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Lesson 3 plagiarism

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Lesson 3 plagiarism

  1. 1. Lesson 3 PLAGIARISM Discussion by: Prof. Sheryl R. Morales
  2. 2. PLAGIARISM • Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own, with or without their consent, by incorporating it into your work without full acknowledgement. • All published and unpublished material, whether in manuscript, printed or electronic form, is covered under this definition. Plagiarism may be intentional or reckless, or unintentional. Under the regulations for examinations, intentional or reckless plagiarism is a disciplinary offence (Oxford University).
  3. 3. PLAGIARISM • “Plagiarism is a species of intellectual fraud. It consists of unauthorized copying that the copier claims (whether explicitly or implicitly, and whether deliberately or carelessly) is original with him and the claim causes the copier’s audience to behave otherwise than it would if it knew the truth.”(Posner, 2007) • In the Philippines, according to Department of Justice, plagiarism itself is not a crime but that plagiarism that also amounts to copyright infringement is. Such plagiarism now carries a penalty of 3-6 years imprisonment and a fine of P50,000 - P150,000 ($1,200 - $3,600), if prosecuted under the law. the Philippines Cybercrime Prevention Act (RA 10175)
  4. 4. Types of Plagiarism 1. Not crediting a source 2. Paraphrasing too closely, even if you do credit the source 3. Using statistics from someone else's work without crediting the source 4. Using images, photographs, maps or other illustrative devices without citing sources 5. Buying or copying another person's paper or assignment or hiring an essay-writing service to write your paper
  5. 5. Types of Plagiarism 6. Sharing code for a computer program with another student or taking code from the Web or another source without citing that source 7. Downloading material from the Internet without proper citation 8. Padding a Bibliography or Reference List, to suggest that you have done research when you haven't 9. Making up statistics or other important facts, and citing a false source
  6. 6. (1) Not crediting a source • Copying word-for-word from another source (example a) without putting the original words within quotation marks and adding a citation referring to the original source. Even if you are putting the ideas from that source into your own words (example b), you still must credit the source. Here is an illustration of how both these situations work in an excerpt from an imaginary student paper. The words plagiarized from the original author are highlighted. (The following examples use the American Psychological Association referencing style (APA), which is common in the social sciences):
  7. 7. a. Quoting directly the original text… • Original text • "It is not a fragment society, but exhibits the ideological diversity of European societies, although it has a more liberal cast." • (a)Quoting directly: (Plagiarism). . . . Canada, unlike the United States, did not stop importing ideological developments from Europe when it was founded. It is not a fragment society, but exhibits the ideological diversity of European societies, although it has a more liberal cast… (Correct). . . . Canada, unlike the United States, did not stop importing ideological developments from Europe when it was founded. As Christian and Campbell state, "[i]t is not a fragment society, but exhibits the ideological diversity of European societies, although it has a more liberal cast"(1990, 283) . . . .
  8. 8. b. Paraphrasing (Plagiarism). . . . Unlike the United States, Canada is influenced by the on-going development of a variety of political ideologies in Europe, although these ideologies have never been as extreme in their Canadian versions. (Correct). . . . Christian and Campbell have noted that, unlike the United States, Canada is influenced by the on-going development of a variety of political ideologies in Europe, although these ideologies have never been as extreme in their Canadian versions (1990, 283).
  9. 9. example Original text • "It is not a fragment society, but exhibits the ideological diversity of European societies, although it has a more liberal cast." • (Plagiarism). . . . Christian and Campbell have noted that, unlike the United States, Canada is not a society that has broken away from ideological developments in Europe, but, even if it has a more liberal cast, it demonstrates the ideological diversity of European societies (1990, 283). • (Correct) . . . . Christian and Campbell have noted that, unlike the United States, Canada is influenced by the on-going development of a variety of political ideologies in Europe, although these ideologies have never been as extreme in their Canadian versions (1990, 283).
  10. 10. (2) Paraphrasing too Closely, even if you do Credit the Source • you cannot take the ideas from another text, even when you are putting them completely into your own words, without citing the source. But there is a more insidious kind of plagiarism that can take place when you are paraphrasing someone else's work. If you change the order of words or ideas from the original source, and use some of your own words mixed in with the original words, you are still plagiarizing even when you cite the source.
