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  1. History of Biotechnology
  2. Stages of Biotech Ancient Classical Modern
  3. Ancient Biotech Begins with early civilization Developments in ag and food production Few records exist
  4. Ancient Biotech Archeologists research Ancient carvings and sketches sources of information
  5. Classical Biotech Follows ancient Makes wide spread use of methods from ancient, especially fermentation Methods adapted to industrial production
  6. Classical Biotech Produce large quantities of food products and other materials in short amount of time Meet demands of increasing population
  7. Classical Biotech Many methods developed through classical biotech are widely used today.
  8. Modern Biotech Manipulation of genetic material within organisms Based on genetics and the use of microscopy, biochemical methods, related sciences and technologies
  9. Modern Biotech Often known as genetic engineering Roots involved the investigation of genes
  10. Ancient Biotech Not known when biotech began exactly Focused on having food and other human needs
  11. Ancient Biotech Useful plants brought from the wild, planted near caves where people lived As food wasavailable, ability to store and preserve emerged
  12. Ancient Food preservation most likely came from unplanned events such as a fire or freeze
  13. Domestication 15,000 years ago, large animals were hard to capture People only had meat when they found a dead animal Came up with ways of capturing fish and small animals
  14. Domestication Food supplies often seasonal Winter food supplies may get quite low Domestication is seen by scientists as the beginning of biotech
  15. Domestication Adaptation of organisms so they can be cultured Most likely began 11,000 – 12,000 years ago in the middle east
  16. Domestication Involved the collecting of seed from useful plants and growing crude crops from that seed Involved the knowledge that the seed had to properly mature
  17. Domestication Proper planting Need for water, light and other conditions for plant growth Earliest plants likely grains and other seeds used for food
  18. Domestication Raising animals in captivity began about the same time in history Easier to have an animal close by that to hunt and capture a wild one
  19. Domestication Learned that animals need food and water Learned about simple breeding How to raise young
  20. Domestication Cattle, goats and sheep were the first domesticated food animals
  21. Domestication About 10,000 years ago, people had learned enough about plants and animals to grow their own food The beginning of farming.
  22. Food Domestication resulted in food supplies being greater in certain times of the year Products were gathered and stored
  23. Food Some foods rotted Others changed form and continued to be good to eat Foods stored in a cool cave did not spoil as quickly
  24. Food Foods heated by fire also did not spoil as quickly Immersing in sour liquids prevented food decay
  25. Food preservation Using processes that prevent or slow spoilage Heating, cooling, keeps microorganisms (mo’s) from growing
  26. Food preservation Stored in bags of leather or jars of clay Fermentation occurs if certain mo’s are present Creates an acid condition that slows or prevents spoilage
  27. Cheese One of the first food products made through biotechnology Began some 4,000 years ago Nomadic tribes in Asia
  28. Cheese Strains of bacteria were added to milk Caused acid to form Resulting in sour milk
  29. Cheese Enzyme called “rennet” was added Rennet comes from the lining of the stomachs of calves
  30. Cheese Rennet is genetically engineered today Not all cheese is made from produced rennet
  31. Yeast Long used in food preparation and preservation Bread baking Yeast produces a gas in the dough causing the dough to rise
  32. Yeast Fermented products Vinegar Require the use of yeast in at least one stage of production
  33. Yeast Species of fungi Some are useful Some may cause diseases
  34. Vinegar Ancient product used to preserve food Juices and extracts from fruits and grains can be fermented
  35. Fermentation Process in which yeast enzymes chemically change compounds into alcohol In making vinegar the first product of fermentation is alcohol
  36. Fermentation Alcohol is converted to acetic acid by additional microbe activity Acid gives vinegar a sour taste Vinegar prevents growth of some bacteria
  37. Vinegar Keeps foods from spoiling Used in pickling Biblical references to wine indicate the use of fermentation some 3,000 years ago
  38. Fermentation control In ancient times, likely happened by accident Advancements occurred in the 1800’s and early 1900’s
  39. Fermenters Used to advance fermentation process Specially designed chamber that promotes fermentation
  40. Fermenters Allowed better control, especially with vinegar New products such as glycerol, acetone, and citric acid resulted
  41. Development Of yeasts that were predictable and readily available led to modern baking industry
  42. Antibiotics Use of fermentation hastened the development of antibiotics A drug used to combat bacterial infections
  43. Antibiotics Penicillin Developed in the late1920’s Introduced in the 1940’s First drug produced by microbes
  44. Antibiotics Many kinds available today Limitations in their use keep disease producing organisms from developing immunity to antibiotics
  45. Antibiotics Use antibiotics only when needed. Overuse may make the antibiotic ineffective when really needed later
  46. Antibiotics Some disease organisms are now resistant to certain antibiotics Used in both human and vet medicine
