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  1. Introduction to Environmental planning
  2. 1. Introduction 1.1. Environment (Elements of the Environment) and Environmental Science Environment :- means the surrounding external conditions influencing development or growth of people, animal or plants; living or working conditions etc. This involves three questions: 1. What is surrounded? 2. By what Surrounded? 3. Where Surrounded?
  3. VARIOUS TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT • According to Kurt Lewin, environment is of three types which influence the personality of an individual : (a) Physical Environment, (b) Social and Cultural Environment, (c) Psychological Environment
  4. • STRUCTURE OF ENVIRONMENT (i) Physical Environment  Solid, ………lithosphere Liquid……… hydrosphere  Gas……….. atmosphere (ii) Biological Environment  Plants (flora) Animals (fauna).
  5. • The three aspects of man  The Physical Man  The Social Man  The Economic Man
  6. • The environment is made up of three main land uses: 1. Natural areas 2. Working landscapes 3. Built environments
  7. 1.1.2. Elements of the Environment (1) Physical elements (2) Biological elements (3) Cultural elements
  8. Elements of the human Environment - Social: - Cultural - Political: - Economic:
  9. 1.1.3. ENVIRONMENT STUDIES Environment studies have become significant because: 1. Environment Issues Being of International Importance 2. Problems Cropped in the Wake of Development 3. Explosively Increase in Pollution 4. Need for an Alternative Solution It is essential, especially for developing countries 5. Need to save humanity from extinction 6. Need for wise planning of development
  10. 1.1.4. Environmental Science • Environmental science is a study that integrates physical and biological sciences • The science of Environment studies is a multi-disciplinary science
  11. Environment and Environmental Planning
  12. 1.2. A Brief History of Conservation and Environmentalism
  13. • By 1850, nature writers were evoking the power of the land and talking in terms of a respect for nature. American Henry David Thoreau published his classic book Walden in 1848. It told of Thoreau's two-year living experiment in woods near Walden Pond, Massachusetts, USA. • naturalist and writer John Muir – founded the US conservation organization the Sierra Club in 1892. Through the Club, hhe encourage the US government
  14. – for him, wildernesses were spiritual places. So loss of wilderness meant a spiritual loss to humanity • Inspired by visionaries like Thoreau and Muir, environmental awareness began to spread through the western world. – national parks were created in Australia, New Zealand and Canada. – Britain began to establish its first conservation- based organizations, like – RSPB in 1893 – National Trust in 1894.
  15. 1900-1950s – The growing awareness • In 1914, Martha, the world's only living passenger pigeon, died in Cincinnati Zoo • William Hornaday -to write Our Vanishing Wildlife (1913). • in 1949, Aldo Leopold -published A Sand County Almanac • In 1951, the US, Britain designated 10 national parks.
  16. 1960s – The movement is born • Rachel Carson's 1962 book Silent Spring. • told of how chemicals like pesticides and insecticides, used on farms, forests and gardens were contaminating the environment • Despite media criticism and attempts by the chemical industry to ban the book • President John F Kennedy ordered an investigation into the issues highlighted in the book. Carson was found to be correct – DDT was banned,
  17. 1970s – International co-operation • Environmental pressure groups Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace were both established in 1971 • the first of the 10-yearly Earth Summits held in Stockholm, Sweden, – 113 nations attended – Sweden was concerned about acid rain. Japan was concerned about the industrial poisoning of their seas. – Oil tankers spilling their cargoes were a concern worldwide • successes, • including the 26 principles of the Declaration • establishment of UNEP • philosophers joined the debate and– born environmental philosophy.
  18. 1980s – Small steps • 1982 was Earth Summit time again • held in Nairobi, Kenya • the Cold War was at its height • And more voices had joined the clamor. – Astronomers complained of light pollution, making it difficult to observe the night sky. – Surfers protested against raw sewage being piped into the seas they played in. – Marine biologist talked about the noise pollution threat from motor craft to the sonar navigation of whales and dolphins
  19. 1983, the UN General Assembly created the UN World Commission on Environment and Development. It appointed Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland • she published the Brundtland Report • “Sustainability” became the buzzword.
  20. 1990s – The warming planet • Earth Summit occurred in Rio, Brazil, in 1992. • It emphasized how the planet's environmental problems are linked to the economy and to social justice issues • The Kyoto Protocol, introduced at Rio • Ecotourism was being proposed as a great new way to save the world
  21. 2002 – Johannesburg Earth Summit • 65,000 politicians, numerous NGOs ,and plane loads of media flew in to Johannesburg, • Five areas were identified by the UN for particular attention – – water and sanitation, – energy, – health, – agriculture and – biodiversity. • There were some achievements. – A commitment to halve the number of people in the world who lack basic sanitation by 2015; – To halt the loss of fish and forests stocks; and – To reduce the agricultural and energy subsidies in the West. • US, Japan and the oil companies once again discouraged the promotion of renewable energy sources
  22. 1.3. Recent history and origins of environmental planning: From Silent Spring to Design with Nature • In 1962 in her book Silent Spring, American biologist Rachel Carson • In the 20th century, America underwent enormous changes in – population, – settlement patterns, – technology, and wealth – construction of the interstate highway system not only linked the lower 48 states – sprawling metropolitan areas – accounted for more than 20% of the natural resources consumed annually • Federal laws created standards • land conservation and environmental quality. • protect land and water resources
  23. 1.4. Growth of the modern environmental movement • Earth Day, observed in the United States, celebrated on April 22, but some people observe it on March 21, the first day of spring • The Stockholm conference – attended by some 1,200 representatives from 114 nations in 1972. • A United Nations summit on global warming was held in Berlin beginning March 28 1995 • (UNEP), body established in 1972 • 1970 the United States government established the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
  24. 1.5. Dimensions of growth and sprawl issues; the environmental impacts of cities and urbanization • There has been a decline in the quality of the built environment in many inner cities and older suburbs. • are converting farmland, forests, and natural areas to housing subdivisions. • patterns are fueled by heavy energy consumption in cars and trucks. • proceeded faster than new infrastructure • serious environmental degradation.
  25. 1.6. Human population growth • A population of over thousands of millions is growing at 2.11%every year. Over 17 million people are added each year • population control does automatically lead to development • Consequences of population explosion: (i) It can lead to depletion of resources. (ii) Severe competition for food and space. (iii) Increase in psychological stress and strain. (iv) Rapid pollution of environment. (v) Large scale unemployment.
  26. 1.7. Environment and Development (Human - Environment interaction) The human-environment interaction must include: • creation and maintenance of healthy environments, • conservation of energy, soils, and water supplies • reduction, reuse, and recycling of waste • requirement for polluters to pay for cleaning up the pollution they create • clean-up of Brownfield sites • reuse of existing buildings • promotion of mass transit and compact • practice of environmental justice in the sitting of controversial land uses • designation of compact growth areas • The separation of developing areas from sensitive natural areas • The creation of greenways-linear paths and • The protection of productive farming and forestry regions
  27. Thank you!!! Any questions?