  11. 11. (3) Using statistics from someone else's work without crediting the source • Charts, tables, or statistics inside a text or in other forms are the intellectual property of those who created them. For this reason the original creator must be cited in your text. You can see that there is also a rhetorical advantage to citing the source, because the very fact that a published author has arrived at statistics which support the claims you are making in your paper strengthens your own argument. • (Plagiarism) If we simply inserted this table into our paper, either by scanning, photocopying, or by re-typing it ourselves, and we did not cite the source, it would be plagiarism, because readers are led to believe that the author of the paper is the person who compiled the statistics and made up the graph.
  12. 12. (Correct) Source: Canada. Statistics Canada, 2004)
  13. 13. (4) Using images, photographs, maps or other illustrative devices without citing sources • (Plagiarism) To insert the photograph into your text with your own explanatory text or the text taken from the original source beneath it but with no acknowledgment of the original source would be plagiarism. Even if you have taken a photograph yourself it is wise to cite yourself as the creator. This will make the source clear to any reader. • (Correct) Just as with tables and charts, the source of the original photograph must be acknowledged, as in this example.
  14. 14. Fig.1. "Troop Front" Canadian Mounted Rifles with Second Contingent South Africa (Source: Library and Archives Canada. photo # PA-028895)
  15. 15. (5) Buying or copying another person's paper or assignment or hiring an essay-writing service to write your paper • Although it must be obvious to everyone that hiring another person to write an essay for you is plagiarism, copying portions of another person's work is also bad. Copying a paper or portions of a paper from an essay bank of old papers or copying old lab reports would be an example of this kind of plagiarism.
  16. 16. (6) Sharing code for a computer program with another student or taking code from the Web or another source without citing that source • (Plagiarism) When you are working on a group project that is to be graded individually, and you share the same code with each other, it is very clear that you have collaborated illegally. • (Correct) When you are working on a group project that is to be graded individually, you should discuss the problem without reference to code. Do not share code with the others in your group; nor should you look at any part of another student's solution, whether it be on paper or the computer screen.
  17. 17. (7) Downloading material from the Internet without proper citation • (Plagiarism) The following passage is included in a student text without citing the source:. . . . A little searching quickly reveals that Sahr's site is not the only repository for plagiarizable papers. There are several large sites which sell papers, and even more which maintain small collections available for free. There are even some which promise custom-written papers. • (Correct) . . . .As Leland says, "A little searching quickly reveals that Sahr's site is not the only repository for plagiarizable papers. There are several large sites which sell papers, and even more which maintain small collections available for free. There are even some which promise custom-written papers " (2002, ¶ 3).
  18. 18. (8) Padding a Bibliography or Reference List, to suggest that you have done research when you haven't • This type of academic misconduct often occurs when students leave their writing assignments to the last moment, or when they want to appear to have done more work than they really have, perhaps because their professor has required that they have a certain number of books and articles in their reference list. But if you think of plagiarism as defined as the intent to deceive someone about the work you have done, then you can understand that saying you have read something you haven't read also falls into this category.
  19. 19. (9) Making up statistics or other important facts, and citing a false source • This kind of invention, pretending that the information or source you are including in your paper is real, is serious because it strikes at the heart of the climate of trust that must exist in academia. If people are not honest about reporting their results, their research is invalid, and cannot be a basis for further work.
  20. 20. References: • University of Oxford from https://www.ox.ac.uk/students/academic/guidance/skills/plagiarism? wssl=1 accessed on June 27, 2018. • Posner, Richard A. (2007). The Little Book of Plagiarism. Pantheon • The Philippines Cybercrime Prevention Act (RA 10175). • https://academicintegrity.uoguelph.ca/plagiarism/types-plagiarism

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