises, choreographed to music”
(Fine, 1981). Women's sports medicine centre in New York has
sports science expert Polly de Mille. According to her, the
potential welfare acquired via dancing is identical to various
other training which comprises repeated eﬀorts to achieve certain goals.
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to
● explain the beneﬁts of dance to our health, and
● enumerate ways to keep safe while dancing.
Let’s Warm Up!
Identify what dance style is being illustrated by the following pictures.
Learn about It
According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report, non-communicable diseases (NCD)
are responsible for nearly half of all deaths worldwide. Thailand is attempting to encourage
regular physical activities among its citizens in order to prevent NCDs. These include kung fu,
meditation, dance, and other ﬁtness activities. The majority of them are carried out in city
spaces. All of this is part of WHO's plans to create a national framework plan to encourage
BENEFITS OF DANCING ON DIFFERENT ASPECTS
● Dancing, when performed on a daily basis, is a healthy way to improve cardiovascular
and muscular ﬁtness, body shape, posture, and ﬂexibility (Malvar, 2006;Fine, 1981;
Keller, 2007; Childs, 2007). Dancing enhances balance mechanisms as well.
(Rickett-Young, 1996). According to Angioi et al. (2009), performers who participate in
low- to moderate-level routines have signiﬁcantly improved their cardiovascular and
athletic ﬁtness. As a result, medium to low dance activity is just as good at increasing
health as most intensive exercise treatments. Thus,dance is an excellent way to reduce
the risk of heart disease.
● As per Flores (1995), people who participate in dance-based athletic events have a
poorer prognosis and cardiac output than those who participate in other types of daily
ﬁtness exercises. It was also seen that as people dance, their biosynthesis pathway
improves signiﬁcantly (Malvar, 2006).
● Furthermore, unlike with the use of treadmills and
elliptical machines, dance moves are omnidirectional,
allowing for knee stability, hip ﬂexibility, and
backbone stability (Keller, 2007; Childs, 2007). It's also
a muscle mass practice that helps reduce
osteoporosis by improving and maintaining bone
mass (Keller, 2007) (Keller, 2007).
● Across time, dance therapy has been used in a variety
of medical areas. After an accident, it helps in the
recovery of balance and other musculoskeletal
abilities (Dance Your Way to Fitness, 2007; Chowder, 2013).
● Dance may be used as an aid in mental health nursing, according to Ravelin et al. (2006,
p. 312). Dance may be an appropriate solution to eliminate negative thoughts,
according to the researchers. Given that most of the mental health issues of nurses are
related to their patients, dance was recommended as useful for the promotion of
non-verbal interaction through a simple framework to be with each other.
● When opposed to other types of movement, dancing has additional potential health
eﬀects. A new research released in the publication "Neurobiology of Aging" contributes
to the large body of knowledge that workout will help the mind razor-sharp (Keller,
2007; Childs, 2007; Ravelin et al., 2006). In their research, Vorghese et al. (2003) found a
reduction in the prevalence of cognitive impairment, like Alzheimer's disease, among
people whose only daily physical exercise is dance.
● The impact of aerobic exercise on physiology and mental health were also investigated
by Gondoh et al. (2009). Their results indicate that cardiovascular exercise can help to
stabilize the amount of brain tissue in the parietal lobe (a location implicated in
multisensory cognitive control and plays a vital role in the development of emotional
states in response to stressful activation) (Gondoh et al., 2009). “[It] reduced major
depression and improved the personality of the relay team compared to control
category,” the investigators discovered in this report (Gondoh et al., 2009).
● There was a presumption that physical exercise and body surveillance are connected.
Dance, according to -, is a good way to improve somebody's body conﬁdence. As a
result, dance is an excellent way to boost one's self-esteem.
Dance promotes deep, constructive social
engagement and reciprocal interactions in a group
making it a rare platform for active group
participation. It leads to each association's ability for
the achievement of ego in culture, they claim (Kraus
and Gaufman, 1981). Dance also fosters a feeling of
belongingness in a group. Various dance-based
community exercise models have been developed
and are in high demand in recent years. The growing
call for and social interaction among the sexes in the
modern era has been one of the factors for the rapid expansion of dance-based ﬁtness
routines. (Childs, 2007).