  47. Modern Biotech Deals with manipulating genetic info Microscopy and advanced computer technology are used In-depth knowledge of science
  48. Modern Biotech Based on genetics research from the mid 1800’s
  49. Genetics Study of heredity Most work has focused on animal and plant genetics Genes – determiners of heredity
  50. Genes Carry the genetic code Understanding genetic structure essential for genetic engineering
  51. Heredity How traits are passed from parents to offspring Members of the same species pass the characteristics of that species
  52. Heredity Differences exist within each species. Differences are known as variability
  53. Heredity &variability Are used in modern biotechnology
  54. Modern Biotech Use of biotech to produce new life forms Emerged in mid 1900’s Made possible by rDNA technology
  55. rDNA Recombinant DNA Process Genetic material is moved from one organism to another Materials involved are quite small
  56. rDNA Challenging and often controversial Many have opposing or negative views of biotechnolgy
  57. People in Biotech Zacharias Janssen Discovered the principle of the compound microscope in 1590 Dutch eye glass maker
  58. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Developed single lens microscope in 1670’s First to observe tiny organisms and document observations
  59. Anton V.L. Work led to modern microscopes Electron microscope developed in 1931 by group of German scientists
  60. Gregor Mendel Formulated basic laws of heredity during mid 1800’s Austrian Botanist and monk Experimented with peas
  61. Mendel Studied inheritance of seven pairs of traits Bred and crossbred thousands of plants Determined that some traits were dominant and other recessive
  62. Mendel Findings were published in 1866 Largely ignored for 34 years
  63. Johan Friedrich Miescher Swiss Biologist Isolated nuclei of white blood cells in 1869 Led to identification of nucleic acid by Walter Flemming
  64. Walter Sutton Determined in 1903 that chromosomes carried units of heredity identified by Mendel Named “genes” in 1909 by Wilhelm Johannsen, Danish Botanist
  65. Thomas Hunt Morgan Studied genetics of fruit flies Early 1900’s Experimented with eye color His work contributed to the knowledge of X and Y chromosomes
  66. Thomas Hunt Morgan Nobel Peace Prize in 1933 for research in gene theory
  67. Ernst Ruska Build the first electron microscope in 1932 German electrical engineer Microscope offered 400X magnification
  68. Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin in 1928 First antibiotic drug used in treating human disease Observed growth of molds (Penicillium genus) in a dish that also contracted bacteria
  69. Alexander Fleming Bacteria close to the molds were dead Extracting and purifying the molds took a decade of research Penicillin first used in 1941
  70. Alexander Fleming Penicillin credited with saving many lives during WWII when wounded soldiers developed infections.
  71. Rosalind Elsie Franklin Research in France and England in mid 1900’s Led to discovery of structure of DNA Her early research was used to produce an atomic bomb
  72. Rosalind Franklin Set up X ray diffraction lab Photographs of DNA showed that it could have a double helix structure
  73. Rosalind Franklin Some questions surround the theft of her work in 1952 Including x ray photographs
  74. Watson and Crick James Watson Francis Crick Collaborated to produce the first model of DNA structure in 1953
  75. Watson and Crick Described DNA dimensions and spacing of base pairs Had major impact on genetic engineering carried out today
  76. Watson Born in the US Crick – born in England Collaborative research at Cambridge University in England
  77. Norman E. Borlaug Developed wheat varieties producing high yields Research in Mexico Semi dwarf varieties Developed wheat variety that would grow in climates where other varieties would not
  78. Borlaug Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 Credited with helping relieve widespread hunger in some nations
  79. Mary Clare King Research into nature of DNA during late 1900’s Determined that 99% of human DNA is identical to chimpanzee
  80. Mary Clare King 1975 found similar gene pools between humans and chimpanzee made it possible to research hereditary causes of breast cancer
  81. Ian Wilmut Cloning of a sheep named Dolly in 1997 Produced from tissue of an adult sheep Previous cloning efforts had been from early embryos
  82. Research Use of systematic methods to answer questions. Problems may be basic or applied
  83. Basic Require generating new info to gain understanding Applied – involve use of knowledge already acquired.
  84. Research Supplies facts that can be used to improve a process or product Settings range from elaborate labs to field plots
  85. Field Plot Small area of land that is used to test questions or hypothesis Belief is that same result would be obtained if carried out on larger scale
  86. Field Plots Often tested several times Known as replication
  87. Research Done by agencies, universities, private companies, individuals Biotech research in ag is carried out by ag experiment stations and large corporations
  88. Development Creation of new products or methods based on findings of research Carefully studied before being put into full scale use
  89. Development New products tested before approval Government agencies such as the FDA are involved Prototype is developed – research model that is carefully tested
  90. Prototype Becomes a pattern for the production of similar products After being fully tested, full scale production begins.