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Cultural variables

Full Chapter 03 About National cultural variables & Individual cultural Variables and Importance of Cross-Cultural Communication

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Cultural variables

  1. 1. Group MembersGroup Members Raja Usman 1421-116036 Shahban Iqbal 1421-116033 Raja Faizan 1421-116032 Usama Hameed 1421-116028 Ch.Khizer Hayat 1421-116203
  2. 2. Chapter 03 Business Communication & The Global Context
  3. 3. Over ViewOver View  ObjectivesObjectives  Introduction to CultureIntroduction to Culture  National Cultural VariablesNational Cultural Variables  Individual Cultural VariablesIndividual Cultural Variables  Importance of Cross-CulturalImportance of Cross-Cultural CommunicationCommunication
  4. 4. Objectives At the end of this chapter, the students should be able to: 1.Understand the meaning of communication and language 2.Show the relationship between language and culture 3.Enumerate the characteristics of culture 4.Explain how language distinguishes man from animals 5.Identify the communication, behavioral, cognitive, and material components of culture 6.Understand and explain cultural relativism
  5. 5. Introduction to Culture Why do cultures differ ?Why do cultures differ ? History Educational Backgrounds Social backgrounds Ethnic Religion Ecology Technology
  6. 6. What is Intercultural Communication? Intercultural communication refers to the effective communication between people/ workers/ clients of different cultural background. It also includes managing thought patterns and non verbal communication.
  7. 7. Examples for Cultural differences Arabic and Urdu language is written from right to left and almost all other languages are written from left to right.
  8. 8. Examples for Cultural differences In America, people shake hands ,and even hug each other. In India people just join hands to say namaskar.
  9. 9. Ch.Khizer Hayat 1421-116203
  10. 10. Need for Intercultural Communication  Success of any International business  Allows workers from different cultures to work together as a group.  Worldwide marketing campaign.  An increase in international Business.
  11. 11. DO’S OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONDO’S OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION  Avoid Assumptions, jokes which are misunderstood  Use symbols, diagrams and pictures.  Avoid using slang and idioms, choosing words that will convey only the most specific denotative meaning  Investigate their culture's perception  Take cultural and local differences into account.  Say what you do and do what you say. Make sure that your communication is line with the audience; use understandable language.  Find out what cultural factors
  12. 12. DONT’S OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONDONT’S OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION  Using the same approach world-wide.  Considering traditional knowledge and practices as ‘backward’.  Letting cultural differences become a source of conflict that hinder the process or work.  Fail to ignore culturally-dependent enabling and counteracting forces.  Fail to take language barriers into account.
  13. 13. DON’T’S OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONDON’T’S OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION The thumbs up sign in America and most of Europe means that something is good, or that you approve. This sign is considered rude in many Asian and Islamic countries. Raising your hand up means stop in America or England. In some Asian countries this gesture is used when asking for permission to speak.
  14. 14. Definitions Definitions of terms are the foundation of technical writing. A precise set of terms is used in technology, some terms used in technology have meanings entirely different from those with which you are familiar in everyday life. Examples of such words are power, force and communication. Words such as the following have precise meanings in technology and must be used carefully. Absolute current fundamental Critical power ground Intensity power specific Inversely rate static Technical definition
  15. 15. Raja Faizan Ali 1421-116032
  16. 16.  An entire country may have a series of cultural norms/standards,  individual ethnic/tribal groups within that country may accept most of those norms as well as adding their own.  The National Cultural Variables are following Education Laws & Regulation Economics Politics Social norms Language Natural Cultural Variables
  17. 17. You should be aware of the fact about the education level of the person which you are speaking. So communication lot depends upon education. The following charts shows the education levels of Chinese, Asian and U.S Mangers Education
  18. 18. Continues...... Education Levels of Chinese, Asian and U.S Mangers Highest level of education Chinese % Asian % U.S % Less than high school 5.4 2.5 0.1 High school graduate 31.8 12.4 3.2 Some college 34.6 19.4 16.9 Undergraduate degree 27.6 65.4 79.8 Post graduate degree 0.7 25.0 30.0 So you see the ratio of education levels in manager in different parts of world….!
  19. 19.  In both the under-developed and developed nations, various government regulations affect business communications and sale of products.  For Example: The type of product to be advertised-for instance, “Cigarette” is restricted in Europe, also money spent on advertising is limited. other countries such as France, Mexico and the province of Quebec also have restriction on the use of foreign languages in advertisements. Laws and Regulations
  20. 20.  Availabity of capital and transportation and the standard of living per capita vary from nation to nation.  The opportunity to borrow money, the rate of inflation (price raise), and the exchange rates influence business and a country’s ability to communicate concerning that business.  For example in Pakistan the competitors usually set their own prices.  In contrast IEEE set their own standard for different computer equipment's Economics
  21. 21. Politics also effect our communication when we are doing business with our company can result even in personal harm. Politics
  22. 22.  Religion in different areas of the world can effect the business and communications  Recent statistics have shown some religious have totally changed the style of business and even the structure of that specific country .  For Example: In Afghanistan, Chechnya, Arabia, Iraq etc. Religion
