• According to the Centre Of Disease Control and
• Biosafety is the application of safety precautions that
reduce a laboratorians risk of exposure to a
potentially infectious material and limit
contamination of the work environment and
ultimately the community.”
• Biosafetymeans safetyfromexposure to infectiousagents.
• On18 april 1955 the first biological safety conferrence took place at Camp
Detrick in Fredrick, Maryland in presence of fourteen representatives
from three Principal Laboratories of U.SArmy.
• Biosafety,chemical, radiological & industrial safety issueswerediscussed.
• Later in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)specified
4 different levels of biocontainment which ranges from Biosafety level 1
(BSL-1) to Biosafety level 4(BSL-4).
4. Need of biosafety
Lab has hazards of
Accidental threat to
To have adherence with
safety regulations while
dealing with highly
7. Biosafety In Academic Research
• Promoting safe laboratory practices, and
• proper use of containment equipment and facilities
• provides advice on laboratory design and risk
assessment of experiments involving infectious
agents, rDNA in-vitro and in-vivo.
8. Biohazard Symbol
• Charles Baldwin at
Institute at NIH.
• Symbol to be
meaningless” so it
could be learned.
13. Biosafety Issues
• Respiratory Protection
• Bioterrorism and Select agents
• Mold and indoor air quality
• Occupational safety and health
in the use of research animals
• Biohazards used in animal
16. BSL1(Basic teaching,Research)
• This level is suitable for work involving well characterized agents not known to
causediseaseto healthy adult human & It gives minimal protection to the operating
• Work is done on open benches or simple cabinet without laminar air flow or with
horizontal laminar (class1) maybe used.
• Accesslimited when work inprogress.
• Basicprecaution is taken suchaswearing gloves, protective eyewear, sinkfor washing
• Thelab isnot necessarilysaparated from thebuilding.
• Noeating, drinking, applying cosmetics, mouth pipetting.
• Openable windows must havescreen.
• Regulardisinfection/decontamination must be done atleast onceper day.
• example non pathogenic E.coli, salmonella spp. B. subtilis.
20. • This level is applicable to clinical, diagnostic, teaching, research,
or production facilities in which work is done with
indigenous or exotic agents which may cause serious or
potentially lethal diseaseafterinhalation.
• It includes various bacteria, parasites and viruses thatcan cause
• severe to fatal disease in humans but for which treatments
• Vertical laminar flow hood with frontprotection.
• Strict accesscontrol to lab.
• Twosetsof self closingdoors.
• Protective clothing, gloves face shield mask, goggles, closed
shoes,automatic or elbow taps onsink.
• Windows closedand sealed.
• Negative pressure in labs, directional airflow & air not re-
circulated, proper decontamination of wastesbeforedisposing.
• In caseof spillage trained staff dealswithit.
• Common example of pathogens: Yersiniapestis, Mycobacterium
21. BSL4(Dangerous pathogenunits)
Thislevel isrequired for work with dangerous and
exotic agentsthat poseahigh individual risk of
aerosol- transmitted laboratory infections, agents
which cause severeto fatal diseasein humansfor
which vaccinesor other treatments are notavailable.
Acompletely sealedcabinet (class3) with glove
pockets to allow manipulation ofcultures.
Life support system.
Multiple showers at entry &exitVaccumroom, ultra
Double ended autoclave through wall.
Supervisedby qualified scientistswho are trained
and experienced in working with theseagents.
Exampleof pathogen: Ebolavirus, Marburg virus,
Lassa fever etc.
Biohazard hood(glove box)
Positive pressure suits