1. Production of Box Packaging from Fermented Rice Bran
The Philippines produces 2.8% of the world's rice, which makes it the 8th biggest
producer in the world. Rice serves as the country's main source of income (admin, 2013). The
most significant cereal crop in the developing world is rice (Oryza sativa), which is also the
primary food source for more than half of population (Gross & Zhao, 2014). Rice (Oryza
Sativa) is from family Poaceae (Mohapatra & Sahu, 2021a). Usually, the hull and bran layers
of the kernel are removed during milling. The primary commercial by-product of rice grain
milling is rice (Oryza sativa) bran. It is a multilayer fraction made up of the rice caryopsis's
outermost tissues (Spaggiari et al., 2021). The brown outer covering of the rice kernel known
as rice bran is mostly made up of the pericarp, aleuron, seed coat, and germ. Rice bran is a
good source of high-quality, hypoallergenic, and highly digestible plant-based protein
(Sapwarobol et al., 2021). Rice bran is considered as a by-product of the milling process and
commonly used in animal feed or discarded as a waste. (Sharif et al., 2013).
Rice bran can be made into a packing , using the powder to create a paper. The
product can be use as a fertilizer in plant and can be ate by animals. According to Davison,
2022, in Japan they use rice bran for many purposes including rice bran as fertilizer. Rice
bran is a rich source of nutrients and can be converted into a very good fertilizer by
fermentation, because it increases the bacteria and fungus in the soil when used. Various
studies have shown that productivity can be increased by using fermented rice bran as a
fertilizer in rice cultivation.
Philippine's paper waste is increasing with time as result of rising demand. More than
half, or around 52.31 percent, of the total amount of municipal solid waste parts are
2. biodegradable trash, followed by recyclable waste (27.78 percent) and residual garbage
(17.98 percent), which comprises plastics, paper and cardboard, metals, glass, and textiles,
leather, and rubber. Special trash makes up the remaining 1.93 percent of the total (Mayuga,
2021). Packaging is a must especially in sellers since they packed their product to protect
from damaging, and most of buyers after getting the product they'll throw the packaging
away which makes the packaging in no use. The reason each year the waste is becoming
Box packaging is frequently used in packing and storing things Samples are
appliances, which are sufficiently strong, presentable, and durable. Among the ingredients of
packaging, paper belongs to contributors to waste in the Philippines and researchers are
aiming to use other materials because box packaging demand is increasing all over the globe.
Hence, to control the cost of using box packaging, it is important to utilize modern waste
materials and other materials to accommodate the increasing use of box packaging.
Agricultural waste, such as rice bran, can be used instead of paper in making packaging,
producing efficient packaging with improved concrete properties like workability, strength,
and presentability. This study aims to lessen the paper waste and agricultural waste
throughout the country by creating an alternative packaging box out of fermented rice bran. It
focuses on the effect in the environment because it can serves as a fertilizer to the plants and
also edible for animals as it is made of rice bran. However, the packaging box is delimited
only for dry products like jewelries and other stuff and not good for products that are moist
like some food products.
This study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. Can a Rice (Oryza sativa) bran be used as packaging?
2. Mathematical tests to check the method of packaging in terms of;
3. a. Durability test ?
a.a . Drop test
a.b. Compression test
a.d - Inclined impact test
a.e - Rolling test
b. Climatic test ?
b.a - Sand and dust test
b.b - Rain test
b.c . Salt spray test
c. Package Test?
c.a - Technical Test
c.b - Middlemen Test
c.c - Consumer Test
c.d - Appealing Test
3. Is there a significant difference in terms of preferability between the Rice (Oryza sativa)
bran and the commercial packaging?
4. Chapter II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The by-product of rice processing known as rice bran, which contributes to tons of
food waste each year, is made up of a variety of nutrients and bioactive compounds that
lower the risk of noncommunicable chronic diseases. As a result, rice bran is a strong
contender for a sustainable functional ingredient. Its constituents include minerals, proteins,
dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. As a result, some food applications for rice bran have been
suggested (Cozzano Ferreira et al., 2019). Rice bran provides some additional potential
advantages as a feed element in addition to its nutritional value. It might help with digestion
and gut health, and it might also contain antioxidant characteristics that could help boost an
animal's immune system. However, there may be some disadvantages to using rice bran in
animal feed. Because it contains a lot of fat, improper storage will cause it to spoil quickly. It
also contains a lot of phytate, which might hinder the absorption of some minerals. To ensure
that the diet is nutritionally adequate, rice bran should be used sparingly and in balance with
other ingredients in animal feed (salunke, 2022).