Dance celebrates a place's or country's rich culture by showcasing various cultural dances. Via
the traditional dances of a single region, people all over the world gain a “closer
understanding of the lives of the people represented and an awareness of their particular
cultural practices” (Duggan, Schlottmann, Rutledge, 1948). Appreciation of one's heritage may
be achieved by studying their native dance movements.
FRIENDLY REMINDERS WHEN DANCING
Like other aerobic exercises and activities, dancing also requires proper precautions to
prevent injuries. Since it also involves movement, dancing requires speciﬁc skills that need to
be improved and taken care of. The following are simple reminders to keep ourselves safe
while enjoying and performing a dance.
1. Assess yourself on what dance styles you can perform based on the level of your
2. Consider the attire suitable for the dance styles you will be performing. Professionally
wear the clothes prescribed.
3. Don’t forget to have a warm up before you start and cool down after the dance. Always
4. Bear in mind the proper techniques and correct posture and skills in dance styles you
are about to perform.
5. Always keep yourself hydrated by drinking water.
Check Your Understanding
A. The following are the beneﬁts of dancing. Write the aspect where each beneﬁt
1. Improvement of cardiovascular system
2. Understanding the lives of people
3. Meaningful group involvement
B. Write TRUE if the statement is a correct practice in keeping dancing safe and FALSE if
it is not.
1. Dance immediately and set aside the proper techniques.
2. Limit the water intake during the practices.
3. Wear the shoes you like to wear.
Block and Tackle!
As a group, write your own steps on how to be safe while dancing. Use the given table below.
(3 points for each column)
Description Proper Attire Do’s Don’ts
Go the Distance!
Students will perform the given task as their ﬁnal output.
Goal: Create a dance festival with the theme “Dance with a Purpose” showcasing its history
Role: You are a choreographer for the Cultural Center of the Philippines.
Audience: School board, parent’s representative, and students
Situation: The Cultural Center of the Philippines is promoting its program that aims to foster
cultural sensitivity through dancing. You, as a choreographer, will show the history of dance
through a dance concert performance.
Product/Performance and Purpose: You will create a dance concert showing the evolution
of dance and its beneﬁts
Standard and criteria for success: Your output will be scored using the following rubric.
The phrases of the dance are
coherent and ﬂow smoothly
Continuity & Development
Phrase of the dance are
Variety & Contrast
The dance shows changing of
direction, use of energy, and
timing of a movement phrase
Makes the logical progression of
the dance ﬂow smoothly
Gives emphasis and signiﬁcance
Apex of energy
Using the chart below, assess your understanding of the lesson discussed. Put a check mark
(∕) before each statement that describes your skills, attitudes, and feelings during and after
doing the activities in this unit.
Check I can…
Trace the origin or history of dance.
Describe the nature and styles of types of dances.
Explain the beneﬁts of dance in relation to our health.
Enumerate ways in keeping oneself safe while dancing.
I ﬁnd __________________________ the most interesting because ______________________.
I got ____ checks because _______________________________________________________.
I need to improve on _______________________because _____________________________.
I need to practice _________________________ because _____________________________.
I plan to _____________________________________________________________________.
o Physical: Improves muscle built, decreases heart and cholesterol issues, reduces
hypertension and hyperglycemia, improves overall ﬂexibility and stability, and prevents
o Emotional: Serves as a way of coping up with depression and anxiety, and eliminates
progression of dementia by increasing conﬁdence.
o Social: Improves relationships
o Cultural: Promotes intercultural spread
Aparanto, Conrado A., et al., 2017, Physical Education and Health Volume II. Quezon City: Rex
Printing Company, Inc.
Bremer, Zoe. 2013. US National Library of Medicine . May 15. Accessed February 28, 2018.
Unknown. 2017. World Health Organization. October. Accessed February 28, 2018.
Unknown. 2018. WikiMedia Commons. February 23. Accessed March 1, 2018.
Answers to Check Your Understanding
Lesson 1: The Evolution of Dance
1. Ancient Greek
2. Dark Ages
2. Pick a dance you are interested to learn and explain why you are interested in it.
Lesson 2: The Beneﬁt of Dance and Creative Movement
Aesthetic: It is about dealing with the beautiful, artistic value.
Civilization: It is a condition that exists when people have developed eﬀective ways of
organizing society and care about art, science, etc.
Fitness: It is the quality of the state of ﬁtness.
Mobility: It is the capability of moving or being moved.
Noble: It refers to the features everyone admires.
Therapy: It is the treatment of physical or mental illnesses.