  23. 23.  Beyond the immediate family a bond may exist between persons, based on caste, class, age or even special interests. One should be aware of a nation’s social norms.  A nation’s social norms affected in various ways through environmental constraints that are 1. Education 2. Law & Regulations 3. Economics 4. Politics 5. Religion Social Norms
  24. 24. Every body knows that knowing the language of a country is the most significant contribute to improved communication, on personal and business level.  Your communication is good when both sender and receiver have same language. Language
  25. 25. Usama Hameed 1421-116028
  26. 26. Individual Cultural Variables
  27. 27. The individual cultural variables are following Time Space Food Acceptable dress Manners Decision making Verbal & Nonverbal Communication
  28. 28.  Time is also an important factor in communication. For example Germans are time- precise; rarely do you wait for an appointment in Germany.  In Latin America cultures- you may wait an hour; your host is not showing disrespect thereby, same is the example here in Pakistan.  Just reflecting a different concept of time; arriving late is socially accepted custom here our country. Time
  29. 29. How close may stranger stand to you? What does it feel like when you are in a crowded? for example most Americans feel uncomfortable if a stranger comes closer than 18 inches. So body languages depend in communications in which cultural your are. Space
  30. 30. It may be a good idea prior to visiting your host country to visit various ethnic restaurants in your home country. Then you’ll have an initial idea as to the kinds of foods available how they are served, fixed, or eaten. Food
  31. 31. Dress also has value in communication. When u have good dress then sound will be clear. So its very important when you are communicating in front of gathering, your dress should be perfect. Acceptable Dress
  32. 32. Manners also have value in communication. So you should be aware of manners of cultural to whom you are communicating. You bring a gift when visiting most homes in Europe. if you bring flowers, You avoid gifts of Red Roses in Germany France, Belgium and Japan. In Saudi Arabia, you will learn that the junior prince is silent when a senior enters. Manners
  33. 33.  Patience above all is needed in intercultural communication, in doing business with other countries.  American are typecast as moving too quickly in asking for a decision. give more thought to communication.  Americans are accused of (blame) being quick; “we wish to get to the point fast.”  When one reaches Japan, decision time is held back as group consensus (compromise) moves toward a decision.  As you can imagine much time is spent in reaching an answer. Thus patience-and your understanding of the decision process-add to your success in dealing with a foreign environment. Decision Making
  34. 34. Shahban Iqbal 1421-116033
  35. 35. Verbal & Nonverbal Communication
  36. 36.  Regardless of culture, a kind of verbal communication (body language) occurs when strangers meet,  Each seeking to determine which topics are acceptable and non-controversial (not in).  Additionally, tone of voice of one’s initial words can influence your initial perception of whether the meeting is positive or negative.  We judge people to a great extent by their voice.  Some native languages demand many tonal variations, giving the impression to a non-native of loudness, even superiority. Verbal Communication
  37. 37.  Many nonverbal symbols exists for every culture, even in subcultures.  Knowing the major desirable and undesirable cues (signs) helps knowing both intended and unintended communication errors.  For example A handshake is a traditional form of greeting in the west. Non-verbal Communication
  38. 38. Importance of Cross-CulturalImportance of Cross-Cultural CommunicationCommunication Cross-cultural communication in business happens between any two companies regardless of their location. To effect productive business relationships, every organization needs to be sensitive to the potential issues of cross-cultural communication
  39. 39. Common GroundCommon Ground When a company engages in cross-cultural communication, the first thing to establish is the common ground with the new business partner. It begins with the most effective ways to communicate. Breaking through on common ground can help the two sides to establish a productive dialogue that will enhance the business relationship.
  40. 40. Informational Context:Informational Context: Different corporate cultures require different levels of information. Developing the proper informational context is critical when communicating with a new business partner, and it begins by understanding the work culture of your business partner and how information is processed.
  41. 41. TrustTrust When a new business partner takes the time and effort to establish good cross-cultural communication, it helps to elevate the level of trust and respect between the two partners. Respect for other companies' business processes is critical in establishing an efficient work relationship.
  42. 42. QualityQuality Working within the guidelines of a new business partners corporate culture helps to improve communication at all levels of both organizations. The quality of the information improves when it is delivered in a manner that each company is accustomed to. Not only does the quality of the information passed between the two companies improve, but the quality of the relationship with clients and other vendors that are affected by the relationship also improves.
  43. 43. Keys to Successful Cross- Cultural Communication  Create proactive cross-cultural communication and avoid reactive communication  Manage preexisting cultural perceptions  Understand cultural sensitivities and avoid conflict  Build rapport in person, on the phone, and by e-mail  Understand how words, tonality, and body language vary with every culture  Increase self-awareness and adapt your style
  44. 44. ConclusionConclusion  Companies have to consider differences and establish a global mindset.  Culture influences consumer behavior and their perception.  To send the right message, to the right person at the right time is the key of intercultural communication of marketing.
  45. 45. END

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