Packaging is the act of enclosing or protecting the product using a container to aid its
distribution, identification, storage, promotion, and usage (Pahwa, 2021). Packaging must
protect the product from damage both during transportation from the manufacturing plant to
the retailer and while it is on the shelf. As a result, product packaging needs to be reliable and
strong. Many businesses include seals and locks in the packaging of their products to deter
tampering and further guarantee the products' integrity and safety. Customers expect their
products to perform exactly as intended, and the best way to guarantee that is through secure,
dependable product packaging (White, 2019). There are most common packaging used used
today and this are Rigid plastic packaging is made from PET or HPDE plastic, while paper is
5. a popular choice. Paperboard is thicker and sturdier than paper packaging, while cardboard
and fiberboard are secondary packaging materials. Aluminum is also a popular choice for
primary packaging, while glass is becoming more eco-friendly. Flexible plastic packaging is
made from linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) or low-density polyethylene (LDPE).
LDPE can be produced in various thicknesses and is typically used as primary packaging, but
it can also be used as secondary packaging (Bouton, 2020).
The study's goal is to close a gap in the existing issue to provide the required
resolution. The investigation was based on packing data for rice bran, and thus how
Fermented Rice Bran packaging will function throughout the production was studied. The
goal of the planned investigation was to confirm or refute the following findings a conclusion
that has been made based on the study is:
1. Ho: Rice (Oryza sativa) bran has no significant effect as box packaging
Ha: Rice (Oryza sativa) bran has a significant effect as box packaging
2. Ho: There is no significant effect in durability test on packaging
Ha: There is significant effect in durability test on packaging
Ho: There is no significant effect in climatic tests on box packaging
Ho: There is no significant effect in climatic tests on box packaging
Ho: There is no significant effect in package test on packaging
Ha: There is a significant effect in package test on box packaging
6. 3. Ho: There is no significant difference in terms of preferably between the Rice (Oryza
sativa) bran and the commercial packaging.
Ha: There is a significant difference in terms of preferably between the Rice (Oryza sativa)
bran and the commercial packaging.
7. Chapter III
The research design that is being used in this study is experimental, which the
researcher manipulates independent variables to observe their impact on the dependent
variable. Researchers randomly assign participants to the experimental or control group, and
to control for extraneous variables to establish cause-and-effect relationships. Researchers
collected data through various methods, such as surveys and observation. The experimental
design allows researchers to determine whether the treatment has a statistically significant
effect on the outcome. By using experimental research, researchers aim to contribute to the
field and advance scientific knowledge.
The sample for this experimental research consists of businesses and online sellers
with perishable goods that require packaging for preservation and transportation. A diverse
group of individuals was included in the sample to ensure that the results were representative
of the industry. Convenience sampling was used, and those who were located in the same
geographical area where the experiment would take place were considered. The individuals in
the sample have experience with traditional packing materials for their products, which
include plastic, styrofoam, and cardboard. They will be provided with the opportunity to
compare the effectiveness of these traditional materials with rice bran, a sustainable and cost-
effective packing alternative that is also environmentally friendly.
There will be two groups. Both groups are utilized for packaging. However, the
experimental group (rice bran packaging) will be made. First, put 2 and ½ rice bran in a
sanitized bowl; next, put 2 tablespoons of vinegar, which is used to preserve the rice bran;
then put 1/2 cup of cornstarch, which was sifted already; and lastly, put 1 and 1/2 cups of hot
water. Mix everything together until its texture is dough-like. When the dough is set, mold
the dough into the molder, which has plastic to avoid rice bran dough sticking to the molder.
Use sanitized hands to spread the dough to each side of the molder so it forms a box already.
After molding, dry it for a whole day. After that day, remove the dry rice bran from the
molder, remove its plastic, and dry it again for 1 day. The experimental group will also
undergo several tests, such as the durability test, the climatic test, and the package test.
While the control group will be bought from a local store, which is the typical paper carton, it
will also undergo the same test as the experimental group. In every test, the condition of each
package will be rated.
Data Collection Procedure
Permission will be sought from businesses and online sellers, and informed consent
will be obtained from all participants before data collection. Potential participants will be
contacted through email or messaging. They will be informed about the purpose of the study,
the types of measures that will be used, and their rights as participants. Consent forms will be
distributed and participants will be encouraged to ask any questions they may have about the
study before accepting the request. Instruments will be administered through an pen-paper
survey with two parts. First part is gather information about the traditional way of packaging,
and second part is the compare of traditional packaging and rice bran packaging. The
participants will be reminded by sending out the survey link. The survey will be available in
9. English and Filipino language if needed and will take approximately 10 minutes to complete.
The goal is to ensure that the data collection procedure is simple and easy to participants to
complete, while also being sensitive to participants’ needs and preference.
Plan for Data Collection
The data collected from the pen-paper survey will be analyzed using quantitative
methods. Descriptive statistics will be used to summarize the data, including calculating
frequencies and percentages for categorical responses and means and standard deviations for
continuous responses. Chi-square tests and t-tests will be conducted to determine if there are
significant differences in packaging preferences between businesses and online sellers. The
results will be presented in a comprehensive report with tables, graphs, and summaries.
Additional analyses may be performed as needed to answer research questions related to the
packaging preferences of businesses and online sellers.